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Encyclopedia > Hydatius

Written by Michael Kulikowski, Modifed by Wikipedia contributors, published by Wikimedia. The Wikimedia Foundation Inc. ...

Hydatius (c. 400 - c. 469), bishop of Aquae Flaviae, in the Roman province of Gallaecia (almost certainly the modern Chaves, Portugal, in the modern district of Vila Real) was the author of a chronicle of his own times that provides us with our best evidence for the history of Hispania in the 5th century. Events First invasion of Italy by Alaric (probable date). ... Events: Pope Gelasius I dedicated February 14th, as St. ... Gallaecia or Callaecia (from Gaulish *gal-laikos smoke?-hero/warrior) was the name of a Roman province that comprised a territory in the north-west of Hispania (approximately the current Galicia of Spain and the north of Portugal). ... (Photo taken by J.B.Cesar and kindly conceded to the author of this article) Chaves, Portugal, is the second most populous city in the district of Vila Real, after the district capital of the same name. ... Vila-real (also known as Villarreal): city in the province of Castellon, Valencian Community region, Spain. ... Roman aqueduct in Segovia Hispania was the name given by the Romans to the whole of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal, Spain, Andorra and Gibraltar) and to two provinces created there in the period of the Roman Republic: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior. ... // Overview Events Romulus Augustus, Last Western Roman Emperor 410: Rome sacked by Visigoths 452: Pope Leo I allegedly meets personally with Attila the Hun and convinces him not to sack Rome 439: Vandals conquer Carthage At some point after 440, the Anglo-Saxons settle in Britain. ...


Hydatius was born around the year 400 in the environs of Lemica, a Roman town near modern Xinzo de Limia in the northwestern Spanish province of Ourense. As a young boy, he travelled as a pilgrim to the Holy Land where he met St. Jerome in the latter's hermitage at Bethlehem. In 428 he was made a bishop, almost certainly of Chaves (the Roman Aquae Flaviae) in the modern Portuguese district of Vila Real, then part of the Roman province of Gallaecia. As bishop he had to come to terms with the presence of non-Roman powers, especially a succession of kings of the Suevi, in a province where imperial control became increasingly nominal during the course of his lifetime. The Suevi had settled in Gallaecia in 411, and there was constant friction between them and the local Hispano-Roman provincials. In this context, Hydatius took part in a deputation of 431 requesting assistance in dealing with the Suevi from the general Aëtius, the most important representative of the imperial government in the West. The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Ancient Roman polity in the centuries following its reorganization under the leadership of Octavian (better known as Augustus), until its radical reformation in what was later to be known as the Byzantine Empire. ... Events April 10 - Nestorius is made Patriarch of Constantinople. ... Vila-real (also known as Villarreal): city in the province of Castellon, Valencian Community region, Spain. ... Gallaecia or Callaecia (from Gaulish *gal-laikos smoke?-hero/warrior) was the name of a Roman province that comprised a territory in the north-west of Hispania (approximately the current Galicia of Spain and the north of Portugal). ... The Suebi or Suevi were a Germanic people whose origin was near the Baltic Sea . ... Events The Burgundians elevate Jovinus as Roman Emperor. ... Events June - Council of Ephesus: Nestorianism is rejected, the Nicene creed is declared to be complete. ... Flavius Aetius or simply Aetius, (circa 396 - 454), was a Roman general of the closing period of the Western Roman Empire. ...


Along with this concern, Hydatius devoted himself to rooting out heresy, not just in his own episcopal diocese, but in the rest of Spain as well. He was in frequent contact with some important bishops of the day, including Thoribius of Astorga and Antoninus of Mérida. Together with Thoribius, he petitioned Pope Leo I (reigned 440-461) for assistance and advice in dealing with heresy. Though Hydatius consistently characterizes Spanish heretics as Manichees, it is generally believed that he meant Priscillianists, followers of the Spanish ascetic and bishop Priscillian, who had been condemned as a heretic by several church councils and executed as a magician by the emperor Magnus Maximus (reigned 383-388) around 385. We know very little else about Hydatius' life, though we know he was kidnapped and imprisoned for a time in 460 by local enemies, which suggests he played an important role in the internal politics of Roman Gallaecia. Pope Saint Leo I, or Leo the Great, was a Roman aristocrat who was Pope from 440 to 461. ... Events September 29 - Leo succeeds Sixtus as Pope. ... Events August 2 - Majorian resigns as Western Roman Emperor; shortly afterwards Libius Severus is declared western Roman emperor by Ricimer November 19 - Hilarius succeeds Leo as Pope Saint Patrick returns to Ireland as a Christian missionary. ... Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the ‘catholic’ or orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ... Manichaeism was one of the major ancient religions. ... Priscillian of Avila (died 385) was a Spanish theologian and the founder of a party which advocated strong asceticism. ... Magnus Maximus. ... Events January 19 - Arcadius is elevated as Roman Emperor. ... // Events Bahram IV becomes king of Persia. ... Events February 11 - Oldest Pope elected: Siricius, bishop of Tarragona. ... Events March 27 night - Swabians invade the Gallic city of Lugo. ...


Hydatius' main claim to historical importance is the chronicle he wrote towards the end of his life. The chronicle was an historical genre very popular in Late Antiquity, though with precedents in older chronographic genres like the consular fasti. A consciously Christian genre, the main goal of the chronicle was to place human history in the context of a linear progression from the Biblical creation to the Second Coming of Christ. Under the entry for each year one or several events were listed, usually with great brevity. The greatest exponent of the form had been the fourth-century bishop Eusebius of Caesarea. Jerome brought the Greek chronicle of Eusebius up to date as far as the year 378, after translating the Eusebian portion into Latin. Jerome's translation and continuation proved very popular, and many others decided to continue Jerome in the same way that he had continued Eusebius. Late Antiquity is a rough periodization (c. ... For modern, semi-diplomatic or colonial consuls, see Consul (representative). ... As a noun, Christian is an appellation and moniker deriving from the appellation Christ, which many people associate exclusively with Jesus of Nazareth. ... Creation according to Genesis refers to the description of the creation of the heavens and the earth by God, as described in Genesis, the first book of the Bible. ... This article refers to the religious usage of the term. ... Eusebius of Caesarea (~275 – May 30, 339) (often called Eusebius Pamphili, Eusebius [the friend] of Pamphilus) was a bishop of Caesarea in Palestine and is often referred to as the father of church history because of his work in recording the history of the early Christian church. ... , by Albrecht Dürer Saint Jerome (ca. ... Events Mid-February: Lentienses cross frozen Rhine, invading Roman Empire. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...


Hydatius was one such continuator. His continuation begins with a preface explaining his debt to Jerome, and then picks up in the year 379. Hydatius had access to a number of chronographic and historical sources -- though precisely how many is disputed, and used four parallel chronological systems. Because of this, and particularly towards the end of the chronicle, it can be difficult to translate his chronology into any modern calendar. At the beginning, Hydatius' continuation offers relatively little information for each year, but it becomes increasingly full as the years progress until it resembles an organic literary work more than a typical chronicle. Hydatius' main concern throughout is to show the dissolution of civil society in the western Roman empire and Spain in particular, and he paints a very dark picture of 5th century life. His deep pessimism may stem from a belief in the imminent end of the world, since he had read the apocryphal letter of Christ to Thomas, which showed that the world would end in May 482. Hydatius may thus have believed that he was chronicling the world's last days, and on occasion he deliberately distorted his account to show events in a gloomier light. This is especially true of the narrative climax of his account, the sack in 456 of the Suevic capital at Braga by the Visigoth king Theodoric II, acting in the service of the Roman emperor Avitus (reigned 455-456). Regardless of his sometimes very sophisticated literary devices, Hydatius' chronicle is an essential source of information for reconstructing the course of fifth-century events. Moreover, it is our only source for the history of Spain in the period up to 468, at which point the narrative breaks off abruptly. It is assumed that Hydatius never had the opportunity to finish his work and that he must, therefore, have died in that year or soon after. Events January 19 - Theodosius I is elevated as Roman Emperor at Sirmium. ... Half full or half empty? Pessimism describes a general belief that things are bad, and tend to become worse; or that looks to the eventual triumph of evil over good; it contrasts with optimism, the contrary belief in the goodness and betterment of things generally. ... Events Qi Gao Di, ruler of the Chinese Qi Dynasty Byzantine emperor Zeno I issues the Henotikon, an attempt to reconcile the differences between the supporters of Orthodoxy and Monophysitism. ... Events Emperor Marcian quells disturbances on the Armenian frontier. ... Coat of Arms Braga (pron. ... The Visigoths were one of two main branches of the Goths, the Ostrogoths being the other. ... Theodoric II murdered his older brother Thorismund to become king of the Visigoths in 453 CE. Edward Gibbon writes that he justified this atrocious deed by the design which his predecessor had formed of violating his alliance with the empire. ... Avitus on a tremissis. ... Events March 3 - Simplicius succeeds Hilarius as Pope The Vandal fleet overpowers the navy of Leo I of the Byzantine Empire Huns again invade Dacia but are once more repelled by the eastern emperor Leo I. Births Deaths February 29 - Pope Hilarius Gunabhadra Categories: 468 ...


For Further Reading

  • Burgess, R.W., ed. and trans. The Chronicle of Hydatius and the Consularia Constantinopolitana. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993. This is now the standard reference work, with Latin and English translation on facing pages. The chapter numbering differs from Mommsen's (see below).
  • Mommsen, Theodor, ed. Chronica minora saec. IV.V.VI.VII., volumen II. (Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Auctores Antiquissimi, vol. 11.) Berlin: Weidmann, 1894. This was until recently the standard edition, and its chapter numbering is still frequently cited.
  • Arce, Javier. "El catastrofismo de Hydacio y los camellos de la Gallaecia," in Los últimos romanos en Lusitania. (Cuaderno Emeritenses 10.) Edited by A. Velázquez, E. Cerrillo and P. Mateos, 219-29. Mérida, España: Museo Nacional de Arte Romano, 1995. An example of Hydatius' literary sophistication.

History

  • 2003: Published by Wikimedia, Edited by Wikipedia contributors, Entitled Hydatius
  • 2000: Published by Nupedia, Written by Michael Kulikowski, reviewed and approved by the Classics group; editor, Robert Dyer ; lead reviewer, James Allan Evans ; lead copyeditors, Charles Peyser and Jeri Bates, Entitled Hydatius

  Results from FactBites:
 
Hydatius - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (999 words)
Hydatius was born around the year 400 in the environs of Lemica, a Roman town near modern Xinzo de Limia in the northwestern Spanish province of Ourense.
Though Hydatius consistently characterizes Spanish heretics as Manichees, it is generally believed that he meant Priscillianists, followers of the Spanish ascetic and bishop Priscillian, who had been condemned as a heretic by several church councils and executed as a magician by the emperor Magnus Maximus (reigned 383-388) around 385.
Hydatius' main concern throughout is to show the dissolution of civil society in the western Roman empire and Spain in particular, and he paints a very dark picture of 5th century life.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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