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Encyclopedia > Hybrid car
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Honda Insight, a hybrid gas-electric vehicle
2004 Toyota Prius, a hybrid gas-electric vehicle
2004 Toyota Prius, a hybrid gas-electric vehicle

A hybrid vehicle uses multiple energy sources or propulsion systems to provide motive power. This most commonly refers to gasoline-electric hybrid vehicles, which use gasoline (petrol) and electric batteries for the energy used to power internal-combustion engines (ICEs) and electric motors. These powerplants are usually relatively small and would be considered "underpowered" by themselves, but they can provide a normal driving experience when used in combination during acceleration and other maneuvers that require greater power. Honda Insight 03 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Honda Insight 03 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... 2004 Toyota Prius File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... 2004 Toyota Prius File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Propulsion method may refer to a number of different articles: For a list of space transport methods, see spacecraft propulsion. ... Vehicles are non-living means of transportation. ... Gasoline, as it is known in North America, or petrol, in many Commonwealth countries (sometimes also called motor spirit) is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting primarily of hydrocarbons, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ... Four double-A batteries In science and technology, a battery is a device that stores energy and makes it available in an electrical form. ... An internal combustion engine is an engine that is powered by the expansion of hot combustion products of fuel directly acting within an engine. ... Electric motors of various sizes. ... Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity, and at any point on a v-t graph, it is given by the gradient of the tangent to that point In physics, acceleration (symbol: a) is defined as the rate of change (or time derivative) of velocity. ...


Modern mass-produced hybrids can recharge their batteries while underway. When cruising or idling, some of the output of the combustion engine is fed to a generator (sometimes merely the main electric motor running backwards) which generates electricity to charge the batteries. This contrasts with all-electric cars which use batteries charged by an external source. Hybrids still require conventional fuel—usually gasoline, though diesel and other fuels have also seen occasional use. Mass production is the production of large amounts of standardised products on production lines. ... Generator redirects here. ... An electric vehicle is a vehicle that is propelled by electric motors. ... For the workstation, see SGI Fuel. ... Diesel fuel is a specific distillate fraction of fuel oil that is used in a diesel engine invented by German engineer Rudolf Diesel, and perfected by Charles F. Kettering. ...


They are more environmentally-friendly than traditional internal combustion engine vehicles because they generally provide greater fuel economy. For greater discussion of specific operating modes used in different hybrid designs, see the Types section below. Environmentalism is the support or involvement with the environmental movement by environmentalists. ... Fuel efficiency, sometimes also referred to as fuel economy and commonly gas mileage in the United States, is a numeric measure often used to describe the amount of fuel consumed with regard to the distance travelled in a transportation vehicle, such as an automobile. ...


The U.S. Energy Policy Act of 2005 provides a tax credit of up to $3,400 for owners of hybrid vehicles. The United States of America — also referred to as the United States, the U.S.A., the U.S., America, the States, or (archaically) Columbia—is a federal republic of 50 states located primarily in central North America (with the exception of two states: Alaska and Hawaii). ... The Energy Policy Act of 2005 is an act which was passed by the United States Congress in an attempt to combat growing energy problems. ...


(The term hybrid when used in relation with cars also has other uses. Prior to its modern meaning of hybrid propulsion, the word hybrid was used in the United States to mean a vehicle of mixed national origin; generally, a European car fitted with American mechanical components. This meaning has currently fallen out of use. Some have also referred to flexible-fuel vehicles as hybrids because they can use a mixture of different fuels - typically gasoline and ethanol alcohol fuel. For greater discussion of this meaning, see the Hybrid fuel section below.) In biology, hybrid has three meanings. ... World map showing location of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ... Green vehicles made by Ford, including flexible-fuel cars and trucks, sport this logo A flexible-fuel vehicle or dual-fuel vehicle is an automobile or truck (lorry) that can accept a range of fuel mixtures. ... Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless chemical compound, one of the alcohols that is most often found in alcoholic beverages. ... The use of alcohol as a fuel for internal combustion engines, either alone or in combination with other fuels, has been given much attention mostly because of its possible environmental and long-term economical advantages over fossil fuel. ...

Median mpg (US) with boxplot from GreenHybrid.com Real Hybrid Mileage Database
Median mpg (US) with boxplot from GreenHybrid.com Real Hybrid Mileage Database

Contents

GreenHybrid. ... GreenHybrid. ...


Hybrids currently available

Ford: Ford may mean a number of things: A ford is a river crossing. ...

Honda: Ford Escape Hybrid official photo The Ford Escape Hybrid motorcar, launched in 2004, is a gas-electric hybrid powered version of the Ford Escape SUV developed by the Ford Motor Company and built in Kansas City, Missouri. ... The Ford Escape Hybrid motorcar, launched in 2004, is a gas-electric hybrid powered version of the Ford Escape SUV developed by the Ford Motor Company and built in Kansas City, Missouri. ... Honda Motor Co. ...

  • Honda Accord Hybrid
  • Honda Civic Hybrid
  • Honda Insight

General Motors: The Accord Hybrid is a hybrid car from Honda. ... The Honda Civic Hybrid is a hybrid version of the Honda Civic sedan. ... The Honda Insight is a 2-seater hatchback hybrid automobile manufactured by Honda. ... General Motors Corporation (NYSE: GM), also known as GM, is a United States-based automobile maker with worldwide operations and brands including Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, Daewoo, GMC, Holden, Hummer, Opel, Pontiac, Saturn, Saab, and Vauxhall. ...

Mazda: The Silverado is the latest name for Chevrolets line of full-size pickup trucks. ... New Flyer Industries is the leading bus manufacturer in North America, headquartered in Winnipeg, Manitoba. ... TheBus, established by Mayor Frank Fasi, is Honolulus only public transit system. ... Mazda Millenia luxury sedan. ...

Renault: The Demio (also sold as the Mazda 121, Mazda Metro, Mazda2 and Ford Festiva Mini Wagon) is a small minivan or tall station wagon which debuted in 1996. ... Renault S.A. is a French vehicle manufacturer producing small to upper-midsize cars, vans, buses and trucks. ...

Toyota and Lexus: A Renault Kangoo 1. ... Toyota redirects here. ... Lexus is a brand name used by the Toyota Motor Corporation in North America, The Middle East, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Brazil, Curacao, and Asia, for luxury automobiles. ...

Prius redirects here. ... Picture showing the front motor and engine, the Ni-MH battery (middle), and the rear motor The Lexus RX 400h is a model of automobile assembled by Toyota Motor Corp. ... under the hood of a Highlander The Toyota Highlander (called Kluger in Japan and Australia) is a model of SUV assembled by Toyota Motor Corp. ...

History

The first successful hybrid-electric car was engineered by Ferdinand Porsche in 1899. Since then, hobbyists have continued to build hybrids but none was put into mass production by a major manufacturer until the waning years of the twentieth century. In the intervening period, the widest use of hybrid technology was actually in diesel-electric submarines, which operate in essentially the same manner as hybrid electric cars. However, in this case the goal was to allow operation underwater without consuming large amounts of oxygen, rather than economizing on fuel. Since then, many submarines have moved to nuclear power, which can operate underwater indefinitely, though a number of nations continue to rely on diesel-electric fleets. Ferdinand Porsche Ferdinand Porsche (September 3, 1875 - January 30, 1951) was an Austrian automotive engineer, Porsche was born to German-speaking family in Vratislavice, Austria-Hungary (now in the Czech Republic), who developed the original Volkswagen and a prototype of the Tiger I tank. ... 1899 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... A number of vehicles use a diesel-electric powerplant for providing locomotion. ... USS Los Angeles A submarine is a specialized watercraft that can operate underwater. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 15. ... This article is about power derived from nuclear reactions. ...


Automotive hybrid technology became successful in the 1990s when the Honda Insight and Toyota Prius became available. These vehicles have a direct linkage from the internal combustion engine to the driven wheels, so the engine can provide acceleration power. The 2000s saw development of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), which can be recharged from the electrical power grid and don't require conventional fuel for short trips. The Renault Kangoo was the first production model of this design, released in France in 2003. // Events and trends The 1990s are generally classified as having moved slightly away from the more conservative 1980s, but otherwise retaining the same mindset. ... Saddam Hussein shortly after his capture Major controversy over U.S. presidential election, 2000 September 11, 2001 terrorist attack on New Yorks World Trade Center and Virginias Pentagon killing almost 3000 people. ... A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) or gas-electric hybrid fueled vehicle is a hybrid which has additional battery capacity and the ability to be recharged from an external electrical outlet. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Prius has been in high demand since its introduction. Newer designs have more conventional appearance and are less expensive, often appearing and performing identically to their non-hybrid counterparts while delivering 50% better fuel efficiency. The Honda Civic Hybrid appears identical to the non-hybrid version, for instance, but delivers about 50 US mpg (4.7 L/100km). The redesigned 2004 Toyota Prius improved passenger room, cargo area, and power output, while increasing energy efficiency and reducing emissions. The Honda Insight is still on sale and has a devoted base of owners. The Honda Civic Hybrid is a hybrid version of the Honda Civic sedan. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: United States Wikinews has news related to this article: United States United States government CIA World Factbook Entry for United States House. ... Miles per gallon (MPG, or mpg) is a measure of fuel efficiency - the number of miles the car can run on one gallon of fuel. ... The litre (spelled liter in American English) is a metric unit of volume. ... KM, Km, or km may stand for: Khmer language (ISO 639 alpha-2, km) Kilometre Kinemantra Meditation Knowledge management KM programming language Comoros (ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country code) the Michaelis-Menten constant Km, see Michaelis-Menten kinetics Kamenz (district), Germany (license plate indication) Messenia, Greece (license plate indication...


2004 saw the first hybrid SUV released, Ford Motor Company's Ford Escape Hybrid. Toyota announced model year 2005 hybrid versions of the Toyota Highlander and Lexus RX 400h, and has plans to add hybrid drivetrains to every model it sells in the coming decade. Honda has also announced the release of a hybrid version of the Accord. Also, Nissan announced the release of the Altima hybrid (technology supplied by Toyota) around 2006. 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A sport utility vehicle (SUV) or off-roader is a vehicle that combines the load-hauling and passenger-carrying capacity of a large station wagon or minivan with features designed for off-road driving. ... The Ford Motor Company (often referred to simply as Ford; sometimes nicknamed Fords or FoMoCo, (NYSE: F) is an automobile maker founded by Henry Ford in Detroit, Michigan, and incorporated on June 16, 1903. ... Ford Escape Hybrid official photo The Ford Escape Hybrid motorcar, launched in 2004, is a gas-electric hybrid powered version of the Ford Escape SUV developed by the Ford Motor Company and built in Kansas City, Missouri. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ... under the hood of a Highlander The Toyota Highlander (called Kluger in Japan and Australia) is a model of SUV assembled by Toyota Motor Corp. ... Picture showing the front motor and engine, the Ni-MH battery (middle), and the rear motor The Lexus RX 400h is a model of automobile assembled by Toyota Motor Corp. ... Honda Motor Co. ... The Honda Accord is an automobile manufactured by Honda. ... Nissan Motor Co. ... The Altima is a line of midsize sedans currently being manufactured by the Japanese automaker Nissan, and is arguably a continuation of the bloodline that began with the Nissan Bluebird in 1957. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


An R.L. Polk survey of 2003 model year cars showed that hybrid car registrations in the United States rose to 43,435 cars, a 25.8 % increase from 2002 numbers. California, the nation's largest state with 1/8th of the country's population, had the most hybrid cars registered with 11,425. The proportionally high number may be partially due to the state's higher gasoline prices and stricter emissions rules, which hybrids generally have little trouble passing. State nickname: The Golden State Other U.S. States Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (R) Official languages English Area 410,000 km² (3rd)  - Land 404,298 km²  - Water 20,047 km² (4. ...


Honda, which offers Insight, Civic and Accord hybrids, sold 26,773 hybrids in the first 11 months of last year alone. Toyota has sold a cumulative 306,862 hybrids between 1997 and Nov. 2004 and Honda has sold a total of 81,867 hybrids between 1999 and November 2004.[1]


Hybrid light trucks were introduced 2004 by Mercedes (Hybrid Sprinter) and Micro-Vett SPA (Daily Bimodale).


Benefits

Benefits of the hybrid design include the following:

  • In comparison with purely electric vehicles of comparable size and power, hybrids are usually lighter and roomier because fewer batteries are needed. Batteries store less energy per unit mass and per unit volume than does gasoline.
  • The internal-combustion engine in a hybrid vehicle is much smaller, lighter, and more efficient than the one in a conventional vehicle, because the engine can be sized for average power demand rather than peak power demand. The power curve of electric motors is better suited to variable speeds and can provide substantially greater torque at low speeds compared with internal-combustion engines.
  • Like many electric cars, but in contrast to conventional vehicles, braking in a hybrid is controlled in part by the electric motor which can recapture part of the kinetic energy of the car to partially recharge the batteries. This is called regenerative braking and one of the reasons for the high efficiency of hybrid cars. In a conventional vehicle, braking is done by mechanical brakes, and the kinetic energy of the car is wasted as heat.

Government agencies in the US and elsewhere offer various incentives to encourage the purchase of certain qualifying hybrid or electrical vehicles. Mass is a property of physical objects that, roughly speaking, measures the amount of matter they contain. ... Volume (also called capacity) is a quantification of how much space an object occupies. ... A brake is a device for slowing or stopping the motion of a machine, and to keep it from starting to move. ... Electric motors of various sizes. ... This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. ... Regenerative braking is any technology which allows a vehicle to recapture and store part of the kinetic energy that would otherwise be lost to heat when braking. ... A red-hot iron rod cooling after being worked by a blacksmith. ...

  • The purchase of hybrid cars qualifies for a $2000 tax deduction on the IRS 1040 form for the year of 2003. The deduction reduces by $500 each year until it reaches zero. HR 1308 Sec. 319 proposed the phasing out of the deduction to put on hold for the year 2004 and 2005 (i.e., hybrid car buyers can enjoy the $2000 deduction before the phasing out resumes at $500 in 2006).
  • The Federal tax deduction will turn into a tax credit starting Jan 1, 2006. However only 60,000 new cars sold by each car manufacturer would qualify for such tax credit.
  • Many states give tax credits to hybrid car buyers.
  • Certain states (e.g., California, Virginia and Florida) allow singly-occupied hybrid vehicles to enter the HOV lanes on the highway, although the Federal Highway Administration has ruled that is a violation of the federal statute. [2]
  • Some states, e.g. California, exempt hybrid cars from the biennial smog inspection, which costs over $50 (as of 2004).
  • Hybrid cars can go on certain toll roads for free.
  • City of San Jose, CA issues a free parking tag for hybrid cars that were purchased at a San Jose dealership. The qualified owners do not have to pay for parking in any city garage or road side parking meters.
  • City of Los Angeles, CA offers free parking to all hybrid vehicles starting on October 1, 2004. The experiment is an extension to an existing offer of free parking for all pure electrical vehicle.
  • Annual vehicle registration fees in the District of Columbia are half ($36) that paid for conventionally vehicles ($72).
  • Drivers of hybrid vehicles in the United Kingdom benefit from the lowest band of Vehicle Excise Duty (car tax) which is based on CO2 emissions. In London, these vehicles are also exempt from the £5 ($9) daily congestion charge in Central London.

The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... IRS is short for U.S. Internal Revenue Service short for Indian Revenue Service short for Independent rear suspension, used in automobiles. ... Events March War of Independence of Western Xia occurred. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Seal of the House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives is one of the two houses of the Congress of the United States, the other being the Senate. ... This page includes English translations of several Latin phrases and abbreviations such as . ... State nickname: The Golden State Other U.S. States Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (R) Official languages English Area 410,000 km² (3rd)  - Land 404,298 km²  - Water 20,047 km² (4. ... State nickname: Old Dominion Other U.S. States Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Governor Mark R. Warner (D) Official languages English Area 110,862 km² (35th)  - Land 102,642 km²  - Water 8,220 km² (7. ... State nickname: Sunshine State Other U.S. States Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Governor Jeb Bush (R) Official languages English Area 170,451 km² (22nd)  - Land 137,374 km²  - Water 30,486 km² (17. ... A permanent, separated high-occupancy vehicle lane on I-91 in Connecticut A high occupancy vehicle (or HOV) is any vehicle with a driver and one or more (or sometimes two or more, or three or more) passengers. ... The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a division of the U.S. Department of Transportation that specializes in automobile transportation. ... State nickname: The Golden State Other U.S. States Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (R) Official languages English Area 410,000 km² (3rd)  - Land 404,298 km²  - Water 20,047 km² (4. ... Victorian-era London was notorious for its thick smogs, or pea-soupers, a fact that is often recreated to add an air of mystery to a period costume drama. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... City nickname: Capital of Silicon Valley County Santa Clara County, California Area  - Total  - Water 461. ... This article is about the largest city in California. ... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in Leap years). ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Washington, D.C., short for the District of Columbia (also known as the the District or, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United States of America. ... Carbon dioxide is an atmospheric gas composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... St. ... The white-on-red C marks all entrances to the Congestion Charge zone. ...

Trade-offs

While some manufacturers are using power generated from the hybrid systems to give vehicles added performance, these hybrid vehicles still offer equal or better fuel efficiency over their conventionally-powered counterparts. The trade-off between added performance and improved fuel efficiency is mainly something controlled by the software within the hybrid system. In the future, manufacturers may provide hybrid-owners with the ability to set this balance (fuel efficiency vs. added performance) as they wish, through a user-controlled setting.


Types

There are many types of hybrids, differentiated by how the electric and fueled halves of the powertrain connect, and at what times each portion is in operation. Two major categories are series hybrids and parallel hybrids, though parallel designs are most common today. Some hybrid vehicles don't even use electricity for auxiliary energy storage.


Many hybrids, no matter the specific type, can use regenerative braking to recover energy when slowing down the vehicle. This simply involves running the motor backwards as a generator. Many designs also shut off the internal combustion engine when it is not needed in order to save energy. That concept is not unique to hybrids—the Volkswagen Lupo 3L is one example of a conventional vehicle that shuts off its engine when at a stop. Regenerative braking is any technology which allows a vehicle to recapture and store part of the kinetic energy that would otherwise be lost to heat when braking. ... 2004 Volkswagen Lupo VW Lupo Overview The VW Lupo is the smallest car manufactured by Volkswagen. ...


Series

In a series design, the internal combustion engine is not connected to the drivetrain at all, but powers an electrical generator instead. Electricity from the generator is fed to the motor or motors that actually move the car, and excess energy can be used to charge batteries. When large amounts of power are required, electricity comes from both the battery pack and the engine-generator section. Because electrical motors can operate quite efficiently over a wide range of speeds, this design removes or reduces the need for a complex transmission. The engine can also be finely tuned to operate at its most efficient speed whenever it is running. However, series hybrids require separate motor and generator portions, which can be combined in some parallel hybrid designs. It is likely that some hydrogen cars running on fuel cells will use a series-style setup, with fuel cells replacing the engine-generator section. A hydrogen car is an automobile which uses hydrogen as its primary source of power for locomotion. ... A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ...


This is similar to the operation of diesel-electric train locomotives, but they are not hybrids because they do not store auxiliary power in batteries for later use. There are various types of trains designed for particular purposes, see rail transport operations. ... A locomotive is a railway vehicle that provides the motive power for a train, and has no payload capacity of its own; its sole purpose is to move the train along the tracks. ...


Parallel

Parallel systems, which are most common at present, connect both the electrical and fueled halves to the mechanical transmission. They can be subcategorized depending upon how balanced the different portions are at providing motive power. In many cases, the internal combustion engine is the dominant portion and is used for primary power, with the motor turning on only when a boost is needed. Others can run with just the electric or combustion half operating alone. Many designs combine an electrical generator and a motor into one unit, and this device can also replace the starter motor used to get the engine to turn over. In 1903, the first U.S. patent for an automobile electric self-starter was issued to Clyde J. Coleman of New York City (No. ...


In the second generation, the internal combustion engine drives the wheels directly with the electric motor serving as a power assist when extra power is needed, and to recapture the kinetic energy usually lost during braking.


Full hybrid

A full hybrid, sometimes also called a strong hybrid, is a vehicle that can run on just the engine, just the batteries, or a combination of both. The Prius and Escape Hybrids are examples of this, as both cars can be moved forward on battery power alone. A large, high-capacity battery pack is usually needed for battery-only operation. These vehicles have a split power path that allows more flexibility in the drivetrain by interconverting mechanical and electrical power, at some cost in complexity. To balance the forces from each portion, the vehicles use a differential-style linkage between the engine and motor connected to the head end of the transmission. In this differential, input torque is applied to the ring gear (blue). ...


The Toyota brand name for this technology is Hybrid Synergy Drive, which is being used in the Prius and the Highlander sport-utility vehicle (SUV). A computer oversees operation of the entire system, determining which half should be running, or if both should be in use. The computer also optimizes the fuel usage by shutting off the internal combustion engine when the electric motor is sufficient to provide the power. The hybrid drivetrain of the Prius, in combination with aerodynamics to reduce drag, results in 80%–100% gains in fuel economy compared to four-door conventional cars of similar weight and size. Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD) is a set of hybrid car technologies developed by Toyota and used in that companys Prius, Highlander Hybrid, Camry HV, and Lexus RX 400h automobiles. ... A sport utility vehicle (SUV) or off-roader is a type of passenger vehicle which combines the load-hauling and passenger-carrying capacity of a large station wagon or minivan with features designed for off-road driving. ... Aerodynamics is a branch of fluid dynamics concerned with the study of gas flows, first analysed by George Cayley in the 1800s. ...


Assist hybrid

Assist hybrids use the engine for primary power, with a torque-boosting electric motor also connected to a largely conventional powertrain. The electric motor is essentially a very large starter motor, which operates not only when the engine needs to be turned over, but also when the driver "steps on the gas" and requires extra power. Honda's hybrids including the Insight use this design; their system is dubbed Integrated Motor Assist (IMA). Assist hybrids differ fundamentally from full hybrids in that they cannot run on electric power alone. However, since the amount of electrical power needed is much smaller, the size of the battery systems is reduced. Integrated Motor Assist (commonly abbreviated as IMA) is Hondas hybrid car technology. ...


A variation on this type is Mazda's e-4WD system, offered on the Mazda Demio sold in Japan. This front wheel drive vehicle has an electric motor which can drive the rear wheels when extra traction is needed. The system is entirely disengaged in all other driving conditions, so it does not enhance performance or economy. Mazda Millenia luxury sedan. ... The Demio (also sold as the Mazda 121, Mazda Metro, Mazda2 and Ford Festiva Mini Wagon) is a small minivan or tall station wagon which debuted in 1996. ... Front wheel drive is the most common form of engine/transmission layout used in modern automobiles, where the engine drives the front wheels. ... Traction is applied mechanical force used to achieve motion. ...


Ford has dubbed Honda's hybrids "mild" in their advertising for the Escape Hybrid, arguing that the Escape's full hybrid design is more efficient. However, assist hybrids should not be confused with actual mild hybrids like the Chevrolet Silverado Hybrid. Honda Insight, a hybrid gas-electric vehicle 2004 Toyota Prius, a hybrid gas-electric vehicle A hybrid vehicle uses multiple energy sources or propulsion systems to provide motive power. ...


Mild hybrid

Mild hybrids are essentially conventional vehicles with oversized starter motors, allowing the engine to be turned off whenever the car is coasting, braking, or stopped, yet restart quickly and cleanly. Accessories can continue to run on electrical power while the engine is off, and as in other hybrid designs, the motor is used for regenerative braking to recapture energy. The larger motor is used to spin up the engine to operating rpm speeds before injecting any fuel.


Many don't consider these to be hybrids at all, and these vehicles do not achieve the fuel economy of "true" hybrid models. A major example is the 2005 Chevrolet Silverado Hybrid, a fullsize pickup truck. Chevrolet was able to get a 10% improvement on the Silverado's fuel efficiency by shutting down and restarting the engine on demand. Mild hybrids often use 48 volt systems to supply the power needed for the startup motor, as well as to compensate for the increasing number of electronic accessories on modern vehicles. Pickup truck with extended cabin and homebuilt lumber rack. ...


Plug-in hybrid

Main article: Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is a full hybrid, able to run in electric-only mode, with larger batteries and the ability to recharge from the electric power grid. They are also called gas-optional, or griddable hybrids. Their main benefit is that they can be gasoline-independent for daily commuting, but also have the extended range of a hybrid for long trips. They can also be multi-fuel, with the electric power supplemented by diesel, biodiesel, or hydrogen. The Electric Power Research Institute's research indicates a lower total cost of ownership for PHEVs due to reduced service costs and gradually improving batteries. The "well-to-wheel" efficiency and emissions of PHEVs compared to gasoline hybrids depends on the energy sources of the grid (the US grid is 50% coal; California's grid is primarily natural gas, hydroelectric power, and wind power). Particular interest in PHEVs is in California where a "million solar homes" initiative is under way, and global warming legislation has been enacted. A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) or gas-electric hybrid fueled vehicle is a hybrid which has additional battery capacity and the ability to be recharged from an external electrical outlet. ... A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) or gas-electric hybrid fueled vehicle is a hybrid which has additional battery capacity and the ability to be recharged from an external electrical outlet. ... Coal is a fossil fuel extracted from the ground either by underground mining, open-pit mining or strip mining. ... Natural gas (commonly refered to as gas in many countries) is a gaseous fossil fuel consisting primarily of methane. ... Hydroelectric dam diagram The waters of Llyn Stwlan, the upper reservoir of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales, can just be glimpsed on the right. ... Wind power is the kinetic energy of wind, or the extraction of this energy by wind turbines. ...


Prototypes of plug-in hybrid cars, with larger battery packs that can be recharged from the power grid, have been built in the U.S., notably at Prof. Andy Frank's Hybrid Center at UC Davis and one production PHEV, the Renault Kangoo, went on sale in France in 2003. DaimlerChrysler is currently building PHEVs based on the Mercedes-Benz Sprinter van. The California Cars Initiative has converted the 2004 Prius to become a prototype of what it calls the PRIUS+. The University of California, Davis, commonly abbreviated to UC Davis or UCD is one of the ten University of California campuses. ... A Renault Kangoo 1. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... DaimlerChrysler AG (Xetra: DCX), (NYSE: DCX), has its headquarter in Stuttgart, Germany and is a prominent automobile and truck manufacturer. ... The Sprinter is a tall delivery van built by DaimlerChrysler and sold under its Mercedes-Benz, Dodge, and Freightliner brands. ... Van can mean: Van, a road vehicle. ...


See also: vehicle to grid Vehicle to Grid (V2G) technology is a bi-directional grid interface for gridable vehicles such as Battery Electric Vehicles and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles. ...


Hydraulic hybrid

A hydraulic hybrid vehicle uses hydraulic and mechanical components instead of electrical ones. A variable displacement pump replaces the motor/generator, and a hydraulic accumulator replaces the batteries. The hydraulic accumulator, which is essentially a pressure tank, is potentially cheaper and more durable than batteries. Hydraulic hybrid technology was originally developed by Volvo Flygmotor and was used experimentally in buses from the early 1980s and is still an active area. Hydraulics is a branch of science and engineering concerned with the use of liquids to perform mechanical tasks. ... A variable displacement pump is a device that converts mechanical energy to hydraulic (fluid) energy. ... A hydraulic accumulator is an energy storage device. ...


Initial concept involved a giant flywheel for storage connected to a hydrostatic transmission, but it was later changed to a simpler system using a hydraulic accumulator connected to a hydraulic pump/motor. It is also being actively developed by Eaton and several other companies, primarily in heavy vehicles like buses, trucks and military vehicles. An example is the Ford F-350 Mighty Tonka concept truck shown in 2002. It features an Eaton system that can accelerate the truck up to highway speeds. Eaton is the name of several places: In England: Eaton (Chester), Cheshire Eaton (Macclesfield), Cheshire Eaton, Leicestershire Eaton, Nottinghamshire In the United States of America: Eaton, Colorado Eaton, Indiana Eaton, New Hampshire Eaton, New York Eaton, Ohio Eaton, Wisconsin Eaton County, Michigan Eaton Township, Michigan Eaton Township, Pennsylvania In addition...


Engines and fuel sources

Gasoline

Gasoline engines are used in most hybrid designs, and will likely remain dominant for the foreseeable future. While petroleum-derived gasoline is the primary fuel, it is possible to mix in varying levels of ethanol created from renewable energy sources. Like most modern ICE-powered vehicles, hybrids can typically use up to about 15% ethanol. Manufacturers may move to flexible-fuel engines, which would increase allowable ratios, but no plans are in place at present. Gasoline engine (also referred to as petrol engine or Otto engine) invented at the end of the 19th century by German engineer Nikolaus Otto is a type of internal combustion engine which is often used for automobiles, aircraft, small mobile vehicles such as lawnmowers or motorcycles, and outboard motors for... Nodding donkey pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario, 2001 Petroleum (from Latin petra – rock and oleum – oil), crude oil, sometimes colloquially called black gold, is a thick, dark brown or greenish flammable liquid, which exists in the upper strata of some areas of the Earths crust. ... // Renewable energy (sources) or RES capture their energy from existing flows of energy, from on-going natural processes, such as sunshine, wind, flowing water, biological processes, and geothermal heat flows. ...


Diesel

One particularly interesting hybrid vehicle combination uses a diesel engine for power. Diesels are excellent at delivering constant power for long periods of time, suffering less wear while operating at higher efficiency. However, the engines also suffer from poor acceleration due to having a limited rpm range. This poor acceleration can be addressed with the hybrid technique, and such designs may offer performance in a car of over 100 mpg US (2.35 L per 100 km). The diesel engine is a type of internal combustion engine; more specifically, it is a compression ignition engine, in which the fuel is ignited by being suddenly exposed to the high temperature and pressure of a compressed gas containing oxygen (usually atmospheric air), rather than a separate source of ignition... The litre (or liter in US) is a metric unit of volume. ... A kilometre (American spelling: kilometer, symbol: km) is a unit of length equal to 1000 metres (from the Greek words khilia = thousand and metro = count/measure). ...


Diesel vehicles, and therefore diesel hybrids, have the advantage they can use 100% pure biofuels (biodiesel), so they don't need petroleum at all. Diesels are not widely used for passenger cars in the United States, where only Volkswagen and Mercedes Benz offer them as of 2005. However, they are popular in Europe—Mercedes Benz claims 56% (as of February 2005) of all the cars they sell in Europe are diesels, and almost half of all the vehicles sold there have a diesel engine. Biofuel is any fuel that derives from biomass — recently living organisms or their metabolic byproducts, such as manure from cows. ... Bus running on soybean biodiesel. ... Nodding donkey pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario, 2001 Petroleum (from Latin petra – rock and oleum – oil), crude oil, sometimes colloquially called black gold, is a thick, dark brown or greenish flammable liquid, which exists in the upper strata of some areas of the Earths crust. ... Volkswagen (VW) is an automobile manufacturer based in Wolfsburg, Germany. ... Mercedes-Benz is a brand of automobiles and trucks from the DaimlerChrysler company (formerly known as Daimler-Benz), commonly known as Mercedes. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ... 2005 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → Ongoing events • Iraqi legislative election • Bill C-38 (Canada gay marriage) • Tsunami relief Upcoming events • March 11: Red Nose Day 2005 in the UK. Deaths in February • 26 – Jef Raskin • 25 – Hugh Nibley • 25 – Peter Benenson • 21...


Part of the reason for limited popularity in the US is lack of acceptable fuel. Diesel in the US has long been considered very "dirty", with relatively high levels of sulfur and other contaminants in comparison to the Eurodiesel fuel in Europe, where greater restrictions have been in place for many years. Despite the dirtier fuel, the US has tough restrictions on exhaust, and it has been difficult for car manufacturers to meet emissions levels given what is put into the engine. However, ultra-low sulfur diesel is set to be mandated in the United States in June 2006. General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Atomic mass 32. ... The word exhaust can mean:- A verb meaning tire out, as in After the long gallop, his horse was exhausted. ... Ultra low sulfur diesel is the fuel being mandated for use by 2006 in the United States by the EPA. It contains much lower sulfur content (15 ppm vs. ...


The use of hybrid diesels remains limited. VW made a prototype diesel-electric hybrid car that achieved 118 mpg US fuel economy (2 liters per 100 km), but has yet to sell a hybrid vehicle. So far, hybrid diesels have primarily appeared in mass transit buses, primarily made by General Motors' New Flyer division. Prototypes or prototypical instances combine the most representative attributes of a category. ... In the United States of America, transit describes local area common carrier passenger transportation configured to provide scheduled service on fixed routes on a non-reservation basis. ...


Fuel cells

Some fuel cell-powered vehicles currently in development use some hybrid-like technology to store auxiliary energy. Like diesels above and steam power outlined below, fuel cells are best at delivering a fairly constant flow of electricity, so having a secondary system is helpful. In some cases, batteries have been replaced with ultracapacitors, which can store and retrieve energy quickly, but are inappropriate for long-term electrical storage. Various types of capacitors A capacitor is a device that stores energy in the electric field created between a pair of conductors on which equal but opposite electric charges have been placed. ...


Steam and turbines

At present, no current or planned mass-market car is driven by a steam engine, but hybrid technology could bring back the steam-powered car. In the early 20th century, steam-powered cars made by the Stanley Steamer Company did compete successfully with the internal combustion engine. Steam engines can be much more efficient (and generate less pollution) than internal combustion engines, which is why most of the world's electric power comes from steam turbines heated by fossil fuels or a nuclear heat source. However, steam engines have not been able to compete with internal combustion for vehicles for several reasons: A steam engine is a heat engine that makes use of the thermal energy that exists in steam, converting it to mechanical work. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... The Stanley Steamer Company was an American manufacturer of steam engine automobiles. ... WWII era steam turbine used for ship propulsion. ...

  • Lower power-to-weight ratio
  • Smaller range of operating speeds
  • Much longer warm-up time
  • More complex controls

The driver of a Stanley Steamer had to keep a close eye on several pressure and temperature gauges while driving. With modern computers, much of this could be handled automatically. Similarly, the availability of relatively lightweight turbines increases the power-to-weight ratio and reduces thermal inertia. Power-to-weight ratio is a measure commonly used when comparing various vehicles (or engines), including automobiles, motorcycles and aircraft. ...


Similarly, turbine engines directly burning fuel could also be used. From the 1950s to the 1970s Chrysler created several turbine-powered vehicles, though only small numbers were produced. They had complex drivetrains and achieved relatively slow starting speeds, with effects reminiscent of "turbo lag," but demonstrated that turbines could be used for automobiles (see Chrysler Turbine engines). // Events and trends The 1950s in Western society was marked with a sharp rise in the economy for the first time in almost 30 years and return to the 1920s-type consumer society built on credit and boom-times, as well as the height of the baby-boom from returning... This article provides extensive lists of events and significant personalities of the 1970s. ... Turbo lag is the delay between when you press the throttle and the turbocharger starts producing boost pressure. ... Chrysler created several turbine engines that were used in road vehicles: CR1 1954–1956: Plymouth Belvedere 4-door ~100 hp (75 kW) Poor fuel economy (13-14 US mpg) No engine braking Slow spool up CR2 1956–1957: 1956 Plymouth Belvedere, 1957 Plymouth Fury Better regenerator Better fuel economy (18...


Hybrid fuel

In addition to vehicles that use two or more different devices for creating motive power, some also consider vehicles that use distinct energy input types (fuels) to be hybrids:

A trolleybus in Arnhem An electric trolleybus (also known as trolley bus or trackless trolley or simply trolley) is a bus powered by two overhead electric wires, from which the bus draws electricity using two trolley poles. ... Green vehicles made by Ford, including flexible-fuel cars and trucks, sport this logo A flexible-fuel vehicle or dual-fuel vehicle is an automobile or truck (lorry) that can accept a range of fuel mixtures. ... Gasoline, as it is known in North America, or petrol, in many Commonwealth countries (sometimes also called motor spirit) is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting primarily of hydrocarbons, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ... Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless chemical compound, one of the alcohols that is most often found in alcoholic beverages. ... Bus running on soybean biodiesel. ... Liquified petroleum gas (also called liquefied petroleum gas, liquid petroleum gas, LPG, LP gas, or autogas) is a mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel in heating appliances and vehicles, and increasingly replacing fluorocarbons as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant to reduce damage to the ozone layer. ... Natural gas (commonly refered to as gas in many countries) is a gaseous fossil fuel consisting primarily of methane. ... A three-carbon alkane, propane is sometimes derived from other petroleum products during oil or natural gas processing. ... Waste Vegetable Oil (WVO) is vegetable oil that has become unfit for food preparation. ... This racing bicycle is built using lightweight, shaped aluminum tubing and carbon fiber stays and forks. ... Binomial name Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies Homo sapiens idaltu (extinct) Homo sapiens sapiens Human beings define themselves in biological, social, and spiritual terms. ...

Hybrids vs. electric vehicles

All-electric cars are more popular in Europe than in the U.S. The official argument of the major U.S. automobile manufacturers is lack of customer demand for pure electric cars. However, this might change once battery technology advances and gas prices continue to increase.


For now, car manufacturers are focusing on fuel cell-based cars and hybrids. Toyota intends that all of its vehicles be hybrid electric by 2012. A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ... 2012 is a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also

Advanced Hybrid System 2 is a set of hybrid car technologies jointly developed by General Motors and DaimlerChrysler. ... An auto show or motor show is a public gathering of automobile manufacturers which includes demonstrations of current automobile models, new debuts, and concept cars. ... A battery pack is a set of any number of (preferably) identical batteries or individual battery cells. ... Great Western Railway No. ... An electric vehicle is a vehicle whose motion is provided by electric motors. ... Energy development is the ongoing effort to provide abundant and accessible energy, through knowledge, skills and constructions. ... A gas-electric hybrid engine is a combination of a gasoline/petrol or diesel internal combustion engine with an electric motor to power a vehicle. ... Green technology is a technology that offers a more environmentally friendly solution compared to an existing technology. ... Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured at Mauna Loa. ... Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD) is a set of hybrid car technologies developed by Toyota and used in that companys Prius, Highlander Hybrid, Camry HV, and Lexus RX 400h automobiles. ... // Renewable energy (sources) or RES capture their energy from existing flows of energy, from on-going natural processes, such as sunshine, wind, flowing water, biological processes, and geothermal heat flows. ... Vehicle to Grid (V2G) technology is a bi-directional grid interface for gridable vehicles such as Battery Electric Vehicles and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles. ... List of hybrid car in chronological order of production: 1907 AL (a French car) Modern 1996 AC Propulsion TZero (PbA, 80 mile ev-mode) 1997 Toyota Prius Gen1 (Japanese market only) 2000 Toyota Prius Gen2 (Worldwide market) 2000 Honda Insight 2001 Toyota Estima hybrid (Japanese market only) 2003 AC Propulsion... The term alternative propulsion or alternate methods of propulsion includes both - alternative fuels in standard or modified internal combustion engines and - propulsion systems based on electricity, compressed air or other methods not based on combustion of fuels GMs definition of alternative propulsion The term is not only used in...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Hybrid vehicle - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5390 words)
In the intervening period, the widest use of hybrid technology was actually in diesel-electric submarines, which operate in essentially the same manner as hybrid electric cars.
Like many electric cars, but in contrast to conventional vehicles, braking in a hybrid is controlled in part by the electric motor which can recapture part of the kinetic energy of the car to partially recharge the batteries.
The purchase of hybrid cars qualifies for a $2000 tax deduction on the IRS 1040 form for the year of 2003.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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