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Encyclopedia > Hybrid Synergy Drive

Hybrid Synergy Drive, (HSD) is a set of hybrid car technologies developed by Toyota and used in that company's Prius, Highlander Hybrid, Camry Hybrid, Lexus RX 400h, Lexus GS 450h, and Lexus LS 600h/LS 600hL automobiles. It combines the characteristics of an electric drive and a continuously variable transmission, using electricity and transistors in place of toothed gears. The Synergy Drive is a drive-by-wire system with no direct mechanical connection between the engine and the engine controls: both the gas pedal and the gearshift lever in an HSD car merely send electrical signals to a control computer. Image File history File links Hybrid Synergy Drive logo by Toyota Motor Corporation Trivia: This logo uses the notches on the left side defined the H, the wiggly blue lines as the letter S, and the round end on the right side defined a holeless D. This design seems to... Honda Insight, a hybrid gas-electric vehicle 2004 Toyota Prius, a hybrid gas-electric vehicle A hybrid vehicle uses multiple energy sources or propulsion systems to provide motive power. ... Toyota Motor Corporation ), or Toyota is a Japanese multinational corporation and the worlds largest automaker by sales revenue as of 2007[3]. Together with its half-owned subsidiary Daihatsu, the company was the worlds second largest auto company by revenue of $179 billion and total vehicle production, most... Hybrid Synergy Drive The Toyota Prius is the first mass-produced and marketed hybrid automobile/car. ... under the hood of a Highlander The Toyota Highlander (called Kluger in Japan and Australia) is a model of SUV assembled by Toyota Motor Corp. ... 2007 Toyota Camry Hybrid The Toyota Camry Hybrid is a hybrid version of Toyotas popular Camry sedan, introduced for the 2007 model year in May 2006. ... The Lexus RX 400h is an automobile assembled by Toyota Motor Corp. ... The Lexus GS is a rear-wheel drive, luxury sports sedan manufactured by the Toyota Motor Corp. ... The Lexus LS is a full-size luxury sedan that serves as the flagship of Lexus, the luxury division of Toyota. ... Karl Benzs Velo (vélo means bicycle in French) model (1894) - entered into the first automobile race 2005 MINI Cooper S. An automobile (also motor car or simply car) is a wheeled passenger vehicle that carries its own motor. ... A streetcar drawing current from a single overhead wire, returning current through the rails and ground An electric locomotive, taking power through a pantograph An electric vehicle, or EV, is a vehicle with one or more electric motors for propulsion. ... The continuously variable transmission (CVT) is a transmission in which the ratio of the rotational speeds of two shafts, as the input shaft and output shaft of a vehicle or other machine, can be varied continuously within a given range, providing an infinite number of possible ratios. ... Lightning strikes during a night-time thunderstorm. ... Photo of transistor types (tape measure marked in centimeters) Transistor in the SMD form factor The transistor is a solid state semiconductor device used for amplification and switching. ... Spur gears found on a piece of farm equipment. ... Drive-by-wire technology in automotive industry replaces the traditional mechanical and hydraulic control systems with electronic control systems using electromechanical actuators and human-machine interfaces such as pedal and steering feel emulators. ... A small variety of cars, the most popular kind of automobile. ... A gear stick (also gearstick, gear lever and gear shifter) is the lever used to change gear in a vehicle, such as an automobile, with manual transmission or automatic transmission. ... A BlueGene supercomputer cabinet. ...

HSD is a refinement of the original Toyota Hybrid System (THS) used in the 1997–2003 Toyota Prius. As such it is occasionally referred to as THS II. The name was changed in anticipation of its use in vehicles outside the Toyota brand (Lexus; the HSD-derived systems used in Lexus vehicles were termed Lexus Hybrid Drive since 2006). The Lexus Hybrid Drive system has since been touted for its increase in vehicle power as well as environmental and efficiency benefits. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Lexus is the luxury vehicle division of Japanese based American car maker Toyota Motor Corporation. ...


When required to classify the transmission type of an HSD vehicle (such as in standard specification lists or for regulatory purposes), Toyota describes HSD-equipped vehicles as having E-CVT (Electronically-controlled Continuously Variable Transmission).


General Motors and DaimlerChrysler's Global Hybrid Cooperation is similar in that it combines the power from a single engine and two motors. In contrast, Honda's Integrated Motor Assist uses a more traditional ICE and transmission where the flywheel is replaced with an electric motor. General Motors Corporation (NYSE: GM), also known as GM, is an American automobile maker with worldwide operations and brands including Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, Holden, Hummer, Opel, Pontiac, Saturn, Saab and Vauxhall. ... DaimlerChrysler AG (ISIN: DE0007100000) is a German car corporation and the worlds fifth largest car manufacturer. ... Global Hybrid Cooperation (formerly called Advanced Hybrid System 2 or AHS2) is a set of hybrid vehicle technologies jointly developed by General Motors and DaimlerChrysler, with BMW joining in 2005. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Integrated Motor Assist (commonly abbreviated as IMA) is Hondas hybrid car technology, introduced in 1999 on the Insight. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Some early non-production Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle conversions have been based on the version of HSD found in the 2004 and 2005 model year Prius. Early Pba conversions by CalCars have demonstrated 10 miles of ev-only and 20 miles of double mileage mixed-mode range. A company planning to offer conversions to consumers named EDrive systems will be using Valence Li-ion batteries and have 35 miles of electric range. Both of these systems leave the existing HSD system mostly unchanged and could be similarly applied to other hybrid powertrain flavors by simply replacing the stock NiMH batteries with a higher capacity battery pack and of course a charger to refill them for about $0.03 per mile from standard household outlets. Another provider of a plug-in module for the Toyota Prius is Hymotion. The number of US survey respondents willing to pay $4,000 more for a plug-in hybrid car increased from 17% in 2005 to 26% in 2006. ... An electric vehicle conversion is the modification of a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) driven vehicle to battery electric propulsion, creating a battery electric vehicle. ... Lead-acid batteries, invented in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Planté, are the oldest type of galvanic cell battery. ... Mixed-mode is a mode of opperation of a Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle in which a portion of the motive energy is supplied by the electric portion of the system whos batteries are recharged from an external source. ... Li-Ion Camera Battery Lithium ion batteries (or Li-ion) have become very common and dropped in price recently. ... Modern, high capacity NiMH rechargeable batteries A nickel metal hydride (or NiMH) battery is a type of rechargeable battery similar to a nickel-cadmium (NiCad) battery but which does not contain expensive (and environmentally risky) cadmium. ... A battery pack is a set of any number of (preferably) identical batteries or individual battery cells. ...

Contents

Theory of operation

high voltage unit of the HSD

HSD replaces a normal geared transmission with an electronic system. All car powertrains drive a driveshaft that turns the drive wheels of the car. Because an internal combustion engine delivers energy best only over a small range of torque and speed, the crankshaft of the engine is usually attached to a switchable gear train that matches the needed torque at the wheels to the torque that can be delivered by the engine. ImageMetadata File history File links ToyotaOpenHSD.jpg The THS high voltage inverter unit. ... ImageMetadata File history File links ToyotaOpenHSD.jpg The THS high voltage inverter unit. ... In mechanics, a transmission or gearbox is the system of gears and/or the hydraulic system (called variously hydrodynamic, fluid or automatic transmission) that transmits mechanical power from a prime mover—such as an engine or electric motor—to a typically rotary output device at a lower angular momentum but... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Cardan driveshaft with universal joints A driveshaft or driving shaft or Cardan shaft is a mechanical device for transferring power from the engine or motor to the point where useful work is applied. ... Drive wheels are the wheels in an automotive vehicle that receive power from the power train. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Torque applied via an adjustable end wrench Relationship between force, torque, and momentum vectors in a rotating system In physics, torque (or often called a moment) can informally be thought of as rotational force or angular force which causes a change in rotational motion. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


HSD replaces the gear box, alternator and starter motor with a pair of electrical motor-generators, a computerized shunt system to control them, a mechanical power splitter that acts as a second differential, and a battery pack that serves as an energy reservoir. A motor-generator is a transducer that converts electricity to motion or vice-versa. The mechanical connections of the system allow the computer to convert mechanical power from the engine between three forms: extra torque at the wheels (under constant rotation speed), extra rotation speed at the wheels (under constant torque), and electricity. This achieves the benefits of a continuously variable transmission, except that the torque/speed conversion uses electricity rather than direct mechanical connection. An HSD car cannot operate without the computer, power electronics, and MG2, though in principle it could operate while missing the gasoline engine. In practice, HSD cars can be driven a mile or two without gasoline, as an emergency measure to reach a gas station. Early 20th century Alternator made in Budapest, Hungary, in the power generating hall of a hydroelectric station. ... In 1903, the first U.S. patent for an automobile electric self-starter was issued to Clyde J. Coleman of New York City (No. ... Radio station motor-generator, converting from low to the high voltage power supply. ... In an automobile and other four-wheeled vehicles, a differential is a device, usually consisting of gears, for allowing each of the driving wheels to rotate at different speeds, while supplying equal torque to each of them. ... A battery pack is a set of any number of (preferably) identical batteries or individual battery cells. ... Radio station motor-generator, converting from low to the high voltage power supply. ... A transducer is a device, usually electrical or electronic, that converts one type of energy to another. ... Lightning strikes during a night-time thunderstorm. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The continuously variable transmission (CVT) is a transmission in which the ratio of the rotational speeds of two shafts, as the input shaft and output shaft of a vehicle or other machine, can be varied continuously within a given range, providing an infinite number of possible ratios. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


One of the motor-generators (MG2 in Toyota manuals; sometimes called "MG-T" for "Torque") is mounted on the driveshaft, and thus couples torque into or out of the driveshaft: feeding electricity into MG2 adds torque at the wheels. The engine end of the driveshaft has a second differential; one leg of this differential is attached to the gasoline engine and the other leg is attached to a second motor generator (MG1 in Toyota manuals; sometimes "MG-S" for "Speed"). The differential relates the rotation speed of the wheels to the rotation speeds of the engine and MG1, with MG1 used to absorb the difference between wheel and engine speed. The differential is an epicyclic gearset (also called a "power split device"); that and the two motor-generators are all contained in a single housing that is bolted to the engine. Special couplings and sensors monitor rotation speed of each shaft and the total torque on the driveshaft, for feedback to the control computer. In an automobile and other four-wheeled vehicles, a differential is a device, usually consisting of gears, for allowing each of the driving wheels to rotate at different speeds, while supplying equal torque to each of them. ... Epicyclic gearing is used here to increase output speed. ... An engine is something that produces an effect from a given input. ...


The drive works by shunting electrical power between the two motor generators and the battery pack to even out load on the gasoline engine. Because a power boost is available for periods of acceleration, the gasoline engine can be sized to match only the average load on the car, rather than the peak load on the car: this saves fuel because smaller engines are more power efficient. Furthermore, during normal operation the gasoline engine can be operated at its ideal speed and torque level for power, economy, or emissions, with the battery pack absorbing or supplying power as appropriate to balance the demand placed by the driver. Driving is the controlled operation of a vehicle, which is usually a motor vehicle such as a truck, bus, or car. ...


Phases of operation

Hybrid Synergy Drive

The HSD operates in distinct phases depending on speed and demanded torque. Here are a few of them: Hybrid Synergy Drive on a 2004 Toyota Prius. ... Hybrid Synergy Drive on a 2004 Toyota Prius. ...

  • Engine start: To start the engine, MG1 is fed negative voltage, so that it acts as a starter motor. The engine is forced into forward motion. Because both motor generators are sized to drive the entire car, turning the engine does not stress the motors and the conventional starter motor sound is not heard: engine start is silent. Engine start can occur when the car is stopped or moving.
  • Low gear (equivalent): When accelerating at low speeds in normal operation, the engine turns much more rapidly than the wheels, but does not develop as much torque as is needed. MG1 is forced rapidly backwards, and the computer pulls electricity from MG1. The electricity is shunted to MG2, adding torque at the driveshaft, so that the drive train develops power at low speed and high torque.
  • High gear (equivalent): When cruising at high speed, the engine turns more slowly than the wheels, but develops more torque than is needed. The computer pulls electricity from MG2, reducing the torque available at the wheels. The electricity is shunted to MG1, which boosts the speed of the driveshaft. Because the engine supplies mechanical energy to the whole system, conservation of energy is not violated: the power that is shunted from MG2 to MG1 is less than the total power developed by the engine, and so power is delivered to the wheels.
  • Reverse gear: There is no reverse gear as in a conventional gearbox: the computer feeds negative voltage to MG2, applying negative torque to the wheels. Early models did not supply enough torque for some situations: there have been reports of early Prius owners not being able to back the car up steep hills in San Francisco. The problem has been fixed in recent models. If the battery is low, the system can simultaneously run the engine and draw power from MG1, although this will reduce available reverse torque at the wheels.
  • Silent operation: At slow speeds and moderate torques the HSD can drive without running the gasoline engine at all: electricity is supplied only to MG2, allowing MG1 to rotate freely (and thus decoupling the engine from the wheels). This is popularly known as "Stealth Mode." Provided that there is enough battery power, the car can be driven in this silent mode for some miles even without gasoline.
  • Neutral gear: Most jurisdictions require automotive transmissions to have a neutral gear that decouples the engine and transmission. The HSD "neutral gear" is achieved by breaking the electrical connection to both MG1 and MG2. Under this condition, MG1 is free running and no torque can be delivered to the wheels (MG1 rotates backwards when the engine rotates forward).
  • Regenerative braking: by drawing power from MG2 and depositing it into the battery pack, the HSD can simulate normal compression braking while saving the power for future boost. The HSD system has a special transmission setting labelled 'B' (for Brake), that takes the place of a conventional automatic transmission's 'L' setting for engine braking on hills. If the battery is full, the system switches to conventional compression braking, drawing power from MG2 and shunting it to MG1, speeding the engine with throttle closed and so slowing the vehicle. The regenerative brakes in an HSD system absorb a significant amount of the normal braking load, so the conventional brakes on HSD vehicles are undersized compared to brakes on a conventional car of similar mass.
  • Electric boost: The battery pack provides a reservoir of energy that allows the computer to match the demand on the engine to a predetermined optimal load curve, rather than operating at the torque and speed demanded by the driver and road. The computer manages the energy level stored in the battery, so as to have capacity to absorb extra energy where needed or supply extra energy to boost engine power.
  • Battery charging: The HSD can charge its battery without moving the car, by running the engine and extracting electrical power from MG1. The power gets shunted into the battery, and no torque is supplied to the wheels.

In 1903, the first U.S. patent for an automobile electric self-starter was issued to Clyde J. Coleman of New York City (No. ... In physics, mechanical energy describes the potential energy and kinetic energy present in the components of a mechanical system. ... Conservation of energy states that the total amount of energy in an isolated system remains constant, although it may change forms (for instance, friction turns kinetic energy into thermal energy). ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... A regenerative brake is an apparatus, a device or system which allows a vehicle to recapture and store part of the kinetic energy that would otherwise be lost to heat when braking. ... Engine braking is the act of using the energy-requiring compression stroke of the internal combustion engine to dissipate energy and slow down a vehicle. ... An automatic transmission is an automobile gearbox that can change gear ratios automatically as the vehicle moves, thus freeing the driver from having to shift gears manually. ... Engine braking is the act of using the energy-requiring compression stroke of the internal combustion engine to dissipate energy and slow down a vehicle. ... For the type of ferns known as brakes, see brake (fern). ...

Performance

The Toyota Prius has decent, but not sport-car-like, acceleration but has extremely high mileage for a mid sized four-door sedan: 45 mpg (US) is typical of brief city jaunts; 55 mpg is not uncommon, especially for extended drives (which allows the engine to warm up fully). This is noticeably less than twice the fuel efficiency of a similarly equipped four-door sedan with a conventional power train. Not all of the extra efficiency of the Prius is due to the HSD system: the Atkinson cycle engine itself was also designed specifically to minimize engine drag with an offset crankshaft to minimize piston drag during the power stroke, and a unique intake system to prevent drag caused by manifold vacuum versus the normal Otto cycle in most engines. Hybrid Synergy Drive The Toyota Prius is the first mass-produced and marketed hybrid automobile/car. ... The Atkinson cycle engine is a type of Internal combustion engine invented by James Atkinson in 1882. ... Crankshaft (red), pistons (gray) in their cylinders (blue), and flywheel (black) Continental engine marine crankshafts, 1942 Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ... A power stroke is, in general, the stroke of a cyclic motor which generates force. ... Manifold vacuum, or engine vacuum in an internal combustion engine is the difference in air pressure between the engines intake manifold and Earths atmosphere. ... The four-stroke cycle of an internal combustion engine is the cycle most commonly used for automotive and industrial purposes today ( cars and trucks, generators, etc). ...


The Highlander Hybrid (also sold as the Kluger in some countries) offers better performance compared to its non-hybrid version. The hybrid version goes from 0–60 mph in 7.2 seconds, trimming almost a second off the conventional version's time. Net hp is 268 hp compared with to the conventional 215 hp. Top speed for all Highlanders are limited to 112 mph. Typical fuel economy for the Highlander Hybrid rates between 27 and 31 mpg. A conventional Highlander is rated by the EPA with 19 city, 25 highway mpg. under the hood of a Highlander The Toyota Highlander (called Kluger in Japan and Australia) is a model of SUV assembled by Toyota Motor Corp. ...


Ford Motor Company independently developed a system with key technologies similar to Toyota's HSD technology in 2004. As a result, Ford licensed 21 patents from Toyota in exchange for patents relating to emissions technology.[1] It is currently offered in an SUV, the Ford Escape, though a hybrid Ford Fusion will be released with Ford's second-generation hybrid drivetrain in the future.[2] The four-cylinder hybrid Escape achieves an increase in mileage, and is rated by the EPA with a combined 34 mpg, a 36% improvement over other similar sized SUVs from Subaru and Honda (Forester and CR-V, 25 mpg combined).[3] Ford Motor Company is an American multinational corporation and the worlds third largest automaker after Toyota and General Motors, based on worldwide vehicle sales. ... A fourth-generation (2006-) Ford Explorer, the best-selling mid-size SUV in the United States A sport utility vehicle, or SUV, is a passenger vehicle which combines the towing capacity of a pickup truck with the passenger-carrying space of a minivan or station wagon. ... The Ford Escape (designated U204) is a compact crossover SUV sold by the automaker Ford Motor Company beginning in the 2001 model year and priced below the Ford Explorer. ... Ford Fusion is a name used on two different types of cars from the Ford Motor Company. ...


There have been reports in the press of hybrid power trains not living up to the EPA fuel efficiency claims. Fundamentally this is due to the artificial and unrealistic EPA testing procedure that manufacturers have learned to "game". The EPA testing procedure fails to recognize the sensitivity of hybrid mileage to driving style. The mileage boost depends on using the gasoline engine as efficiently as possible, which requires:

  • extended drives, especially in winter: Heating the internal cabin for the passengers runs counter to the design of the HSD. The HSD is designed to generate as little waste heat as possible. In a conventional car, this waste heat in winter is usually used to heat the internal cabin. In the Prius, running the heater will then require the engine to continue running to generate cabin-usable heat. This effect is most pronounced by turning the climate control (heater) off when at a stop when the engine is running. Normally the HSD control system will shut the engine off as it is not needed, and will not start it again until the generator reaches a maximum speed.
  • moderate acceleration: Because hybrid cars can throttle back or completely shut off the engine during moderate, but not rapid, acceleration, they are more sensitive than conventional cars to driving style. Hard acceleration forces the engine into a high-power state while moderate acceleration keeps the engine in a lower power, high efficiency state (augmented by battery boost).
  • gradual braking: Regenerative brakes re-use the energy of braking, but cannot absorb energy as fast as conventional brakes. Gradual braking recovers energy for re-use, boosting mileage; hard braking wastes the energy as heat, just as for a conventional car

Most HSD systems have batteries that are sized for maximal boost during a single acceleration from zero to the top speed of the vehicle; if there is more demand, the battery can be completely exhausted, so that this extra torque boost is not available. Then the system reverts to just the power available from the engine. This is a big difference in performance: an early-model Prius can achieve over 90 mph on a 6 degree upward slope, but after about 2,000 feet of altitude climb the battery is exhausted and the car can only achieve 55–60 mph on the same slope (until the battery is recharged by driving under less demanding circumstances).


Development

The basic design of the Toyota Hybrid System / Hybrid Synergy Drive has not changed since its introduction in the 1997 Japanese-market Toyota Prius, but there have been a number of refinements.


The original Prius used shrink-wrapped 1.2 volt D cells; all subsequent THS/HSD vehicles have used custom 7.2 V battery modules mounted in a carrier. There has been a continuous, gradual improvement in specific capacity.


The Toyota Hybrid System relied on the voltage of the battery pack — between 276 and 288 V. The Hybrid Synergy Drive adds a DC–DC converter boosting the potential of the battery to 500 V or more. This allows smaller battery packs to be used, and more powerful motors.


Although not part of the HSD as such, all HSD vehicles from the 2004 Prius onwards have been fitted with an electric air-conditioning compressor, instead of the conventional engine-driven type. This removes the need to continuously run the engine when cabin cooling is required. Although as noted above, the heat source for the climate control heater is still the gasoline engine and will run as long as heat is needed for the cabin.


Vehicles such as the Lexus RX 400h and Toyota Highlander Hybrid added four-wheel drive operation by the addition of a third electric motor ("MGR") on the rear axle. In this system, the rear axle is purely electrically powered, and there is no mechanical link between the engine and the rear wheels. This also permits regenerative braking on the rear wheels. In addition, the Motor (MG2) is linked to the front wheel transaxle by means of a second planetary gearset, thereby making it possible to increase the power density of the motor.


Ford has developed a similar hybrid system, introduced in the Ford Escape Hybrid. Ford Motor Company is an American multinational corporation and the worlds third largest automaker after Toyota and General Motors, based on worldwide vehicle sales. ... The Ford Escape Hybrid, launched in 2004, is a gas-electric hybrid powered version of the Ford Escape sport utility vehicle developed by the Ford Motor Company. ...


The latest addition to the family of Hybrid Synergy Drivetrains is used in the Lexus GS 450h / LS 600h. This system uses two clutches (or brakes) to switch the second motors gear ratio to the wheels between a ratio of 3.9 and 1.9, for low and high speed driving regimes respectively. This decreases the power flowing from MG1 to MG2 (or vice versa) during higher speeds. The electrical path is only about 70% efficient, thus decreasing the power flow there increases the overall performance of the transmission. The second planetary gearset is extended with a second carrier and sun gear to a ravigneaux-type gear with 4 shafts, two of which can be held still alternatively by a brake/clutch.


Third generation

The third generation hybrid system from Toyota is expected to debut in the 2009 Toyota Prius, due out in late 2008 or early 2009. It will use lithium-ion batteries for greater energy density, resulting in better performance and less weight. Hybrid Synergy Drive The Toyota Prius is the first mass-produced and marketed hybrid automobile/car. ... Lithium ion batteries (sometimes abbreviated Li-Ion) are a type of rechargeable battery commonly used in consumer electronics. ...


Toyota CEO Katsuaki Watanabe confirmed this in an interview with BusinessWeek on February 16, 2007. "We are now aiming at reducing, by half, both size and cost of the third-generation hybrid system," said Watanabe. [4] Katsuaki Watanabe (born 1942) is president of Toyota Motor Corporation. ... BusinessWeek is a business magazine published by McGraw-Hill. ...


Image File history File links THS_evol_1. ... Image File history File links THS_evol_2. ... Image File history File links THS_evol_3. ...


List of vehicles with HSD

¹Lexus Hybrid Drive

Hybrid Synergy Drive The Toyota Prius is the first mass-produced and marketed hybrid automobile/car. ... The Lexus RX 400h is an automobile assembled by Toyota Motor Corp. ... under the hood of a Highlander The Toyota Highlander (called Kluger in Japan and Australia) is a model of SUV assembled by Toyota Motor Corp. ... The Lexus GS is a rear-wheel drive, luxury sports sedan manufactured by the Toyota Motor Corp. ... 2007 Toyota Camry Hybrid The Toyota Camry Hybrid is a hybrid version of Toyotas popular Camry sedan, introduced for the 2007 model year in May 2006. ... The Lexus LS is a full-size luxury sedan that serves as the flagship of Lexus, the luxury division of Toyota. ...

Controversy

As of autumn 2005, the Antonov Automotive Technology BV Plc company has sued Toyota, the Lexus brand mother company, over alleged patent infringement relating to key components in the RX 400h's drivetrain and the Toyota Prius hybrid compact car. The case has been pending in secret since April 2005, but settlement negotiations did not bring a mutually acceptable result. Antonov eventually took legal recourse in the German court system, where decisions are usually made relatively swiftly. The patent holder seeks to impose a levy on each vehicle sold, which could make the hybrid SUV less competitive. Toyota fought back by seeking to officially invalidate Antonov's relevant patents. The court motion in Winword document format can be read here. Toyota Motor Corporation ), or Toyota is a Japanese multinational corporation and the worlds largest automaker by sales revenue as of 2007[3]. Together with its half-owned subsidiary Daihatsu, the company was the worlds second largest auto company by revenue of $179 billion and total vehicle production, most...


On 1st September 2006 Antonov announced: The Board of Antonov plc announces that the Federal Patent Court in Munich has not upheld the validity of the German part of Antonov's patent (EP0414782) against Toyota. A few days earlier, a court in Dusseldorf had ruled that the Toyota Prius driveline breached the Antonov hybrid CVT patent. Equivalent patents are still in force in various countries worldwide. The position is therefore that of a Mexican standoff, with the Toyota Prius probably breaching the Antonov hybrid CVT patents outside Europe, Antonov PLC lacking the financial muscle to enforce their patents, and Toyota prepared to try to get the Antonov patents cancelled elsewhere if Antonov tries to enforce them. Reference Toyota gets Antonov hybrid CVT patent cancelled in Europe.


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
HSD

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... References (1) http://www. ... Honda Insight, a hybrid gas-electric vehicle 2004 Toyota Prius, a hybrid gas-electric vehicle A hybrid vehicle uses multiple energy sources or propulsion systems to provide motive power. ... An inverter is an electronic circuit for converting direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC). ... A power IGBT The Insulated (or sometimes called Isolated) Gate Bipolar Transistor combines the simple gate drive characteristics of the MOSFET with the high current and low saturation voltage capability of bipolar transistors by combining an isolated gate FET for the control input, and a bipolar power transistor as a... Small Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) A variable-frequency drive (VFD) is a system for controlling the rotational speed of an alternating current (AC) electric motor by controlling the frequency of the electrical power supplied to the motor. ... Global Hybrid Cooperation (formerly called Advanced Hybrid System 2 or AHS2) is a set of hybrid vehicle technologies jointly developed by General Motors and DaimlerChrysler, with BMW joining in 2005. ... Integrated Motor Assist (commonly abbreviated as IMA) is Hondas hybrid car technology, introduced in 1999 on the Insight. ... This is a list of hybrid vehicles in chronological order of production: // 1907 AL (French car) 1989 Audi 100 Duo 1994 Audi 80 Duo 1996 AC Propulsion tzero (primarily electric vehicle; 80 mile PbA, 300 mile Li-ion(2003) EV-mode) 1997 Toyota Prius (first commercially mass-produced and marketed...

References

  1. ^ http://www.businessweek.com/innovate/NussbaumOnDesign/archives/2005/11/is_ford_innovat_1.html
  2. ^ http://media.ford.com/article_display.cfm?article_id=21988&make_id=trust
  3. ^ http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/byclass/Sport_Utility_Vehicle2007.shtml
  4. ^ http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/07_10/b4024075.htm

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Hybrid Synergy Drive - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2442 words)
Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD) is a set of hybrid car technologies developed by Toyota and used in that company's Prius, Highlander Hybrid, Camry Hybrid, Lexus RX 400h, and Lexus GS 450h automobiles.
The Synergy Drive is a drive-by-wire system with no direct mechanical connection between the engine and the engine controls: both the gas pedal and the gearshift lever in an HSD car merely send electrical signals to a control computer.
HSD replaces the gear box, alternator and starter motor with a pair of electrical motor-generators, a computerized shunt system to control them, a mechanical power splitter that acts as a second differential, and a battery pack that serves as an energy reservoir.
New Toyota Camry Hybrid - Hybrid Synergy Drive - car magazine, auto reviews at motiontrends.com (304 words)
Hybrid Synergy Drive consists of dual gas and electric power sources that are complementary and produce a combined 192 horsepower.
The second half of the Hybrid Synergy Drive equation consists of a small, specially developed electric drive motor that produces 45 horsepower, an ultra-small inverter with a specially designed compact battery and a transaxle to provide the economy and seamless performance hybrid drivers seek.
Because there are situations in daily driving in which the gas engine in a Toyota hybrid is completely shut down, air-conditioning and power-steering systems are driven electrically, rather than by the engine.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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