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Encyclopedia > Hussite Wars
Hussite Wars
Date 1420–34
Location Central Europe
Result Inconclusive
Protestant Reformation
The Reformation
History and origins
History of Protestantism
Movements and denominations
Protestantism
Protestant Reformers
Precursors

See also Template:Protestant The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade. ... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim... // The Crusade of 1101 was a minor crusade of three separate movements, organized in 1100 and 1101 in the successful aftermath of the First Crusade. ... The fall of Edessa, seen here on the right of this map (c. ... The Third Crusade (1189–1192), also known as the Kings Crusade, was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin. ... The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (Eugène Delacroix, 1840). ... 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The Aragonese Crusade or Crusade of Aragón was declared by Pope Martin IV against the king of Aragón, Peter III the Great, in 1284 and 1285. ... The Alexandrian Crusade of October 1365[1] was a seaborne[2] Crusade on Alexandria led by Peter I of Cyprus. ... // Combatants Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Hungary, France, Wallachia, Holy Roman Empire Commanders Bayezid I Sigismund of Hungary, John of Nevers #, Mircea the Elder Strength About 100,000 About 100,000 estimated to be more due capabilites of the coilition (120,000-200,000) Casualties About 35,000 About 35,000... The Teutonic knights in Pskov in 1240. ... The Crusade of Varna was a string of events in 1443-1444 between the Kingdom of Hungary, the Serbian Despotate, and the Ottoman Empire. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Naples Kingdom of Aragon Kingdom of Hungary Commanders Gedik Ahmed Pasha Francesco Largo † Alphonso II of Naples Strength Between 18,000 and 100,000 men. ... Combatants Hussites Royalist forces Commanders Jan Žižka Bohuslav of Svamberg Strength war wagons with 400 infantry 2,000 cavalry Casualties (unknown) Heavy One of several raids carried out by Bohemian Royalist forces, commanded by Bohuslav of Svamberg, against Jan Zizkas Hussite troops. ... Combatants Hussites Catholics Commanders Jan Žižka  ? Strength Casualties The Battle of Sudomer was fought on March 25, 1420, between Catholic and Hussite forces. ... Combatants Holy Roman Empire Hussites Commanders Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor Jan Zizka Strength 50,000-100,000 (100,000-200,000) 12,000 Casualties 300 knights Unknown The Battle of Vítkov Hill was a part of the Hussite Wars. ... This article has been listed as needing cleanup for over two months. ... The Battle of Nebovidy was fought on January 6, 1422 between the Holy Roman Empire and the Hussites. ... The Battle of NÄ›mecký Brod took place on 10 January 1422, in NÄ›mecký Brod (Deutstschbrod). ... Combatants Taborites Utraquists Commanders Jan Žižka Cenek of Wartemberg Strength Casualties The Battle of Horic was fought on April 27, 1423, between the Taborite and Utraquist factions of the Hussites. ... The Battle of Usti nad Labem was fought on June 16, 1426, between the Holy Roman Empire and the Hussites. ... The Battle of Tachov was a battle fought on 4 August 1427 in the present day Czech town of Tachov. ... Battle of Lipany, Hussite Wars, 1434. ... The Battle of Grotniki was a battle that took place on May 3, 1439 in south of Poland. ... Image File history File links 95Thesen. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For other uses, see... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For other uses, see... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The 95 Theses. ... Peasants War map. ... The Schmalkaldic League was a defensive league of Protestant princes in the Holy Roman Empire in the mid-16th century. ... The Radical Reformation was a 16th century response to both the perceived corruption in the Roman Catholic Church and the expanding Protestant movement led by Martin Luther. ... A denomination, in the Christian sense of the word, is an identifiable religious body under a common name, structure, and/or doctrine. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms... 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The Protestant Reformation in Switzerland was promoted initially by Huldrych Zwingli, who gained the support of the magistrate and population of Zürich in the 1520s. ... -1... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism is a theological... Anabaptists (Greek ανα (again) +βαπτιζω (baptize), thus, re-baptizers[1], German: Wiedertäufer) are Christians of the Radical Reformation. ... The Mennonites are a group of Christian Anabaptist denominations named after and influenced by the teachings and tradition of Menno Simons (1496-1561). ... King Henry VIII of England The English Reformation refers to the series of events in sixteenth century England by which the church in England broke away from the authority of the Pope and consequently the entire Catholic church; it formed part of the wider Protestant Reformation, a religious and political... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Anglicanism is the term used to encapsulate... 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John Jewel (sometimes spelled Jewell) (May 24, 1522 - September 23, 1571), bishop of Salisbury, son of John Jewel of Buden, Devon, was educated under his uncle John Bellamy, rector of Hampton, and other private tutors until his matriculation at Merton College, Oxford, in July 1535. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total... For other persons named John Knox, see John Knox (disambiguation). ... 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The Papal palace in Avignon In the history of the Roman Catholic Church, the Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1377 during which seven popes, all French, resided in Avignon: Pope Clement V: 1305–1314 Pope John XXII: 1316–1334 Pope Benedict XII: 1334–1342 Pope Clement VI... Historical map of the Western Schism. ... The Council of Constance was an ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church, called by the Emperor Sigismund, a supporter of Antipope John XXIII, the pope recently elected at Pisa. ... The Northern Renaissance is the term used to describe the Renaissance in northern Europe, or more broadly in Europe outside Italy. ... German Mysticism (Sometimes called Dominican mysticism or Rhineland mysticism) is the name given to a christian mystical movement in the Late Middle Ages, that was especially prominent in Germany, and in the Dominican order. ...

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The Hussite Wars, also called the Bohemian Wars involved the military actions against and amongst the followers of Jan Hus in Bohemia in the period 1420 to circa 1434. The Hussite Wars were arguably the first European war in which hand-held gunpowder weapons such as muskets made a decisive contribution. The Hussite warriors were basically infantry, and their many defeats of larger armies with heavily armoured knights helped effect the infantry revolution. In the end, it was an inconclusive war. Jan Hus ( ) (IPA: , alternative spellings John Hus, Jan Huss, John Huss) (c. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Events May 21 - Treaty of Troyes. ... Events May 30, Battle of Lipany in the Hussite Wars Jan van Eyck paints the wedding of Giovanni Arnoflini The Honorable Passing of Arms at the bridge of Obrigo The Portuguese reach Cape Bojador in Western Sahara. ... Smokeless powder Gunpowder is an explosive mixture that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot gas which can be used as a propellant in firearms. ... Muskets and bayonets aboard the frigate Grand Turk. ... The Hussites comprised a Christian movement following the teachings of the reformer Jan Hus (circa 1369–1415), who was influenced by John Wyclif and became one of the forerunners of the Protestant Reformation. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, bicycles, or other means. ...

Contents

Origins

The Hussite movement assumed a revolutionary character as soon as the news of the execution of Jan Hus by order of the Council of Constance (6 July 1415) reached Prague. The knights and nobles of Bohemia and Moravia, who were in favour of church reform, sent a protest to the Council of Constance on (2 September 1415), known as the protestatio Bohemorum, which condemned the execution of Hus in the strongest language. The attitude of Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, who sent threatening letters to Bohemia declaring that he would shortly drown all Wycliffites and Hussites, greatly incensed the people. Jan Hus ( ) (IPA: , alternative spellings John Hus, Jan Huss, John Huss) (c. ... The Council of Constance was an ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church, called by the Emperor Sigismund, a supporter of Antipope John XXIII, the pope recently elected at Pisa. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Friedrich I Hohenzollern (b. ... Nickname: Motto: Praga Caput Rei publicae Location within the Czech Republic Coordinates: , Country Czech Republic Region Capital City of Prague Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Pavel Bém Area  - City 496 km²  (191. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech RepublicCzechia. ... September 2 is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Friedrich I Hohenzollern (b. ... Sigismund, aged approximately 50, depicted by unknown artist in the 1420s — the only contemporary portrait. ... Wycliffe may also refer to Wycliffe Bible Translators John Wyclif (also Wycliffe or Wycliff) (c. ...


Troubles broke out in various parts of Bohemia, and drove many Catholic priests from their parishes. Almost from the first the Hussites divided into two groups, though many minor divisions also arose among them. Shortly before his death Hus had accepted a doctrine preached during his absence by his adherents at Prague, namely that of Utraquism, or the obligation of the faithful to receive communion in both kinds (sub utraque specie). This doctrine became the watchword of the moderate Hussites known as the Utraquists or Calixtines, from the Latin calix (the chalice), in Czech kališníci (from kalich); while the more extreme Hussites soon became known as the Taborites (táborité), named after the city of Tábor that became their centre; or Orphans (sirotci) a name they adopted after the death of their beloved leader and general Jan Žižka. The Utraquists (Both-kinders) were moderate followers of Jan Hus, who maintained that the Eucharist should be administered to the people in both kinds, i. ... The Utraquists (Both-kinders) were moderate followers of Jan Hus, who maintained that the Eucharist should be administered to the people in both kinds, i. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... A Taborite (Czech Táborita) was a member of religious protestant community of the Bohemian city of Tábor during the Hussite Wars in the 15th century The people joined local peasants to develop a communist-like society. ... SW corner of the Žižka square as viewed from the church tower. ... Alternative uses: see orphan (typesetting), and orphan process in computing. ... Jan Žižka (or John Zizka of Trocnov or Johann Ziska Czech: Jan Žižka z Trocnova) (c. ...


Under the influence of his brother Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, King Wenceslaus IV of Bohemia endeavoured to stem the Hussite movement. A certain number of Hussites led by Nicolas of Hus — no relation of Jan Hus, though of the same town — left Prague. They held meetings in various parts of Bohemia, particularly at Sezimovo Usti (not to be confused with Usti nad Labem), near the spot where the town of Tábor was founded soon afterwards. At these meetings they violently denounced Sigismund, and the people everywhere prepared for war. The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Wenceslaus (German: Wenzel; sometimes known as the Drunkard, Czech: Václav IV) of the house of Luxembourg (born February 26, 1361, died August 16, 1419) succeeded his father Charles IV as Holy Roman Emperor (ruled 1378 - 1400) and as king of Bohemia (ruled 1378 - 1419). ... Ústí nad Labem (German: Aussig) is a city of the Czech Republic, in the Usti nad Labem Region. ... SW corner of the Žižka square as viewed from the church tower. ...


In spite of the departure of many prominent Hussites the troubles at Prague continued. On 30 July 1419, when a Hussite procession headed by the priest Jan Zelivsky marched through the streets of Prague, anti-Hussites threw stones at the Hussites from the windows of the town-hall of the ‘new town’. The people, headed by Jan Žižka, threw the burgomaster and several town-councillors, who had instigated this outrage, from the windows (the first "Defenestration of Prague"), whereupon the crowd killed them immediately. On hearing this news King Wenceslaus succumbed to an apoplectic fit, and died a few days afterwards (16 August 1419). is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 19 – Hundred Years War: Rouen surrenders to Henry V of England which brings Normandy under the control of England. ... Jan Želivský (1380 - 9 March 1422) was a Czech priest and a radical representative of the Hussite reformation. ... The New Town Hall (Czech: NovomÄ›stská radnice) is the administrative centre of Pragues (medieval) New Town Quarter, or Nové MÄ›sto. In 1419 it was the site of the first of the three defenestrations of Prague. ... Jan Žižka (or John Zizka of Trocnov or Johann Ziska Czech: Jan Žižka z Trocnova) (c. ... The Defenestrations of Prague can refer to either of two incidents in the history of Bohemia. ... Apoplexy is an old-fashioned medical term, generally used interchangeably with cerebrovascular accident (CVA or stroke) but having other meanings as well. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 19 – Hundred Years War: Rouen surrenders to Henry V of England which brings Normandy under the control of England. ...


The outbreak of fighting

Hussite War Wagons and Hand Cannoneers
Hussite War Wagons and Hand Cannoneers
Hussite War Wagons

The death of the king resulted in renewed troubles in Prague and in almost all parts of Bohemia. Many Catholics, mostly Germans — for they had almost all remained faithful to the papal cause — suffered expulsion from the Bohemian cities. In Prague, in November 1419, severe fighting took place between the Hussites and the mercenaries whom Queen Sophia (widow of Wenceslaus and regent after the death of her husband) had hurriedly collected. After a considerable part of the city had been destroyed, the parties declared a truce on 13 November. The nobles, who though favourable to the Hussite cause supported the regent, promised to act as mediators with Sigismund, while the citizens of Prague consented to restore to the royal forces the castle of Vysehrad, which had fallen into their hands. Žižka, who disapproved of this compromise, left Prague and retired to Plzen. Unable to maintain himself there he marched to southern Bohemia, and after defeating the Catholics at the battle of Sudomer (25 March 1420) in the first pitched battle of the Hussite wars, he arrived at Usti, one of the earliest meeting-places of the Hussites. Not considering its situation sufficiently strong, he moved to the neighbouring new settlement of the Hussites, called by the biblical name of Tábor. Image File history File links Hussite_Wars. ... Image File history File links Hussite_Wars. ... Image File history File links Wagonformation. ... Image File history File links Wagonformation. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Vyšehrad is a castle built on a hill over the Vltava River in the 10th century. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Combatants Hussites Catholics Commanders Jan Žižka  ? Strength Casualties The Battle of Sudomer was fought on March 25, 1420, between Catholic and Hussite forces. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 21 - Treaty of Troyes. ... SW corner of the Žižka square as viewed from the church tower. ...


Tabor soon became the centre of the advanced Hussites, who differed from the Utraquists by recognizing only two sacraments - Baptism and Communion - and by rejecting most of the ceremony of the Roman Catholic Church. The ecclesiastical organization of Tabor had a somewhat puritanical character, and the government was established on a thoroughly democratic basis. Four captains of the people (hejtmané) were elected, one of whom was Žižka; and a very strictly military discipline was instituted. Baptism in early Christian art. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ...


Wagenburg tactics

Main article: Wagenburg

Depending on the terrain, Hussites prepared carts for the battle, forming them into squares or circles. The carts were joined wheel to wheel by chains and positioned aslant, with their corners attached to each other, so that horses could be harnessed to them quickly, if necessary. In front of this wall of carts a ditch was dug by camp followers. The crew of each cart consisted of 18-21 soldiers: 4-8 crossbowmen, 2 handgunners, 6-8 soldiers equipped with pikes or flails (the flail was the Hussite "national weapon"), 2 shield carriers and 2 drivers. The Hussite Wagenburg For the trailer park Wagenburg, see trailer park. ... Ditches at the Ouse Washes nature reserve. ... A Norwegian soldier (a Corporal, armed with an MP-5) A soldier is a person who has enlisted with, or has been conscripted into, the armed forces of a sovereign country and has undergone training and received equipment to defend that country or its interests. ... 15th century French soldier wearing a helmet and a hauberk, carrying a crossbow/arbalest and a pavise. ... A Browning 9 millimeter Hi-Power Ordnance pistol of the French Navy, 19th century, using a Percussion cap mechanism Derringers were small and easily hidden. ... A modern recreation of a mid-17th century company of pikemen. ... Flail The flail is a medieval weapon made of one (or more) weights attached to a handle with a hinge or chain. ...


The Hussites' battle consisted of two stages, the first defensive, the second an offensive counterattack. In the first stage the army placed the carts near the enemy army and by means of artillery fire provoked the enemy into battle. The artillery would usually inflict heavy casualties at close range.


In order to avoid more losses, the enemy knights finally attacked. Then the infantry hidden behind the carts used firearms and crossbows to ward off the attack, weakening the enemy. The shooters aimed first at the horses, depriving the cavalry of its main advantage. Many of the knights died as their horses were shot and they fell.


As soon as the enemy's morale was lowered, the second stage, an offensive counterattack, began. The infantry and the cavalry burst out from behind the carts striking violently at the enemy - mostly from the flanks. While fighting on the flanks and being shelled from the carts the enemy was not able to put up much resistance. They were forced to withdraw, leaving behind dismounted knights in heavy armor who were unable to escape the battlefield. The enemy armies suffered heavy losses and the Hussites soon had the reputation of not taking captives.


The first anti-Hussite crusade

After the death of his childless brother Wenceslaus, Sigismund had acquired a claim on the Bohemian crown, though it was then, and remained till much later, in question whether Bohemia was an hereditary or an elective monarchy. A firm adherent of the Church of Rome, Sigismund was successful in obtaining aid from Pope Martin V, who issued a bull on 17 March 1420 which proclaimed a crusade “for the destruction of the Wycliffites, Hussites and all other heretics in Bohemia". Sigismund and many German princes arrived before Prague on 30 June at the head of a vast army of crusaders from all parts of Europe, largely consisting of adventurers attracted by the hope of pillage. They immediately began a siege of the city, which had, however, soon to be abandoned. Negotiations took place for a settlement of the religious differences. The united Hussites formulated their demands in a statement known as the “Four Articles of Prague". This document, the most important of the Hussite period, ran, in the wording of the contemporary chronicler, Laurence of Brezova, as follows: Martin V, né Oddone Colonna or Odo Colonna (1368 – February 20, 1431), Pope from 1417 to 1431, was elected on St. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 21 - Treaty of Troyes. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Look up Heresy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Nickname: Motto: Praga Caput Rei publicae Location within the Czech Republic Coordinates: , Country Czech Republic Region Capital City of Prague Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Pavel Bém Area  - City 496 km²  (191. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... The Hussites comprised a Christian movement following the teachings of the reformer Jan Hus (circa 1369–1415), who was influenced by John Wyclif and became one of the forerunners of the Protestant Reformation. ...


1. The word of God shall be preached and made known in the kingdom of Bohemia freely and in an orderly manner by the priests of the Lord.


2. The sacrament of the most Holy Eucharist shall be freely administered in the two kinds, that is bread and wine, to all the faithful in Christ who are not precluded by mortal sin - according to the word and disposition of Our Saviour.


3. The secular power over riches and worldly goods which the clergy possesses in contradiction to Christ’s precept, to the prejudice of its office and to the detriment of the secular arm, shall be taken and withdrawn from it, and the clergy itself shall be brought back to the evangelical rule and an apostolic life such as that which Christ and his apostles led.


4. All mortal sins, and in particular all public and other disorders, which are contrary to God’s law shall in every rank of life be duly and judiciously prohibited and destroyed by those whose office it is.


These articles, which contain the essence of the Hussite doctrine, were rejected by Sigismund, mainly through the influence of the papal legates, who considered them prejudicial to the authority of the Roman see. Hostilities therefore continued. Though Sigismund had retired from Prague, the castles of Vysehrad and Hradcany remained in possession of his troops. The citizens of Prague laid siege to the Vysehrad (see Battle of Vysehrad), and towards the end of October (1420) the garrison was on the point of capitulating through famine. Sigismund attempted to relieve the fortress, but was decisively defeated by the Hussites on 1 November near the village of Pankrác. The castles of Vysehrad and Hradcany now capitulated, and shortly afterwards almost all Bohemia fell into the hands of the Hussites. A papal Legate, from the Decretals of Boniface VIII (1294 to 1303). ... Vyšehrad is a castle built on a hill over the Vltava River in the 10th century. ... Categories: Czechia geography stubs | Prague ... This article has been listed as needing cleanup for over two months. ... A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... Pankrác is a borough of Prague, Czech Republic. ...


The second anti-Hussite crusade

Internal troubles prevented the followers of Hus from fully capitalising on their victory. At Prague a demagogue, the priest Jan Zelivsky, for a time obtained almost unlimited authority over the lower classes of the townsmen; and at Tabor a religious communistic movement (that of the so-called Adamites) was sternly suppressed by Žižka. Shortly afterwards a new crusade against the Hussites was undertaken. A large German army entered Bohemia and in August 1421 laid siege to the town of Zatec. After an unsuccessful attempt of storming the city, the crusaders retreated somewhat ingloriously on hearing that the Hussite troops were approaching. Sigismund only arrived in Bohemia at the end of the year 1421. He took possession of the town of Kutná Hora but was decisively defeated by Jan Žižka at the battle of Nemecky Brod (Deutschbrod) on 6 January 1422. Jan Želivský (1380 - 9 March 1422) was a Czech priest and a radical representative of the Hussite reformation. ... . Žatec (German: Saaz) is a city of the Czech Republic, in the Usti nad Labem Region of Bohemia. ... Kutná Hora (help· info) medieval Czech: Hory Kutné) is a city in the Czech Republic, in Central Bohemian Region of Bohemia. ... Jan Žižka (or John Zizka of Trocnov or Johann Ziska Czech: Jan Žižka z Trocnova) (c. ... The Battle of Nemecky Brod took place on 10 January 1422, in Nemecky Brod (Deutstschbrod). ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 10 - Battle of Nemecky Brod during the Hussite Wars. ...


Civil war

Bohemia was for a time free from foreign intervention, but internal discord again broke out, caused partly by theological strife and partly by the ambition of agitators. Jan Želivský was on 9 March 1422 arrested by the town council of Prague and decapitated. There were troubles at Tábor also, where a more advanced party opposed Žižka's authority. Bohemia obtained a temporary respite when, in 1422, Prince Sigismund Korybut of Lithuania (nephew of King Ladislaus II Jagiello of Poland) briefly became ruler of the country. He was a governor sent by the Grand Duke of Lithuania, Vytautas, who accepted the Hussite proposal to be their new king. His authority was recognized by the Utraquist nobles, the citizens of Prague, and the more moderate Taborites. Sigismund Korybut, however, remained a short time in Bohemia, as in 1423 he was called to come back to Lithuania, after Jagiello had made a treaty with Sigismund. On his departure, civil war broke out, the Taborites opposing in arms the more moderate Utraquists, who at this period are also called by the chroniclers the "Praguers", as Prague was their principal stronghold. On 27 April 1423, Žižka now again leading, the Taborites defeated the Utraquist army under Čeněk of Wartenberg at the battle of Horic; and shortly afterwards an armistice was concluded at Konopilt. March 9 is the 68th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (69th in leap years). ... Events January 10 - Battle of Nemecky Brod during the Hussite Wars. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Jagiellon dynasty had multiple individuals whose first name was spelled differently in multiple European countries. ... The presumable banner of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the coat of arms, called Пагоня in Belarusian, Vytis in Lithuanian and Pogoń in Polish Another version of the Lithuanian banner The Grand Duchy of Lithuania ( Lithuanian: Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštyst... Vytautas the Great - engraving of XVI ct. ... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... Events July 31 - Hundred Years War: Battle of Cravant - The French army is defeated at Cravant on the banks of the river Yonne. ... ÄŒenÄ›k of Wartenberg (German: Vinzenz von Wartenberg) was a commander of the Royalist Bohemian forces at the start of the Hussite Wars. ... Combatants Taborites Utraquists Commanders Jan Žižka Cenek of Wartemberg Strength Casualties The Battle of Horic was fought on April 27, 1423, between the Taborite and Utraquist factions of the Hussites. ...


The third anti-Hussite crusade

Papal influence had meanwhile succeeded in calling forth a new crusade against Bohemia, but it resulted in complete failure. In spite of the endeavours of their rulers, Poles and Lithuanians did not wish to attack the kindred Czechs; the Germans were prevented by internal discord from taking joint action against the Hussites; and the King of Denmark, who had landed in Germany with a large force intending to take part in the crusade, soon returned to his own country. Free for a time from foreign aggression, the Hussites invaded Moravia, where a large part of the population favoured their creed; but, paralysed again by dissensions, they soon returned to Bohemia. The city of Hradec Králové, which had been under Utraquist rule, espoused the doctrine of Tabor, and called Žižka to its aid. After several military successes gained by Žižka in 1423 and the following year, a treaty of peace between the Hussites was concluded on 13 September 1424 at Liben, a village near Prague, now part of that city. Hradec Králové (help· info) (German: Königgrätz) is a city of the Czech Republic, in the Hradec Králové Region of Bohemia. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... August 17 - Battle of Verneuil - An English force under John, Duke of Bedford defeats a larger French army under the Duke of Alençon, John Stewart, and Earl Archibald of Douglas. ...


Campaigns of 1426 and 1427

In 1426 the Hussites were again attacked by foreign enemies. In June of that year their forces, led by Prokop the Great - who took the command of the Taborites shortly after Žižka's death in October 1424 - and Sigismund Korybut, who had returned to Bohemia, signally defeated the Germans at Usti nad Labem. After this great victory, and another at the Battle of Tachov in 1427, the Hussites repeatedly invaded Germany, though they made no attempt to occupy permanently any part of the country. Prokop the Great (Czech: Prokop Veliký; d. ... Ústí nad Labem (German: Aussig) is a city of the Czech Republic, in the Usti nad Labem Region. ... The Battle of Tachov was a battle fought on 4 August 1427 in the present day Czech town of Tachov. ...


Polish and Lithuanian involvement

From 1421 to 1427 the Hussites received military support from the Poles. Poland, though a devoutly Catholic nation, was supporting the Hussites on non-religious grounds. Poland's motive was revenge against Germany for the Polish-Lithuanian-Teutonic War (1409-1411). Because of this, Jan Žižka arranged for the crown of Bohemia to be offered to Jagiello, the King of Poland, who, under pressure from his own advisors, refused it. The crown was then offered to Grand Duke Vytautas of Lithuania and Vytautas accepted it, with the condition that the Hussites reunite with the Catholic Church. In 1422, Žižka accepted the Polish king's nephew, Sigismund Korybut, as regent of Bohemia for Vytautas. Korybut never managed to return the Hussites to the Catholic Church; and he even had to resort to force of arms when dealing with the various factions. Korybut did not tolerate the Protestant rebels breaking their promise of reuniting with the Catholic Church. On a few occasions, he even fought against both the Taborites and the Oreborites to try to force them into reuniting. Large scale Polish involvement was ended in 1427 when Korybut was arrested by the Hussites after Polish plans to hand over the Hussite forces to Emperor Sigismund were discovered. The Poles, however, did not really want to withdraw; the only reason they did is because the Pope planned to call a crusade against Poland if they did not. The Polish-Lithuanian-Teutonic War occurred between 1409 and 1411, pitting the Polish Commonwealth and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania against the Teutonic Order of Knights. ... The Jagiellons were a royal dynasty which reigned in some Central European countries between the 14th and 16th century. ... Vytautas the Great, 17th century painting Trakai Island Castle A statue in Vytautas birthplace Vytautas the Great (Lithuanian:  ; Belarusian: ; Ruthenian: Vitovt; Latin: Alexander Vitoldus; ca. ... Events January 10 - Battle of Nemecky Brod during the Hussite Wars. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A Taborite (Czech Táborita) was a member of religious protestant community of the Bohemian city of Tábor during the Hussite Wars in the 15th century The people joined local peasants to develop a communist-like society. ... Events Lincoln College, a constituent college of the University of Oxford, is founded. ...


Beautiful rides

Spanilé jízdy, or beautiful rides, as the Hussites called them, were undertaken in many different foreign lands. Throughout the Hussite Wars, especially under the leadership of Prokop the Great, invasions were made into Silesia, Saxony, Hungary, Lusatia, and Meissen. Every raid that the Hussites carried out was against a country that had supplied the Germans with men during the anti-Hussite crusades. These raids were made to try to strike enough fear in these areas to make sure that they would not help out the Germans again. However, the raids did not have the desired effect; these countries kept supplying soldiers to the crusade against the Hussites. During yet another war between Poland and the Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights, some Hussite raiders helped the Poles. In 1433, a Hussite army of 7000 fighting men marched through Neumark into Prussia and captured Dirschau on the Vistula River. They would eventually reach the mouth of the Vistula where it enters the Baltic Sea near Danzig. There, they performed a great victory celebration to show that nothing but the ocean could stop the Hussites. The Prussian historian Heinrich von Treitschke would later write that they had "greeted the sea with a wild Czech song about God's warriors, and filled their water bottles with brine in token that the Baltic once more obeyed the Slavs." Silesia (Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlónsk) is a historical region in central Europe. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... Lusatia (German Lausitz, Upper Sorbian Łužica, Lower Sorbian Łužyca, Polish Łużyce, Czech Lužice) is a historical region between the Bóbr and Kwisa rivers and the Elbe river in the eastern German states of Saxony and Brandenburg, south-western Poland (Lower Silesian Voivodeship) and the northern... Old town of Meißen. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Tczew (Kashubian: Derszowo; German Dirschau) is a town on the river Vistula in Eastern Pomerania region, in northwestern Poland with 60,000 inhabitants (2002). ... Vistula river basin Vistula (Polish Wisła), is the longest river in Poland. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... For alternative meanings of Gdańsk and Danzig, see Gdansk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Heinrich von Treitschke (September 15, 1834 - April 28, 1896), German historian and political writer, was born at Dresden. ...


Peace talks and renewed wars

The almost uninterrupted series of victories of the Hussites now rendered vain all hope of subduing them by force of arms. Moreover, the conspicuously democratic character of the Hussite movement caused the German princes, who were afraid that such views might extend to their own countries, to desire peace. Many Hussites, particularly the Utraquist clergy, were also in favour of peace. Negotiations for this purpose were to take place at the ecumenical council which had been summoned to meet at Basel on 3 March 1431. The Roman See reluctantly consented to the presence of heretics at this council, but indignantly rejected the suggestion of the Hussites that members of the Greek Church, and representatives of all Christian creeds, should also be present. Before definitely giving its consent to peace negotiations, the Roman Church determined on making a last effort to reduce the Hussites to subjection. On 1 August 1431 a large army of crusaders under Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg, whom Cardinal Cesarini accompanied as papal legate, crossed the Bohemian border and on 14 August the crusaders reached the town of Domažlice. Upon the arrival of the Hussite army reinforced with some 6000 Polish hussites and under the command of Prokop or — as the legend has it — upon seeing the Hussite banners and hearing their battle hymn "Kdož jsou Boží bojovníci" ("Ye Who are Warriors of God"), the crusaders immediately took to flight. The Council of Basel was a council of bishops and other ecclesiastics of the Roman Catholic Church that was held at Basel, Switzerland. ... Basel (British English traditionally: Basle and more recently Basel , German: , French: , Italian: ) is Switzerlands third most populous city (166,563 inhabitants (2004); 690,000 inhabitants in the metropolitan area stretching across the immediate cantonal and national boundaries made Basel Switzerlands second-largest urban area as of 2003). ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1431 was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Eastern Orthodox Church... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1431 was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ye Who Are Warriors of God was a Hussite war song that was sung with such intensity throughout the Hussite Wars, that it brought fear throughout the enemy army. ...


On 15 October the members of the council, already assembled at Basel, issued a formal invitation to the Hussites to take part in its deliberations. Prolonged negotiations ensued; but finally a Hussite embassy, led by Prokop and including John of Rokycan, the Taborite bishop Nicolas of Pelhrimov, the ‘English Hussite’ Peter Payne and many others, arrived at Basel on 4 January 1433. It was found impossible to reach an agreement. Negotiations were not, however, broken off, and a change in the political situation of Bohemia finally resulted in a settlement. In 1434 war again broke out between the Utraquists and the Taborites. On 30 May of that year the Taborite army, led by Prokop the Great and Prokop the Lesser, who both fell in the battle, was totally defeated and almost annihilated at Lipany. An end to the Polish Hussite movement in Poland would arrive as well: the Polish Hussites, often reinforced by their Czech Slav brethren, had been raiding there for years, and the royal Polish forces under Władysław III of Varna would defeat the Hussites at the Battle of Grotniki, bringing the Hussite Wars to an end. is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan Rokycana, also known as Jan z Rokycana and Jan z Rokycan (c. ... Peter Payne (c. ... January 4 is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1433 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Battle of Lipany, Hussite Wars, 1434. ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw III of Varna. ... The Battle of Grotniki was a battle that took place on May 3, 1439 in south of Poland. ...


Peace agreement

The moderate party thus obtained the upper hand; and it formulated its demands in a document which was finally accepted by the Church of Rome in a slightly modified form, and which is known as ‘the compacts.’ The compacts, mainly founded on the articles of Prague, declare that:—


I. The Holy Sacrament is to be given freely in both kinds to all Christians in Bohemia and Moravia, and to those elsewhere who adhere to the faith of these two countries.


2. All mortal sins shall be punished and extirpated by those whose office it is so to do.


3. The word of God is to be freely and truthfully preached by the priests of the Lord, and by worthy deacons.


4. The priests in the time of the law of grace shall claim no ownership of worldly possessions.


On 5 July 1436 the compacts were formally accepted and signed at Jihlava, in Moravia, by King Sigismund, by the Hussite delegates, and by the representatives of the Roman Catholic Church. The last-named, however, refused to recognize as archbishop of Prague John of Rokycan, who had been elected to that dignity by the estates of Bohemia. is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April - Paris is recaptured by the French End of the Hussite Wars in Bohemia. ... Jihlava â–¶(?) (German Iglau) is a city in the Czech Republic. ... Jan Rokycana, also known as Jan z Rokycana and Jan z Rokycan (c. ...


Aftermath

The Utraquist creed, frequently varying in its details, continued to be that of the established church of Bohemia until all non-Catholic religious services were prohibited shortly after the Battle of the White Mountain in 1620. The Taborite party never recovered from its defeat at Lipan, and after the town of Tabor had been captured by George of Podebrady in 1452, Utraquist religious worship was established there. The Bohemian brethren, whose intellectual originator was Petr Chelčický but whose actual founders were Brother Gregory, a nephew of Archbishop Rokycan, and Michael, curate of Zamberk, to a certain extent continued the Taborite traditions, and in the 15th and 16th centuries included most of the strongest opponents of Rome in Bohemia. Battle of White Mountain Conflict Thirty Years War Date November 8, 1620 Place Bílá Hora near Prague Result Bohemian defeat In the Battle of White Mountain, 1620 November 8, (Bílá hora is the name of White Mountain in Czech) an army 15,000 Bohemians and mercenaries under Christian... Year 1620 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... George of Podebrady - statue in KunÅ¡tát (Czech Republic). ... Peter Chelcicky¹ (Czech Petr Chelčický) (ca. ...


J. A. Komensky (Comenius), a member of the brotherhood, claimed for the members of his church that they were the genuine inheritors of the doctrines of Hus. After the beginning of the German Reformation many Utraquists adopted to a large extent the doctrines of Martin Luther and of John Calvin; and in 1567 obtained the repeal of the compacts, which no longer seemed sufficiently far-reaching. From the end of the 16th century the inheritors of the Hussite tradition in Bohemia were included in the more general name of "Protestants" borne by the adherents of the Reformation. Portrait of Comenius by Rembrandt John Amos Comenius (Czech: ; German: ; Polish: ; latinized: Iohannes Amos Comenius) (March 28, 1592 – November 15, 1670) was a Czech teacher, scientist, educator, and writer. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ...


All histories of Bohemia devote a large amount of space to the Hussite movement. See:

  • Count Lützow, Bohemia; an Historical Sketch (London, 1896)
  • František Palacký, Geschichte von Bohmen
  • Bachmann, Geschichte Bohmens
  • L. Krummel, Geschichte der bohmischen Reformation (Gotha, 1866)
  • L. Krummel, Utraquisten und Taboriten (Gotha, 187 i)
  • Ernest Denis, Huss et la guerre des Hussites (Paris, 1878)
  • H. Toman, Husitské válečnictví (Prague, 1898).

Original text from 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica Supporters contend that the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1910-1911) represents the sum of human knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century; indeed, it was advertised as such. ...


See also

The Czechoslovak Hussite Church (Czech: Církev československá husitská CCH) is a Christian Church which separated from Roman Catholic Church after World War I in former Czechoslovakia. ...

External links

  • Joan of Arc's Letter to the Hussites (23 March 1430) — In 1430, Joan of Arc dictated a letter threatening to lead a crusading army against the Hussites unless they returned to "the Catholic Faith and the original Light". This link contains a translation of the letter plus notes and commentary.
  • Tactics of the Hussite Wars.
  • The Hussite Wars
  • The Bohemian War (1420–1434)
  • "The Hussite Wars (1419–36)", Stephen Turnbull, Osprey Publishing (ISBN 1-84176-665-8)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Hussite - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1609 words)
The Hussites comprised a Christian movement following the teachings of the reformer Jan Hus (circa 1369–1415), who was influenced by John Wyclif and became one of the forerunners of the Protestant Reformation.
The entire Hussite nobility joined the league, and if the king had entered it, its resolutions would have received the sanction of the law; but he refused, and approached the Roman Catholic League of lords, which was now formed, the members pledging themselves to cling to the king, the Roman Church, and the Council.
The views of the moderate Hussites were represented at the university and among the citizens of Prague; therefore they were called the Prague party; they were also called Calixtines or Utraquists, because they emphasized the second article, and the chalice became their emblem.
Hussite Wars - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3422 words)
The Hussite Wars, also called the Bohemian Wars involved the military actions against and amongst the followers of Jan Hus in Bohemia in the period 1420 to circa 1434.
The Hussite Wars were arguably the first European war in which hand-held gunpowder weapons such as muskets made a decisive contribution.
The Hussite warriors were basically infantry, and their many defeats of larger armies with heavily armored knights helped effect the infantry revolution.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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