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Encyclopedia > Hurufi

Hurufism (Arabic حروفية hurufiyya, adjective form hurufi) is a mystical esoteric Sufi sect, that was active in areas of western Persia, Turkey and Azerbaijan in later 14th - early 15th century. The Arabic word hurūf literally means "letters (of the alphabet)". For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ...

The creator and spiritual head of the Hurufi movement was Naimi Fadlullah Astrabadi(1339??-1394). Born in Astrabad, Iran, he was strongly drawn to Sufism at an early age, when his mind was fired up by words of Al-Hallaj and Rumi. In mid 1370s young Naimi started to propagate his teachings all over Persia and Azerbaijan. While living in Tabriz Fadlullah gained elite following in Jalayirid court, where the writing of his main work - Jawidan-Al-Kabir allegedly took place. At that time he was still in the mainstream of Sufi tradition. Later, he did move towards more esoteric spirituality, and, failing to convert Timur was executed in 1394 near Alinja castle in Nakhchivan by the ruler's son Miranshah. The uprising of Hurufis, who had gathered a large following, was crushed in Azerbaijan, but the popular movement survived for another decade or so in different guises. Map of Iran and surrounding countries, showing location of Gorgan Gorgan (گرگان); Hyrcania ; Hyrcana (Old Persian Varkâna, land of wolves; modern Persian Gorgan, formerly called Astrabad or Asterabad): part of the ancient Persian empire, on the southern shores of the Caspian Sea (present day Golestan, Mazandaran, Gilan and parts of... Sufism (Arabic تصوف tasÌ£awwuf) is a mystic tradition of Islam based on the pursuit of spiritual truth as it is gradually revealed to the heart and mind of the Sufi (one who practices Sufism). ... Al-Hallaj (c. ... Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi or Jalal al-Din Muhammad Balkhi Rumi (also known as Mowlavi or Moulana, meaning my guide in Iran, Central and South Asia or Mevlana meaning our guide in Turkey) (September 30, 1207 - December 17, 1273 CE) was a Persian poet and Sufi mystic, who was... Tabriz City Hall, built in 1895, by Arfaol molk, with the aid of German engineers. ... The Jalayirids were a Mongol dynasty which ruled over Iraq and western Persia after the breakup of the Mongol Khanate of Persia (or Ilkhanate) in the 1330s. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... Etymology Esoteric is an adjective originating during Hellenic Greece under the domain of the Roman Empire; it comes from the Greek esôterikos, from esôtero, the comparative form of esô: within. It is a word meaning anything that is inner and occult, a latinate word meaning hidden (from which... ... Reconstruction of Timur from exhumation of his tomb. ... Map of Azerbaijan, showing Naxçıvan to the bottom-left Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic (or Naxçıvan Muxtar Respublikası) is an exclave of Azerbaijan. ...

According to Fadlullah, the key to open seventh sealed book, the Quran, is a cabalistic system of letters that is expounded by later Hurufis in the Hidayat-nama, Jawidan and in the Mahram-Nama. The Universe is eternal and moves by rotation. God's visage is imperishable and is manifest in Man, the best of forms — zuhur kibriya.God is incarnated in every atom. Hurufis considered Fadlullah a manifestation of God's force after Adam, Moses and Muhammed. God is also embodied in words and 28 letters of Arabic alphabet and 32 letters of Persian one are the basis for love and beauty in the world. Seven is a key number corresponding to noble parts of the face, the verses of fatiha and verbal confession of faith. Man is a supreme copy of the divine and the key to Haqiqa. The Quran (Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... A cabal is a number of persons united in some close design, usually to promote their private views and interests in a church, state, or other community by intrigue. ... This article is about the biblical Adam and Eve. ... Moses or Móshe (מֹשֶׁה, Standard Hebrew Móše, Tiberian Hebrew Mōšeh, Arabic موسى Musa), son of Amram and his wife, Jochebed, a Levite. ... Muhammad (Arabic محمد, also transliterated Mohammad, Mohammed, and formerly Mahomet, following the Latin) is revered by Muslims as the final prophet of God. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing in the Arabic language. ... Surat Al-Fatiha (The Opening or The Exordium) is the opening chapter of the Quran; it consists of a short 7-verse prayer which Muslims repeat at the beginning of every rakah of salat. ... This article needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ...

After his death Naimi's ideas were developed and propagated by Nasimi and Ali-ul A'la in Azerbaijan and Seyid Ishag in Turkey. Poet Imadeddin Nasimi (?-1417) and other Hurufis, make cabalistic tendencies subordinate to mystic concepts of Sufism, and specifically those of Hallaj, who was another great influence on Nasimi. Imadeddin Nasimi (1369-1417) was born in Shamakhy, Azerbaijan. ... Imadeddin Nasimi (1369-1417) was born in Shamakhy, Azerbaijan. ... A cabal is a number of persons united in some close design, usually to promote their private views and interests in a church, state, or other community by intrigue. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a mystic tradition of Islam based on the pursuit of spiritual truth as it is gradually revealed to the heart and mind of the Sufi (one who practices Sufism). ... ...

Through Nasimi's poetry, Hurufi ideas influenced, in different degrees, people like Niyazi, Fuzuli Kani, Habibi, Khatai (Ismail I), and Rusheni. Bektashi sect in Turkey and Ahl-e Haqq in Iran owe a lot of their theological vocabulary to Hurufism. Mehmed bin Süleyman Fuzuli, most commonly referred to as Fuzuli, was born around 1494 in the Safavid Empire, although his actual date of birth is unknown. ... Kani (可児市; -shi) is a city located in Gifu, Japan. ... Habibi is the Arabic word for darling, honey, or my love/my dear. Many things have been called Habibi, including: People with the surname Habibi: Iranian Vice President Habibi Prof. ... Shah Ismail I, the founder of the Safavid State. ... The Bektashi order is a Sufi religious order (Tarika). ... Also referred to as Yarsan or Yaresan and also Ali-Ilahis or Aliullahis by outsiders, is one of many Sufi orders in Iran, combining various syncretistic and Islamic ideas with a veneration of Ali Ibn Abi Talib, the son-in-law of Muhammad. ...

The Bektashi order in Balkans (Albania) have preserved the legacy of Fadlullah's teachings the longest and still continue to this day. It wasn't until the 1950s, that hurufizm explicitly reached Western Europe in the form of Lettrism by Jean-Isidore Goldstein. The Bektashi order is a Sufi religious order (Tarika). ... Lettrism (also spelled Letterism) was an artistic style pursuing the hyper-minimalist refinement of art to its simplest and purest form. ...

Contemporary References

-The scenes of Fadlullah's execution and of Nasimi's brutal flailing in Aleppo appear in the Azeri language movie "Nasimi" (1973)

-Hurufism plays a role in Turkish author Orhan Pamuk's novel The Black Book. The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...

-The New Lettrist International is a Hurufi/Lettrist group from 2000. The Preliminary Committee for the Founding of a New Lettrist International (NLI) was organised by the Neoist Alliance and the London Psychogeographical Association. ...


H.T. Norris "The Hurufi Legacy of Fadlullah of Astarabad", in Heritage of Sufism, 2003. Oxford, One World

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