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Encyclopedia > Hurricane Nora (1997)
Hurricane Nora
Category 4 hurricane (SSHS)

Hurricane Nora at peak intensity on September 21, 1997
Formed September 16, 1997
Dissipated September 26, 1997
Highest
winds
135 mph (215 km/h) (1-minute sustained)
Lowest pressure 950 mbar (hPa; 28.06 inHg)
Fatalities 2 direct, 4 indirect
Damage $100 million (1997 USD)
Areas
affected
Baja California, southwestern United States
Part of the
1997 Pacific hurricane season

Hurricane Nora was the fourteenth named tropical cyclone and seventh hurricane of the 1997 Pacific hurricane season. The September storm formed off the Pacific coast of Mexico, and aided by waters warmed by El Niño, eventually peaked at Category 4 intensity on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale is a scale classifying most Western Hemisphere tropical cyclones that exceed the levels of tropical depression and tropical storm and thereby become hurricanes; the categories it divides hurricanes into are distinguished by the intensities of their respective sustained winds. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1002 × 1002 pixel, file size: 257 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): 1997 Pacific hurricane season Hurricane Nora... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 26 is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ... Kilometre per hour (American spelling: kilometer per hour) is a unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector). ... A millibar (mbar, also mb) is 1/1000th of a bar, a unit for measurement of pressure. ... HPA means Physiology Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis: The hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal glands work together to regulate hormone levels and maintain homeostasis. ... Inches of mercury or inHg is a non SI unit for pressure. ... ISO 4217 Code USD User(s) the United States, the British Indian Ocean Territory,[1] the British Virgin Islands, Cambodia, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Panama, Turks and Caicos Islands, and the insular areas of the United States Inflation 2. ... Baja California (literally lower California in Spanish) is the northernmost state of Mexico. ... Pacific Hurricane Seasons 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 The 1997 Pacific hurricane season officially started May 15, 1997 in the eastern Pacific, and June 1, 1997 in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 1997. ... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004 Hurricane and Typhoon redirect here. ... Pacific Hurricane Seasons 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 The 1997 Pacific hurricane season officially started May 15, 1997 in the eastern Pacific, and June 1, 1997 in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 1997. ... The Pacific Ocean (from the Latin name Mare Pacificum, peaceful sea, bestowed upon it by the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan) is the largest body of water on Earth – at 165. ... Chart of ocean surface temperature anomaly [°C] during the last strong El Niño in December 1997 El Niño and La Niña (also written in English as El Nino and La Nina) are major temperature fluctuations in surface waters of the tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean. ... The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale is a scale classifying most Western Hemisphere tropical cyclones that exceed the levels of tropical depression and tropical storm and thereby become hurricanes; the categories it divides hurricanes into are distinguished by the intensities of their respective sustained winds. ...


Nora intensified and weakened quickly before taking an unusual path, which lead it to make landfall twice as a hurricane in Baja California. After landfall, its remnants affected the Southwestern United States with tropical storm-force winds, torrential rain and flooding. Nora is blamed for two direct casualties in Mexico, as well as substantial beach erosion on the Mexican coast, flash flooding in Baja California, and record precipitation in Arizona. Nora persisted far inland, it was only the third known tropical cyclone to reach Arizona while tropical. Baja California (literally lower California in Spanish) is the northernmost state of Mexico. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Lower Antelope Canyon was carved out of sandstone by flash floods A Flash Flood is a rapid flooding of geomorphic low-lying areas (washes), rivers and streams, caused by the intense rainfall associated with a thunderstorm, or multiple training thunderstorms. ... Official language(s) English Capital Phoenix Largest city Phoenix Area  Ranked 6th  - Total 113,998 sq mi (295,254 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ...

Contents

Storm history

Storm path
Storm path

Nora formed early on September 16, 1997, 290 miles (460 km) southwest of the Mexican port of Acapulco, Guerrero, from the same tropical wave that had earlier created Hurricane Erika. Due to favorable conditions associated with El Niño,[1] the tropical disturbance quickly achieved deep convection and became well-organized. By 6 a.m. UTC, the U.S. National Hurricane Center had designated the disturbance as Tropical Depression Sixteen-E. Half a day later, it had gained enough strength to be named Tropical Storm Nora.[2] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 594 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 760 pixel, file size: 649 KB, MIME type: image/png) Hurricane Nora (1997) track. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 594 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 760 pixel, file size: 649 KB, MIME type: image/png) Hurricane Nora (1997) track. ... September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Acapulco (Officially: Acapulco de Juárez) is a city and major sea port in the state of Guerrero on the Pacific coast of Mexico, 300 km (190 miles) southwest from Mexico City. ... Guerrero is a state in the United Mexican States. ... Tropical waves, also known as easterly waves, are elongated areas of relatively low air pressure, oriented north to south, causing areas of cloudiness and thunderstorms. ... The 1997 Atlantic hurricane season officially began on June 1, 1997, and lasted until November 30, 1997. ... Chart of ocean surface temperature anomaly [°C] during the last strong El Niño in December 1997 El Niño and La Niña (also written in English as El Nino and La Nina) are major temperature fluctuations in surface waters of the tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean. ... Convection in the most general terms refers to the internal movement of currents within fluids (i. ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precison atomic time standard. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... National Weather Service Logo The U.S. National Hurricane Center is the division of National Weather Services Tropical Prediction Center responsible for tracking and predicting the likely behavior of tropical depressions, tropical storms and hurricanes. ...


A high pressure area over northern Mexico forced the storm to move west-northwest for the first few days. During that time, Nora kept intensifying, becoming a Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale by noon UTC on September 18. Next, Nora slowed and became stationary for two days from September 18. The eye vanished, and convection began to decrease. This was presumed to have happened because of a drop in sea-surface temperatures. The cool waters temporarily weakened Nora's winds to 75 mph (120 km/h) down from a maximum of 105 mph (165 km/h).[2] After leaving the area of cool waters, Nora began moving nearly parallel to Mexico's western coast. There was a period of rapid intensification and the eye reappeared. Cloud tops cooled and at midday UTC on September 21, Nora reached its peak intensity of 950 mbar and 135 mph (210 km/h) winds, a Category 4 hurricane.[2] The peak was brief as Nora then encountered cool waters in the wake of Hurricane Linda. They weakened Nora's winds to 80 mph (130 km/h) by September 23 and broke its eyewall.[2] A high, high-pressure cell, or high pressure area is a region where the atmospheric pressure is greater than the surrounding area. ... The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale is a scale classifying most Western Hemisphere tropical cyclones that exceed the levels of tropical depression and tropical storm and thereby become hurricanes; the categories it divides hurricanes into are distinguished by the intensities of their respective sustained winds. ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ... Kilometre per hour (American spelling: kilometer per hour) is a unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector). ... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ... A millibar (mbar, also mb) is 1/1000th of a bar, a unit for measurement of pressure. ... Lowest pressure 902 mbar (hPa)East Pacific record Damages None reported Fatalities None Areas affected Open Pacific Ocean waters, Socorro Island Part of the 1997 Pacific hurricane season Hurricane Linda was a tropical cyclone of the 1997 Pacific hurricane season. ... Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ... Kilometre per hour (American spelling: kilometer per hour) is a unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector). ... September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ... Eye of Typhoon Odessa, Pacific Ocean, August 1985 The eyewall is the region of a tropical cyclone with the strongest winds, the tallest clouds, and the heaviest rain. ...

Hurricane Nora's remnants over the Southwestern United States
Hurricane Nora's remnants over the Southwestern United States

Nora then crossed an area of abnormally warm water near the west coast of the Baja California Peninsula. It restrengthened slightly before making its first landfall near Bahía Tortugas, Baja California Sur.[3] When Nora was inland, the area of the storm located in the Gulf of California began to reintensify.[1] Hurricane Nora then made a second landfall about 60 miles (95 km) south-southeast of San Fernando, Baja California.[2] Image File history File links Hurricane_Nora_Remnants_1997. ... Image File history File links Hurricane_Nora_Remnants_1997. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Baja California Peninsula (highlighted) The Baja California Peninsula or Lower California is a peninsula in the west of Mexico. ... Baja California Sur is one of the 31 States of Mexico, occupying the part of the Baja California Peninsula south of the 28th parallel. ... The Gulf of California (also known as the Sea of Cortez or Sea of Cortés; locally known in the Spanish language as Mar de Cortés or, much less frequently, Golfo de California) is a body of water that separates the Baja California Peninsula from the Mexican mainland. ... Baja California (literally lower California in Spanish) is the northernmost state of Mexico. ...


At landfall, a trough was accelerating Nora northwards, causing it to reach a forward speed of 30 mph (50 km/h). Late on September 25 (UTC), still a tropical storm, it entered the continental United States at the California-Arizona state line. Nora began to weaken rapidly, and was downgraded to a tropical depression three hours later,[2] while located between Blythe and Needles, California.[4] Nora reached Arizona while still tropical, becoming the third known system to do so.[5] Nora degenerated over land, and the low-level center moved towards the north-northeast. A remnant circulation aloft persisted, however, and was likely responsible for a period of near hurricane-force winds observed at the NWS Cedar City, Utah Doppler radar. The remnants gradually became more diffuse over the following two days while moving generally northeastward, through portions of Utah, Colorado, Idaho and Wyoming.[2] A trough is an elongated region of relatively low atmospheric pressure, often associated with fronts. ... September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Depending on usage, the term continental United States can refer to either: the 48 contiguous states plus the District of Columbia; or the 48 contiguous states plus the District of Columbia and Alaska. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) English Capital Phoenix Largest city Phoenix Area  Ranked 6th  - Total 113,998 sq mi (295,254 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ... Blythe is a city in Riverside County, California, United States, in the Palo Verde Valley, an agricultural area along the Colorado River. ... Needles is a city located on the western banks of the Colorado River in San Bernardino County, California. ... Official language(s) English Capital Phoenix Largest city Phoenix Area  Ranked 6th  - Total 113,998 sq mi (295,254 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ... The National Weather Service (NWS) is one of the six scientific agencies that make up the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the United States government. ... Cedar City is a city located in Iron County, Utah, 250 miles South of Salt Lake City on Interstate 15. ... Official language(s) English Capital Salt Lake City Largest city Salt Lake City Area  Ranked 13th  - Total 84,876 sq mi (219,887 km²)  - Width 270 miles (435 km)  - Length 350 miles (565 km)  - % water 3. ... Doppler Effect Doppler radar uses the Doppler effect to measure the radial velocity of targets in the antennas directional beam. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ...


Preparations

While Nora stayed off the Pacific coast of Mexico, the Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (National Meteorological Service) issued a hurricane watch for the coast between Lázaro Cárdenas, Michoacán, and Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco,[2] and several major ports in the shoreline closed to navigation.[6] As the storm moved away from the mainland coast and towards the Baja California Peninsula, about 500 people were evacuated from their homes near Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, and placed in shelters to prepare for the storm's impact. At the same time, in Sonora, another 50 were evacuated from a fishing camp in Guaymas.[7] Meanwhile, the SMN issued tropical storm warnings along the Baja California coast, as well as hurricane watches and warnings around the entire Gulf of California between Santa Rosalía, Baja California Sur, and Bahía Kino, Sonora. [8][2] The Servicio Meteorologíco Nacional (SMN) is Mexicos national weather organization. ... Warnings and watches are two levels of alert issued by national weather forecasting bodies to coastal areas threatened by the imminent approach of a tropical cyclone of Tropical Storm or Hurricane intensity. ... Lázaro Cárdenas is a town located in the southern part of the state of Michoacán, it was formerly known as Los Llanitos, but it change its name for the one of Lázaro Cárdenas who was president of Mexico from 1934 to 1940. ... Michoacán de Ocampo (From michamacuan, Nahuatl for the place of the fishermen) is one of the 31 constituent states of Mexico. ... Puerto Vallarta is a Mexican resort city. ... Jalisco is one of the states of the United Mexican States (Mexico). ... Baja California Peninsula (highlighted) The Baja California Peninsula or Lower California is a peninsula in the west of Mexico. ... Cabo is well known for its pristine beaches Lands End is at southern tip of Baja and its arch can be seen in a December sunset San Lucas Marina This view of Cabo San Lucas shows the rapid growth of the area (November 5, 2005). ... Baja California Sur is one of the 31 States of Mexico, occupying the part of the Baja California Peninsula south of the 28th parallel. ... Sonora is a state in northwestern Mexico, bordering the states of Chihuahua to the east, Sinaloa to the south, and Baja California to the northwest. ... Guaymas is a port city in Sonora, Mexico. ... Santa Rosalía is a city located on the Baja California peninsula, in the northern part of the Mexican state of Baja California Sur. ... Baja California Sur is one of the 31 States of Mexico, occupying the part of the Baja California Peninsula south of the 28th parallel. ... Isla del Alcatraz. ... Sonora is a state in northwestern Mexico, bordering the states of Chihuahua to the east, Sinaloa to the south, and Baja California to the northwest. ...


In September 24, Arizona Governor Jane Dee Hull activated an emergency response center to prepare the state's response to the flash flooding the storm would cause on the dry desert floor,[8] and Yuma residents began to fill approximately 55,000 sandbags to contain the possible flooding.[9] Hull also activated the state's National Guard, and sent drinking water and electric generators to Yuma.[10] Further inland, the National Weather Service issued flash flood watches for western Arizona, southeastern California, southwestern Colorado, southern Nevada and southern Utah on September 26.[11] September 24 is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Categories: Stub | 1935 births | Governors of Arizona ... Flash flooding is rapid flooding of low-lying areas, rivers and creeks that is caused by the intense rainfall associated with a thunderstorm, or multiple training thunderstorms. ... Yuma is a city in and county seatGR6 of Yuma County, Arizona, United States. ... The United States National Guard is a component of the United States Army (the Army National Guard) and the United States Air Force (the Air National Guard). ... Drinking water Mineral Water Drinking water is water that is intended to be ingested by humans. ... The National Weather Service (NWS) is one of the six scientific agencies that make up the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the United States government. ... Lower Antelope Canyon was carved out of sandstone by flash floods A Flash Flood is a rapid flooding of geomorphic low-lying areas (washes), rivers and streams, caused by the intense rainfall associated with a thunderstorm, or multiple training thunderstorms. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Official language(s) English Capital Salt Lake City Largest city Salt Lake City Area  Ranked 13th  - Total 84,876 sq mi (219,887 km²)  - Width 270 miles (435 km)  - Length 350 miles (565 km)  - % water 3. ... September 26 is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Impact

Nora Rainfall for Mexico and the United States

Hurricane Nora caused two direct deaths in Mexico and three or four indirect ones in the United States. Although the total cost of damage is not known, Nora caused up to several hundred millions of dollars of damage. The system also dumped heavy rain in the United States and Mexico, which caused flooding and power outages.[2] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 693 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1056 × 914 pixel, file size: 37 KB, MIME type: image/gif) The NOAA emblem is the property of the U.S. Government and a trademark of the United States Department of Commerce. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 693 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1056 × 914 pixel, file size: 37 KB, MIME type: image/gif) The NOAA emblem is the property of the U.S. Government and a trademark of the United States Department of Commerce. ...


Mexico

Hurricane Nora over northern Mexico as seen on Radar in Yuma, Arizona.
Hurricane Nora over northern Mexico as seen on Radar in Yuma, Arizona.

Nora killed two in Mexico: an electrocution by a downed power line in Mexicali, Baja California, and a diver caught in strong underwater currents created by Nora off the coast of the San Quintin Valley.[2] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Yuma is a city in and county seatGR6 of Yuma County, Arizona, United States. ... Mexicali is the capital of the state of Baja California, Mexico as well as the capital of the municipality of Mexicali. ... Baja California (literally lower California in Spanish) is the northernmost state of Mexico. ... San Quintín is a coastal town in Baja California, Mexico. ...


Although Nora's center of circulation remained well offshore from southwestern mainland Mexico, the Associated Press reported that waves to 20 ft (6 m) hit that coastline, destroying dozens of homes.[12] Nora's winds also produced rough seas and high waves, which caused in substantial beach erosion, particularly around Acapulco, where the Pie de la Cuesta beaches were washed away.[2] In the states of Guerrero and Jalisco, Nora tore down trees and washed away the foundations of homes, albeit without causing any injuries.[12] The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... Coastal erosion is a process which affects the landmass of an area as a consequence of the sea acting upon it. ... Acapulco (Officially: Acapulco de Juárez) is a city and major sea port in the state of Guerrero on the Pacific coast of Mexico, 300 km (190 miles) southwest from Mexico City. ... Pie de la Cuesta is a small beach resort town in the Mexican state of Guerrero, approximately 30 miles north of Acapulco, and it is the location of a military base of the Mexican Air Force. ... The United Mexican States or Mexico (Estados Unidos Mexicanos or México) is a federal republic made up of 31 states (estados) and one Federal District, (Distrito Federal), which contains the capital, Mexico City. ... Guerrero is a state in the United Mexican States. ... Jalisco is one of the states of the United Mexican States (Mexico). ...


Heavy rains also fell along its northeast periphery, with the highest amounts of 20.94 inches (532 mm) falling at La Cruz/Elota and 16.79 inches (426 mm) being measured at Ligui/Loreto.[13] About 350 to 400 people were left homeless by floodwaters in the town of Arroyo de Santa Catarina in northern Baja California. Heavy damage and flooding was reported in San Felipe, on the northwestern shore of the Gulf of California, as well as extensive beach erosion.[4] Local roads and highways were destroyed and the town's dock was severely damaged.[14] On the northeastern shore, at Puerto Peñasco, Nora blew down trees, billboards, electric wires, taco stands, and ripped sheet-metal from homes. Waves of 10 feet (3 m) were reported there.[2] Baja California (literally lower California in Spanish) is the northernmost state of Mexico. ... San Felipe in the Mexican state of Baja California is located 190 km south of the international border at Mexicali (connecting with Calexico, California, USA). ... The Gulf of California (also known as the Sea of Cortez or Sea of Cortés; locally known in the Spanish language as Mar de Cortés or, much less frequently, Golfo de California) is a body of water that separates the Baja California Peninsula from the Mexican mainland. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


United States

In the United States, there were no direct deaths blamed on the hurricane. However, the California Highway Patrol attributed three or four traffic fatalities in southern California to the weather.[15] (CHP) is a state agency that acts as the state police force of California. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...


Damage totals in the United States are not fully known but media summaries of Nora included a loss to agriculture preliminarily estimated at several hundred million dollars, and at least one study places the figure at $150-200 million (1997 USD).[16] About a $30–40 million (1997 USD) loss to lemon trees was estimated.[17] Even though Nora had long lost hurricane strength, near hurricane-force winds were felt at the Dixie National Forest in southwestern Utah, where strong gusts sheared off the tops of large trees. [18] The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... Binomial name Citrus × limon (L.) Burm. ... Dixie National Forest is a national forest in Utah with headquarters in Cedar City. ... Official language(s) English Capital Salt Lake City Largest city Salt Lake City Area  Ranked 13th  - Total 84,876 sq mi (219,887 km²)  - Width 270 miles (435 km)  - Length 350 miles (565 km)  - % water 3. ...


The Yuma radar indicated a small area with near 10 inches (250 mm) of rain along the northern Gulf of California coast of Baja California. In the United States, the largest total rainfall was recorded at the Harquahala Mountains in Arizona, where 11.97 inches (304 mm) of rainfall were recorded as a result of Nora, causing flash floods in western Arizona.[5] The Gulf of California (also known as the Sea of Cortez or Sea of Cortés; locally known in the Spanish language as Mar de Cortés or, much less frequently, Golfo de California) is a body of water that separates the Baja California Peninsula from the Mexican mainland. ... The Harquahala Mountains are the highest mountain range in southwestern Arizona, USA and are located southwest of the towns of Aguila and Wenden. ...


Near Phoenix, rainfall from the storm caused the Narrows Dam, a small earthen dam, to fail.[5] In other locations in Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah, more than 3 inches (75 mm) occurred in a few localized areas,[1] sometimes with precipitation comparable to the entire local yearly average rainfall. Flooding was also reported in Somerton, San Diego, El Centro, Palm Springs and Indio, while 12,000 people lost power in Yuma,[19] as well as Los Angeles and southwestern Utah. Nickname: Location in Maricopa County and the state of Arizona Coordinates: Country United States State Arizona Counties Maricopa Incorporated February 25, 1881 Government  - Type Council-Manager  - Mayor Phil Gordon (D) Area  - City  515. ... An Earthen dam is constructed as a simple homogeneous embankment of well-compacted earth, sometimes with a watertight concrete or clay core or upstream face, or sometimes with a hydraulic fill to produce a watertight core. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Somerton is a city located in Yuma County, Arizona. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Americas Finest City Location Location of San Diego within San Diego County Coordinates , Government County San Diego Mayor City Attorney         City Council District One District Two District Three District Four District Five District Six District Seven District Eight Jerry Sanders (R) Michael Aguirre Scott Peters Kevin... El Centro is the county seat of Imperial County, California, United States. ... Palm Springs is a famed Riverside County, California, desert resort city, approximately 110 miles east of Los Angeles. ... Indio, California is a city located in the Coachella Valley of Southern Californias desert region. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ...


Despite the damage, the World Meteorological Organization did not retire the name Nora during its meeting in the spring of 1998. As a result, it was used in the 2003 Pacific hurricane season and is on the list of names to be used in 2009. The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 187 Member States and Territories. ... The 2003 Pacific hurricane season officially started May 15, 2003 in the eastern Pacific, and June 1, 2003 in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 2003. ... Due to their long-term persistence, and the need for a unique identifier in issuing forecasts and warnings, tropical cyclones are given names. ...

See also

Tropical cyclones Portal

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x662, 320 KB) http://eol. ... This is a list of notable Pacific hurricanes, subdivided by reason for notability. ... The remnants of Hurricane Nora over the Southwestern United States An Arizona hurricane is a tropical cyclone originating in the eastern Pacific Ocean that affects the state of Arizona in the United States. ... No hurricane has ever occurred in California in recorded history, with the possible exception of a storm near San Diego in 1858 which did not make landfall, but the remnants of Pacific hurricanes have affected the state, in the form of either a tropical storm (one), a tropical depression, or...

References

  1. ^ a b c Farfán, Luis M. and Joseph Zehnder (August 2001). "An Analysis of the Landfall of Hurricane Nora" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review 129. Retrieved on 2006-02-26. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Rappaport, Edward N. (October 30, 1997). Preliminary Report: Hurricane Nora: 16-26 September 1997. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved on 2006-02-20.
  3. ^ (Spanish) Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (Mexico) (1997). Huracán Nora. Comisón Nacional del Agua. Retrieved on 2006-02-21.
  4. ^ a b Lawrence, Miles B. (October 1999). "Eastern North Pacific Hurricane Season of 1997" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review 127 (10): 2448-50. Retrieved on 2006-12-18. 
  5. ^ a b c Flood Control District of Maricopa County (1997). TS Nora Storm Report. Retrieved on 2006-02-26.
  6. ^ "North-moving Nora lashes Baja's southern tip", Associated Press, September 23, 1997. Retrieved on 2006-04-10. 
  7. ^ "Hurricane Nora lashes Baja California", Associated Press, September 24, 1997. Retrieved on 2006-05-11. 
  8. ^ a b "Hurricane Nora to hit Baja Thursday morning", Associated Press, September 25, 1997. Retrieved on 2006-05-11. 
  9. ^ "Hurricane Nora nears Mexico", Associated Press, September 24, 1997. Retrieved on 2006-05-11. 
  10. ^ "Nora weakens, but heavy rains threaten U.S.", Associated Press, September 25, 1997. Retrieved on 2006-05-11. 
  11. ^ Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. Storm Summary for Tropical Depression Nora, 4 a.m. EDT September 26, 1997. NOAA. Retrieved on 2006-03-06.
  12. ^ a b "Hurricane Nora lashes Mexico's Pacific coast", Associated Press, September 22, 1997. Retrieved on 2006-05-11. 
  13. ^ Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. Hurricane Nora - September 14-28, 1997. Retrieved on 2007-01-04.
  14. ^ Hurricane Nora, San Felipe, Baja California. San Felipe, Baja California Official Website (September 1997). Retrieved on 2006-03-29.
  15. ^ "Nora gives Arizona a soaking", Associated Press, September 25, 1997. Retrieved on 2006-05-11. 
  16. ^ National Drought Mitigation Center. Reported Effects of the 1997-98 El Niño. University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Retrieved on 2006-02-26.
  17. ^ National Climatic Data Center (September 25, 1997). NCDC Event Details. NOAA. Retrieved on 2006-07-08.
  18. ^ Cooperative Program for Operational Meteorology, Education and Training. Nora: After Landfall (VIS). University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. Retrieved on 2006-04-10.
  19. ^ Rebecca Carter (2002). Tropical Storm Impacts on Arizona and New Mexico. Climate Assessment for the Southwest Project, Institute for the Study of Planet Earth, University of Arizona. Retrieved on 2006-03-03.

Monthly Weather Review is a publication of the American Meteorological Society. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 26 is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... October 30 is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 62 days remaining. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... National Weather Service Logo The U.S. National Hurricane Center is the division of National Weather Services Tropical Prediction Center responsible for tracking and predicting the likely behavior of tropical depressions, tropical storms and hurricanes. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 21 is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Monthly Weather Review is a publication of the American Meteorological Society. ... 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May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (132nd in leap years). ... September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (132nd in leap years). ... September 24 is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (132nd in leap years). ... September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (132nd in leap years). ... September 26 is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... March 6 is the 65th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (66th in leap years). ... September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (132nd in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... January 4 is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 8 is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 176 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 10 is the 100th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (101st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (63rd in leap years). ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
TPC NHC NORA 1997 PRELIMINARY REPORT (1949 words)
Hurricane Nora formed early on the 16th of September about 250 nautical miles to the southwest of Acapulco (Table 1 and Fig.
By late on the 20th, Nora was on the move again, at 5 to 10 knots toward the west-northwest or northwest, roughly parallel to the southwest coast of Mexico.
Nora was accelerating northward at landfall, steered by the flow associated with the trough to its northwest.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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