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Encyclopedia > Hurricane Hugo
Hurricane Hugo
Category 5 hurricane (SSHS)

Hurricane Hugo off the coast of South Carolina
Formed September 9, 1989
Dissipated September 25, 1989
Highest
winds
160 mph (260 km/h) (1-minute sustained)
Lowest pressure 918 mbar (hPa; 27.12 inHg)
Fatalities 76 direct
Damage $10 billion (1989 USD)
$16.3 billion (2006 USD)
Areas
affected
Guadeloupe, Montserrat, Dominica, British Virgin Islands, U.S. Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, South Carolina, North Carolina, most of eastern North America
Part of the
1989 Atlantic hurricane season

Hurricane Hugo was a destructive Category 5 hurricane that struck Guadeloupe, Montserrat, Puerto Rico, St. Croix, South Carolina and North Carolina in September of the 1989 Atlantic hurricane season, killing 82 people. It also left 56,000 homeless. The storm caused $10 billion (1989 USD, $16.3 billion (2006 USD) in damages, making it the most damaging hurricane ever recorded up to that time, surpassing Hurricane Frederic. Hugo was itself surpassed by Hurricane Andrew three years later, which was eventually surpassed by Hurricane Katrina in 2005. The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale is a scale classifying most Western Hemisphere tropical cyclones that exceed the intensities of tropical depressions and tropical storms, and thereby become hurricanes. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2200x2200, 1045 KB) The NOAA emblem is the property of the U.S. Government and a trademark of the United States Department of Commerce. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ... Kilometre per hour (American spelling: kilometer per hour) is a unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector). ... A millibar (mbar, also mb) is 1/1000th of a bar, a unit for measurement of pressure. ... HPA means Physiology Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis: The hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal glands work together to regulate hormone levels and maintain homeostasis. ... Inches of mercury or inHg is a non SI unit for pressure. ... “USD” redirects here. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... B C D E F G H I J K Categories: | ... The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale is a scale classifying most Western Hemisphere tropical cyclones that exceed the intensities of tropical depressions and tropical storms, and thereby become hurricanes. ... This article is about weather phenomena. ... A separate article treats the several rivers known as the St. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... B C D E F G H I J K Categories: | ... “USD” redirects here. ... Hurricane Frederic in 1979 was the one of the costliest hurricanes to ever hit the U.S. Gulf Coast. ... Lowest pressure 922 mbar (hPa; 27. ... This article is about the Atlantic hurricane of 2005. ...

Contents

Storm history

Storm path
Storm path

A tropical wave moved off of Cape Verde, Africa, on September 9, 1989. Moving westward, it developed into Tropical Storm Hugo on September 11, and became a hurricane on the 13th. Hugo rapidly intensified and briefly reached Category 5 intensity while well out in the Atlantic. The NHC best track documents that it scraped the Caribbean as a Category 4 hurricane, when it passed over Guadeloupe, the Leeward Islands, and St. Croix, and then weakened to a Category 3 prior to landfalling over Vieques, Culebra, and the eastern tip of mainland Puerto Rico, while undergoing an eyewall replacement cycle (ERC). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x633, 272 KB) Summary Hurricane Hugo (1989) track. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x633, 272 KB) Summary Hurricane Hugo (1989) track. ... Tropical waves, also known as easterly waves, are elongated areas of relatively low air pressure, oriented north to south, causing areas of cloudiness and thunderstorms. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004 Hurricane and Typhoon redirect here. ... The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale is a scale classifying most Western Hemisphere tropical cyclones that exceed the intensities of tropical depressions and tropical storms, and thereby become hurricanes. ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... “West Indian” redirects here. ... The Leeward Islands are the northern islands of the Lesser Antilles. ... A separate article treats the several rivers known as the St. ... Vieques is an island-municipality of Puerto Rico. ... Culebra (meaning snake in Spanish) has several meanings: Most commonly, it refers to the island of Culebra, part of Puerto Rico. ...


Hugo continued to weaken after leaving the warm waters of the Caribbean to a Category 2, but quickly restrengthened when it passed over the Gulf Stream. The storm made landfall in McClellanville, South Carolina on the evening of September 21 as a Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. Hugo was originally forecast to move toward Savannah, Georgia, but instead turned north toward Charleston, South Carolina. The eye of the hurricane passed just northeast of Charleston. For the album by Ocean Colour Scene, see North Atlantic Drift (album) The Gulf Stream is orange and yellow in this representation of water temperatures of the Atlantic. ... McClellanville is a town in Charleston County, South Carolina, United States. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale is a scale classifying most Western Hemisphere tropical cyclones that exceed the intensities of tropical depressions and tropical storms, and thereby become hurricanes. ... This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ... Nickname: Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ...


The storm sped northward, with the center passing over Moncks Corner and close to Sumter. After landfall, Hugo weakened into a tropical storm while passing near Charlotte, North Carolina. The storm continued north as an extratropical low, finally tracking over the eastern Great Lakes and parts of eastern Canada. Moncks Corner is the county seat of Berkeley County, South Carolina. ... Sumter (IPA: or ) is a city located in Sumter County, South Carolina. ... “Charlotte” redirects here. ... Extratropical is a term used in advisories and tropical summaries to indicate that a cyclone has lost its tropical characteristics. ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ...


Preparations

Savannah was evacuated in anticipation of Hugo, but saw no effects of the storm other than isolated and light showers. Had Hugo hit Savannah, it would have been the first major hurricane to make landfall in Georgia since Storm 7 of the 1898 season. This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ... The 1898 Atlantic hurricane season was an ongoing event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. ...


Impact

Storm deaths by region
(estimates)
[1]
Region Deaths
United States 35
Puerto Rico 12
Guadeloupe 11
Montserrat 1
Virgin Islands 6
Antigua and Barbuda 1
Saint Kitts and Nevis 1
Total 76

Hugo caused $7 billion (1989 USD) in damage in the mainland United States[2]. At the time it was the costliest hurricane in U.S. history, but was exceeded in 1992 by Hurricane Andrew, and by three other storms since then. It remains the sixth costliest hurricane in U.S. history. An additional $3 billion of damages was reported throughout the Caribbean. Therefore, total damages from the storm were $10 billion (1989 USD). The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... Lowest pressure 922 mbar (hPa; 27. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ...


Sources differ on the number of people killed by Hugo, with some citing the American Meteorological Society's figure of 49, and others claiming 56 deaths [3]. Some government agency sources claim only 32 deaths in the United States. The American Meteorological Society promotes the development and dissemination of information and education on the atmospheric and related oceanic and hydrologic sciences and the advancement of their professional applications. ...


Caribbean

Severe damage was reported throughout the islands of the Caribbean. The storm caused an estimated $3 billion (1989 US dollars) in damages in the Caribbean (including $1 billion in Puerto Rico and the USVI.[2]) The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... The United States Virgin Islands is a group of islands in the Caribbean that is a dependency of the United States. ...


St. Croix

There was massive looting and unrest, prompting President George H.W. Bush to send troops to St. Croix in Operation Hawkeye. [citation needed] Order: 41st President Vice President: Dan Quayle Term of office: January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993 Preceded by: Ronald Reagan Succeeded by: Bill Clinton Date of birth: June 12, 1924 Place of birth: Milton, Massachusetts First Lady: Barbara Pierce Bush Political party: Republican George Herbert Walker Bush, KBE (born...


Montserrat

90% of all structures were destroyed in the British overseas territory, including the island's hospital and virtually all the homes of its 12,000 residents. Tourism and agriculture were also severely hit. Total damage was estimated at $100-300 million dollars (1989 USD); the island became reliant on aid as a result.[4][5] The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ...


Additionally, the local bat population was devastated, with an estimated 90% decrease in numbers following Hugo's passage. The species Chiroderma improvisum has not been seen on Montserrat since, and it is feared that it may be extinct on the island.[6]


Puerto Rico

Damage in Puerto Rico was severe, especially in the eastern part of the island. The agricultural sector was devastated, with the banana and coffee crops being almost completely wiped out. Heavy rains caused severe flooding in the vicinity of San Juan; in addition, several roads and bridges were washed away.[5] For other uses, see San Juan. ...


In all, 12 deaths in Puerto Rico are attributed to Hugo,[1] six of which occurred in the southern city of Guayama where some residents were electrocuted by downed power lines. Nearly 28,000 people were left homeless by the storm.[5] Guayama is a municipality of Puerto Rico. ...


United States

South Carolina

Mobile homes destroyed by Hugo's storm surge
Mobile homes destroyed by Hugo's storm surge
Hugo proved to be devastating to beachfront property
Hugo proved to be devastating to beachfront property

While downtown Charleston, South Carolina suffered extensive damage, the greatest damage was reported in the northern suburbs of Mount Pleasant, Sullivan's Island, and Isle of Palms. Both islands were cut off from the mainland by destruction of their bridges. Along the coast, Hugo destroyed many houses and the storm surge piled boats on top of each other. Image File history File links Hurricane_Hugo_mobile_home_damage. ... Image File history File links Hurricane_Hugo_mobile_home_damage. ... Image File history File links Hurricane_Hugo_beach_front_damage. ... Image File history File links Hurricane_Hugo_beach_front_damage. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude... Mount Pleasant is a town in Charleston County, South Carolina, in the United States. ... Sullivans Island is a town located in Charleston County, South Carolina. ... Isle of Palms is a city located in Charleston County, South Carolina. ...


The storm's most intense wind and storm surge came ashore still further north between the small towns of Awendaw and McClellanville. An extraordinary 20-foot storm surge was reported between Cape Romain and Bulls Bay. Most mature trees in the Francis Marion National Forest were felled. Many of the stands were old growth longleaf pine, an important habitat for some endangered species. In McClellanville, a small fishing town, residents took refuge in Lincoln High School, and were surprised by the sudden tidal surge which flooded the school. With water pouring into the rooms, the refugees helped one another in pitch darkness to climb into the space in the hanging ceiling above the rooms. All survived. ... Location of Awendaw in South Carolina Coordinates: Country United States State South Carolina County Charleston Mayor William H. Alston Area    - City 21. ... McClellanville is a town in Charleston County, South Carolina, United States. ... The Francis Marion National Forrest is located North of Charleston, South Carolina. ... ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ...


According to Governor Carroll Campbell, there were about 3,000 tornadoes embedded within the hurricane, which accounts for extensive damage in some areas not within the path of the eyewall. The term "tornado" was a misnomer; the intense localized winds are more properly referred to as vortices. (See Hurricane Andrew for more information on hurricane vortices.) A list of South Carolina Governors. ... Front page of The State after Campbells death. ... This article is about the weather phenomenon. ... Lowest pressure 922 mbar (hPa; 27. ...


Campbell also stated that enough timber was lost within South Carolina to build a home for every family in West Virginia. An immense salvage effort was undertaken to harvest downed pine trees for pulpwood before they deteriorated to the point where they could not be used. Still standing timber that appeared usable for lumber and plywood frequently had annular separations of the rings that made them dangerous to saw and nearly impossible to cut into plies, so they were also downgraded into pulpwood, leading to such a drop in pulpwood prices that eventually much of the salvage effort ceased. Pulpwood refers to timber stocks that are cut in order to make wood pulp for paper production. ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Lumber or Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction... Toy constructed from plywood. ...


Inland, the storm destroyed homes, timber, and the area's cotton crop. Rainfall totals associated with Hugo were slightly below the average for a direct United States strike, likely due to the storm's rapid forward motion. The maximum amount measured was 10.28" at Edisto Island, South Carolina. [7] Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ...


North Carolina

By the time it reached Charlotte, North Carolina, Hugo was still a Category 1 hurricane and was still strong enough to topple many trees across roads and houses leaving many without power, closing schools for as long as two weeks, and spawning several tornadoes. The storm took Charlotte by surprise; the city is 200 miles (320 km) inland and is frequently a stopover for people fleeing from the coast. Damage to trees was reported across much of western North Carolina. Charlotte (also known as candle stick) is a figure skating grace move - one of the spirals, where the skater is bended and glides on its one leg with the other one lifted to the air. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ...


North Carolina's coastline also suffered significant damage along its southward-facing beaches, including Brunswick County and the Outer Banks. In all, twenty-nine counties in North Carolina were declared federal disaster areas, with damages in that state alone estimated at $1 billion (1989 US dollars). [8] Brunswick County is the name of several counties in the United States: Brunswick County, North Carolina Brunswick County, Virginia This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... North Carolinas Outer Banks separating the Atlantic Ocean (east) from Albemarle Sound (north) and Pamlico Sound (south). ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ...


Mid-Atlantic

The last death caused by the storm was in East Aurora, New York near Buffalo when the winds toppled a tree onto a motorist. Position within Erie County. ... Nickname: Location of Buffalo in New York State County Government  - Mayor Byron Brown (D) Area  - City 52. ...


Aftermath

Red Cross response

Extensive relief aid was provided throughout by The Salvation Army, the Red Cross and various churches. Shield of The Salvation Army The Salvation Army is a non-military evangelical Christian organisation. ... The Anarchist Black Cross was originally called the Anarchist Red Cross. The band Redd Kross was originally called Red Cross. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


St. Croix

On the island of St. Croix, looting and lawlessness reigned in the aftermath of Hugo. Phone lines, power lines, hospitals, banks, the airport and 90% of all structures were severely damaged or destroyed. Three days after the storm hit, the governor of the Virgin Islands asked United States President George H. W. Bush for federal assistance in restoring order to the island. On September 20, members of the XVIII Airborne "Contingency Corps" were dispatched to the island as part of Operation Hawkeye. Military police patrolled the island for two months, imposing a dusk-to-dawn curfew. Cargo planes brought in food, water, mobile hospital units, and other supplies while offering free evacuation flights for anyone wanting to leave for the mainland. A separate article treats the several rivers known as the St. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Economic impact

After the storm, Governor Carroll Campbell said that the storm destroyed enough timber in South Carolina to frame a home for every family in the state of West Virginia. A list of South Carolina Governors. ... Front page of The State after Campbells death. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ...


FEMA criticism

In South Carolina, which bore the brunt of the storm, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) was slow in responding and Senator Fritz Hollings referred to them as "a bunch of bureaucratic jackasses." An investigation was launched, which led to some reforms in FEMA procedures that helped the agency do a somewhat better job during Andrew, the next catastrophic hurricane to strike the United States. However, FEMA was criticized severely in 2005 for its similarly insufficient response to Hurricane Katrina, while private relief agencies and corporations such as Wal-Mart were praised for their prompt and comprehensive response to the disaster. FEMA's relevancy was questioned in Katrina's aftermath. New FEMA seal The Federal Emergency Management Agency, or FEMA, is an agency of the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS). ... Ernest Frederick Fritz Hollings (born January 1, 1922) was a Democratic United States Senator from South Carolina from 1966 to January 3, 2005. ... This article is about the Atlantic hurricane of 2005. ...


Retirement

See also: List of retired Atlantic hurricanes

Due to the extensive damage, the name Hugo was retired following this storm, and will never again be used for an Atlantic hurricane. It was replaced with Humberto in the 1995 season. This is a list of all Atlantic hurricanes that have had their names retired. ... Atlantic hurricane refers to a tropical cyclone that forms in the Atlantic Ocean north of the equator, usually in the Northern Hemisphere summer or autumn. ... The name Humberto has been used for two tropical cyclones in the Atlantic Ocean which replaced Hugo in 1989. ... The 1995 Atlantic hurricane season officially began on June 1, 1995, and lasted until November 30, 1995. ...


See also

Tropical cyclones Portal

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x662, 320 KB) http://eol. ... This is a list of notable tropical cyclones, subdivided by basin and reason for notability. ... This is a list of notable Atlantic hurricanes, subdivided by reason for notability. ... Hurricane Isabel viewed from space This is a list of all Atlantic hurricanes that have reached Category 5, the highest classification of tropical cyclone intensity on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. ...

References

  1. ^ a b http://www.geocities.com/hurricanene/hurricanehugo.htm Hurricane Hugo 1989
  2. ^ a b http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pastcost.shtml
  3. ^ http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pastdeadly.shtml NHC list of deadliest hurricanes
  4. ^ http://www.thecommonwealth.org/YearbookInternal/140416/140427/montserrat/ Commonwealth Secretariat - Montserrat
  5. ^ a b c http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/weather/hurricane/poststories/hugo-pr.htm WashingtonPost.com: WeatherPost - "Deadly Hugo Slams Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands"
  6. ^ http://www.sei.org/Bats.html Montserrat Bats
  7. ^ http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/hugo1989rain.gif
  8. ^ http://www.csc.noaa.gov/products/nchaz/htm/hugo.htm NHC North Carolina hazards: Hugo

External links


Retired Atlantic hurricanes
1950s | Carol | Edna | Hazel | Connie | Diane | Ione | Janet | Audrey | Gracie
1960s | Donna | Carla | Hattie | Flora | Cleo | Dora | Hilda | Betsy | Inez | Beulah | Camille
1970s | Celia | Agnes | Carmen | Fifi | Eloise | Anita | David | Frederic
1980s | Allen | Alicia | Elena | Gloria | Gilbert | Joan | Hugo
1990s | Diana | Klaus | Bob | Andrew | Luis | Marilyn | Opal | Roxanne | Cesar | Fran | Hortense | Georges | Mitch | Floyd | Lenny
2000s | Keith | Allison | Iris | Michelle | Isidore | Lili | Fabian | Isabel | Juan | Charley | Frances | Ivan | Jeanne | Dennis | Katrina | Rita | Stan | Wilma
Tropical cyclones of the 1989 Atlantic hurricane season
H
Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale
TD TS 1 2 3 4 5

  Results from FactBites:
 
Hurricane Hugo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1370 words)
Hurricane Hugo was a destructive Category 5 hurricane that struck Puerto Rico, St.
At the time it was the costliest hurricane in U.S. history, but was exceeded in 1992 by Hurricane Andrew, and by three other storms since then.
Croix, looting and lawlessness reigned in the aftermath of Hugo.
Encyclopedia4U - Hurricane Hugo - Encyclopedia Article (216 words)
Hugo (September 13-September 22, 1989) was a hurricane that originated in Africa and made landfall on the evening of the 21st just northeast of Charleston, South Carolina, heading toward Charlotte, North Carolina.
Hurricane Hugo was first detected, as a thunderstorm, near Cape Verde, Africa, on September 9.
Moving westward, it was declared a tropical storm on September 11, and declared a hurricane on the 13th.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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