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Encyclopedia > Hurrians
Ancient Mesopotamia
Euphrates · Tigris
Cities / Empires
Sumer: Uruk · Ur · Eridu
Kish · Lagash · Nippur
Akkadian Empire: Akkad
Babylon · Isin · Susa
Assyria: Assur · Nineveh
Dur-Sharrukin · Nimrud
Babylonia · Chaldea
Elam · Amorites
Hurrians · Mitanni
Kassites · Urartu
Chronology
Kings of Sumer
Kings of Assyria
Kings of Babylon
Language
Aramaic
Sumerian · Akkadian
Elamite · Hurrian
Mythology
Enûma Elish
Gilgamesh · Marduk
This article is part of the
Kurdish history and Culture series
Early ancestors
Ancient history
Medieval history
Modern history
Culture
For the history of the kingdom of Mitanni (1500–1300 BC), see Mitanni.

The Hurrians (also Khurrites[1]; cuneiform Ḫu-ur-ri 𒄷𒌨𒊑) were a people of the Ancient Near East, who lived in northern Mesopotamia and areas to the immediate east and west, beginning approximately 2500 BC. They probably originated in the Caucasus and entered from the north, but this is not certain. Their known homeland was centred in Subartu, the Khabur River valley, and later they established themselves as rulers of small kingdoms throughout northern Mesopotamia and Syria. The largest and most influential Hurrian nation was the kingdom of Mitanni. Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... Image File history File links Babylonlion. ... Surfer Rosa The Euphrates (Greek: EuphrátÄ“s; Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu; Hebrew: פְּרָת PÄ•rāth; Syriac: Prâth; Arabic: الفرات Al-Furāt; Turkish: Fırat; Kurdish: فرهات, Firhat, Ferhat) is the western of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (the other being the Tigris). ... The Tigris River (Arabic: دجلة Dijla, Hebrew: חדקל ḥiddeqel, Kurdish: Dîjle, Pahlavi: Tigr, Old Persian: Tigrā-, Syriac: ܕܩܠܬ Deqlath, Turkish: Dicle, Akkadian: Idiqlat) is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq (the name Mesopotamia... Sumer (or Å umer, Sumerian ki-en-gir[1], Egyptian Sanhar[2]) was one of the early civilizations of the Ancient Near East, located in the southern part of Mesopotamia (southeastern Iraq) from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in... Uruk (Sumerian Unug, Biblical Erech, Greek Orchoë and Arabic وركاء Warka), was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles (230 km) SSE from Baghdad. ... For other uses, see UR. Ur seen across the Royal tombs, with the Great Ziggurat in the background, January 17, 2004 Ur was an ancient city in southern Mesopotamia, located near the mouth (at the time) of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers on the Persian Gulf and close to Eridu. ... Eridu (or Eridug) was an ancient city seven miles southwest of Ur . ... Kish [kish] (Tall al-Uhaymir) was an ancient city of Sumer, now in central Iraq. ... Lagash or Sirpurla was one of the oldest cities of Sumer and later Babylonia. ... The city of Nippur [nipoor] (Sumerian Nibru, Akkadian Nibbur) was one of the most ancient of all the Babylonian cities of which we have any knowledge, the special seat of the worship of the Sumerian god, Enlil, ruler of the cosmos subject to An alone. ... The Akkadian Empire usually refers to the Semitic speaking state that grew up around the city of Akkad north of Sumer, and reached its greatest extent under Sargon of Akkad. ... Akkad (or Agade) was a city and its region of northern Mesopotamia, situated on the left bank of the Euphrates, between Sippar and Kish (located in present-day Iraq, ca. ... Babylon was an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq), the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, about 50 miles (80 km) south of Baghdad. ... An International Securities Identifying Number (ISIN) uniquely identifies a security. ... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Assur (Assyrian: ܐܫܘܪ) also spelled Ashur, from Assyrian AÅ¡Å¡ur, was the capital of ancient Assyria. ... , For other uses, see Nineveh (disambiguation). ... Human-headed winged bull, found during Bottas excavation. ... Nimrud is an ancient Assyrian city located south of Nineveh on the river Tigris. ... Babylonia, named for its capital city, Babylon, an ancient state in the south part of Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... For other uses, see Chaldean. ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Tidnum or AmurrÅ«m (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the country west of the Euphrates from the second half of the third millennium BC, and also the god they worshipped (see Amurru). ... Mitanni or Mittani (in Assyrian sources Hanilgalbat, Khanigalbat) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia (in what is today Syria) from ca. ... The Kassites were a Near Eastern mountain tribe of obscure origins, who spoke a non-Indo-European, non-Semitic language. ... Urartu at its greatest extent 743 BC Urartu (Biainili in Urartian) was an ancient kingdom in the mountainous plateau between Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Caucasus mountains, later known as the Armenian Highland, and it centered around Lake Van (present-day eastern Turkey). ... The Chronology of the Ancient Orient deals with the notoriously difficult task of assigning years of the Common Era to various events, rulers and dynasties of the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC. The chronology of this region is based on five sets of primary materials. ... The Sumerian king list is an ancient text in the Sumerian language listing kings of Sumer from Sumerian and foreign dynasties. ... This page lists the Kings of Assyria from earliest times. ... The following is a list of the Kings of Babylon, a major city of ancient Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... The Sumerian language ( EME.GIR15 native tongue) of ancient Sumer was spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BCE. Sumerian was replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language around 1800 BCE, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific language in Mesopotamia until... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Elamite is an extinct language, which was spoken by the ancient Elamites (also known as Ilamids). ... Hurrian is a conventional name for the language of the Hurrians (Khurrites), a people who entered northern Mesopotamia around 2300 BC and had mostly vanished by 1000 BC. Hurrian was the language of the Mitanni kingdom in northern Mesopotamia, and was likely spoken at least initially in Hurrian settlements in... Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Iraq. ... Enûma EliÅ¡ is the Babylonian creation epic. ... Gilgamesh, according to the Sumerian king list, was the fifth king of Uruk (Early Dynastic II, first dynasty of Uruk), the son of Lugalbanda, ruling circa 2650 BC. Legend has it that his mother was Ninsun, a goddess. ... Marduk (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian: AMAR.UTU solar calf; Biblical: Merodach) was the Babylonian name of a late generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon, who, when Babylon permanently became the political center of the Euphrates valley in the time of Hammurabi (18th century... The history of the Kurds stretches from ancient times to the present day. ... Kurdish culture is a group of distinctive cultural traits practiced by Kurdish people. ... The word Hurrian may refer to: An ancient people of the Near East, the Hurrians. ... The Gutians (also: Quti, Kuti, Gurti, Qurti, Kurti) were a people of ancient Mesopotamia who lived primarily in the central Zagros Range, most probably an Aryan people. ... Mitanni or Mittani (in Assyrian sources Hanilgalbat, Khanigalbat) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia (in what is today Syria) from ca. ... The Mannaeans (or Mannai, Mannae, Biblical Minni) were an ancient people of unknown origin, who lived in the territory of present-day Iranian Azerbaijan around the 10th to 7th century BC. At that time they were neighbours of the empires of Assyria and Urartu, as well as other small buffer... Medea (Medea Proper), ca. ... This article or section may contain inappropriate or misinterpreted citations. ... The Kayusid or House of Kayus (also Kâvos) or Kâvusakân(226-380) was a semi-independent Kurdish kingdom in central and southern Kurdistan established in 226 CE. The House of Kayus was established after an agreement between Kurdish principalities and kingdoms and the Persian Empire, following a... Sharazor (also: Sharazur, Shahrazor, Shahrazur, Shahrezour, Shehrizor, land of Zor and City of Zor) was name of a historic Wilayet and a city situated to the south and east of Iraqi Kurdistan; // The name of Sharazor is formed of two words: Shar or shahr meaning: land, region, city; and Zor... The Shaddadids were a Kurdish dynasty, who ruled in various parts of Armenia, including Arran from 951-1174 or 1199 A.D. They were established Dvin. ... Rawadid (also Rawwadid or Ravvadid), (955-1227), was a Kurdish principality ruling Azerbaijan from the 10th to the early 13th centuries, centered around Tabriz and Maragheh(Maragha). ... Hasanwayhid,(959-1015), was a Kurdish principality centered at Dinawar (northeast of present-day Kermanshah). ... The Annazid or Banu Annaz,(990-1116), were a Kurdish dynasty that ruled a territory on the present-day Iran-Iraq frontier that included Kermanshah, Hulwan, Dinawar (all in western Iran), Sharazour, Daquq, Daskara, Bandanijin(Mandali), and Nomaniya(in north-eastern Iraq). ... Marwanid, (990-1085), was a Kurdish dynasty in Northern Mesopotamia and Armenia, centered around the city of Diyarbakır. ... The Ayyubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Egypt, Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... Badlis (1182-1847), was a Kurdish principality originated from the Rojaki tribe. ... Ardalan or (Erdelan) is the name of a semi-independent state in north-western Iran which ruled an area encompassing present day Iranian province of Kurdistan from medieval period up to mid 19th century. ... Badinan, was one of the more powerful and enduring Kurdish principalities. ... Soran Emirate (1399-1883 A.D) was a Kurdish principality in Southern Kurdistan Its Capital was the city of Rawanduz. ... Baban, (1649-1850), was a Kurdish principality and ruling family originated in the region of Pijder. ... The Kingdom of Kurdistan can refer to two kingdoms formed in the 1920s in the geo-cultural region of Kurdistan. ... The Republic of Ararat was a self-proclaimed Kurdish state. ... Qazi Mohammad, president of the Republic of Kurdistan The Republic of Mahabad (Kurdish: Komarî Mehabad, Persian: جمهوری مهاباد ), officially Republic of Kurdistan, established in Iranian Kurdistan, was a short-lived, Soviet backed Kurdish state of the 20th century after the Republic of Ararat in Turkey. ... The Kurdistan Region (Kurdish: حكومه تى هه ريمى كوردستان, Hikûmetî Herêmî Kurdistan, Arabic: اقلیم کردستان) is an autonomous, federally recognized political entity located in northern Iraq. ... Iranian Kurdistan (Kurdish: Kurdistana ÃŽranê [1] or Kurdistana Rojhilat (Eastern Kurdistan) [2] or Rojhilatê Kurdistan (East of Kurdistan) [3]) is an unofficial name for the parts of Iran inhabited by Kurds and has borders with Iraq and Turkey. ... Turkish Kurdistan (Turkish: Türkiye Kürdistanı or Kuzey Kürdistan (Northern Kurdistan) or Kuzeybatı Kürdistan [4] (Northwestern Kurdistan), Kurdish: Kurdistana Tirkiyê [5] or Bakurê Kurdistanê [6] (North of Kurdistan) or Kurdistana Bakûr [7] (Northern Kurdistan) ) is an unofficial name for the southeastern part of Turkey densely inhabited... About half of all Kurds live in Turkey, numbering some 15 million where they comprise an estimated 20%[1] of the total population of Turkey and are predominantly distributed in the southeastern corner of the country. ... Kurds are the largest ethnic minority in Syria making up 10% of the countrys population i. ... The Kurdistan newspaper Kurdish literature (in Kurdish: Wêjey kurdî) is a literature written in Kurdish language. ... Traditionally, there are three types of Kurdish Classical performers - storytellers (çîrokbêj), minstrels (stranbêj) and bards (dengbêj). ... Kurdish dance (Kurdish: Govend) is a group of traditional hand-holding dances similar to those from the Balkans, Lebanon, and to Iraq. ... Kurdish women have traditionally played important roles in Kurdish history, society and politics. ... Mitanni or Mittani (in Assyrian sources Hanilgalbat, Khanigalbat) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia (in what is today Syria) from ca. ... Look up Cuneiform in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Overview map of the Ancient Near East The term Ancient Near East or Ancient Orient encompasses the early civilizations predating Classical Antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey), during the time roughly spanning the Bronze Age from the rise... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... (Redirected from 2500 BC) (26th century BC - 25th century BC - 24th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC -- Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period 2494 BC -- End of Fourth Dynasty, start of Fifth Dynasty in Egypt. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... The land of Subar (Sumerian Su-bir4/Subar/Å ubur) or Subartu (Akkadian Å ubartum/Subartum/ina Šú-ba-ri, Assyrian mât Å ubarri) was situated at the Tigris, north of Babylonia. ... The Khabur river (also Habor, Habur) is 200 miles (320 km) long, beginning in southeastern Turkey, and flowing generally south to Syria where it is joined by the Jaghjagh River and eventually empties into Euphrates River. ... Mitanni or Mittani (in Assyrian sources Hanilgalbat, Khanigalbat) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia (in what is today Syria) from ca. ...


The prehistoric culture of northern Mesopotamia is described in the Tell Halaf, Tell Brak, Ubaid and Uruk period articles. The Hurrians also played a substantial part in the History of the Hittites. Hunting scene relief in basalt found at Tell Halaf, dated 850-830 BCE Tell Halaf is an archaeological site in the Al Hasakah governorate of northeastern Syria, near the Turkish border. ... Nagar was an ancient pre-Akkadian and Akkadian city on the Khabur River in northeastern Syria which is now represented by the mound named Tell Brak. ... The tell (mound) of Ubaid near Ur in southern Iraq has given its name to the prehistoric culture which represents the earliest settlement on the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia. ... The Uruk period is a protohistoric sequence in the history of Mesopotamia which stretches from 4100 to 3300 BC, before the apparition of a writing system. ... Hittites is the conventional English-language term for an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language and established a kingdom centered in Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite Empire was at its height, encompassing central Anatolia...

Contents

People

The Hurrians inhabited virtually all parts of the ancient Near East in the second millennium BC. They were probably the largest ethnic group in the region. However, in most parts the Hurrians made up only a minority of the population. A Hurrian population majority existed only in the Khabur River Valley and in the kingdom of Arrapha. By the first millennium BC the Hurrians had been assimilated with other peoples, except perhaps in the kingdom of Urartu. Overview map of the Ancient Near East The term Ancient Near East or Ancient Orient encompasses the early civilizations predating Classical Antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey), during the time roughly spanning the Bronze Age from the rise... The Khabur river (also Habor, Habur) is 200 miles (320 km) long, beginning in southeastern Turkey, and flowing generally south to Syria where it is joined by the Jaghjagh River and eventually empties into Euphrates River. ... Arrapha (ܐܪܦܐ in Assyrian) (Arabic: ‎) was an ancient Assyrian city, that laed in what is today the city of Kirkuk. ... Urartu at its greatest extent 743 BC Urartu (Biainili in Urartian) was an ancient kingdom in the mountainous plateau between Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Caucasus mountains, later known as the Armenian Highland, and it centered around Lake Van (present-day eastern Turkey). ...


Many researchers conclude that Hurrians are of one of the several Kurdish ancestor tribes stretched across the region of what is commonly today referred to as Kurdistan[2]. The Hurrians have been credited for much of the cultural and linguistic elements of the modern Kurds. Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... Kurdistan (literally meaning the land of Kurds[1]; old: Koordistan, Curdistan, Kurdia, also in Kurdish: Kurdewarî) is the name of a geographic and cultural region in the Middle East, inhabited predominantly by the Kurds. ...

The Armenians according to Diakonoff, are then an amalgam of the Hurrian (and Urartians), Luvians and the Proto-Armenian Mushki who carried their IE language eastwards across Anatolia. After arriving in its historical territory, Proto-Armenian would appear to have undergone massive influence on part the languages it eventually replaced. Armenian phonology, for instance, appears to have been greatly affected by Urartian, which may suggest a long period of bilingualism.[3]

Language

The Hurrians spoke an ergative-agglutinative language, conventionally called Hurrian, unrelated to neighboring Semitic or Indo-European languages, but clearly related to Urartian — a language spoken about a millennium later in northeastern Anatolia — and possibly, very distantly, to the present-day Northeast Caucasian languages. Some scholars relate the Hurrian language also to Georgian.[4] Many researchers who consider Hurrian language as proto-Kurdish regard the ergativity of the Kurdish language as one of the important syntactical connections between the two languages [1]. In addition to other grammatical similarities there are many Hurrian words found in Kurdish. Kurdish scholars believe that the Hurrian name survives in the present Hurami or Hewrami name given to a distinct dialect spoken by Kurds in the Hewraman regions along the Iraq-Iran border. Similarities to Hurrian words have been suggested in neighboring languages such as Armenian. It is believed by some scholars that the Hurrians mixed with their neighbors, such as the Armenians after arriving in the Caucasus around 2700 BC from an unknown place. Another theory is that the Armenians came to the Caucasus with the Hurrians from the Proto-Indo-European homeland.[5] An ergative-absolutive language (or simply ergative) is one that treats the agent of transitive verbs distinctly from the subject of intransitive verbs and the object of transitive verbs. ... It has been suggested that Agglutination be merged into this article or section. ... Hurrian is a conventional name for the language of the Hurrians (Khurrites), a people who entered northern Mesopotamia around 2300 BC and had mostly vanished by 1000 BC. Hurrian was the language of the Mitanni kingdom in northern Mesopotamia, and was likely spoken at least initially in Hurrian settlements in... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, the Americas as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... Urartian is the conventional name for the language spoken by the inhabitants of the ancient kingdom of Urartu in Northeast Anatolia (present-day Turkey), in the region of Lake Van. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Northeast Caucasian languages, also called East Caucasian, Caspian, Nakh-Dagestanian, or Dagestanian, are a family of languages spoken mostly in the Dagestan, Chechnya, and Ingushetia regions of Russia, in Northern Azerbaijan, and in Georgia. ... An ergative-absolutive language (or simply ergative) is one that treats the agent of transitive verbs distinctly from the subject of intransitive verbs and the object of transitive verbs. ... The Kurdish language is an Iranian language spoken in the region called Kurdistan, including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ... Gorani (also Gurani) is a dialect spoken by several hundreds of thousands of Kurds in the province of Kurdistan and province of Kermanshah in Iran, and in the Halabja region in Iraqi Kurdistan and the Hewraman mountains between Iran and Iraq. ... Hewrami or Hawrami is an archaic branch of Kurdish language. ... Hewraman (or Hawraman) is a mountaneous region situated in north-western Iran including the city Pawe and north-eastern Iraq including the city Halabja. ... (Redirected from 2700 BC) (28th century BC - 27th century BC - 26th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC -- Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period 2775 - 2650 BC -- Second Dynasty wars in Egypt Germination of the Bristlecone pine tree Methuselah... The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age. ...


The Hurrians adopted the Akkadian cuneiform script for their own language about 2000 BC. This has enabled scholars to read the Hurrian language. Because the number of Hurrian texts discovered is small, and because many Sumerian logograms are used, masking the phonetic shapes of the Hurrian words they represent, understanding of the Hurrian language is far from complete and many words are missing from their vocabulary. Akkadian language city of Akkad or Agad Akkadian Empire Sargon of Akkad the Amarna letters and Amarna Letters EA 296(Yahtiru) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The cuneiform script is one of the earliest known forms of written expression. ... Hurrian is a conventional name for the language of the Hurrians (Khurrites), a people who entered northern Mesopotamia around 2300 BC and had mostly vanished by 1000 BC. Hurrian was the language of the Mitanni kingdom in northern Mesopotamia, and was likely spoken at least initially in Hurrian settlements in... The Sumerian language ( EME.GIR15 native tongue) of ancient Sumer was spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BCE. Sumerian was replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language around 1800 BCE, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific language in Mesopotamia until... A Chinese logogram A logogram, or logograph, is a single written character which represents a word or a morpheme (a meaningful unit of language). ...


Texts in the Hurrian language have been found at Hattusa, Ugarit (Ras Shamra), as well as one of the longest of the Amarna letters, written by King Tushratta of Mitanni to Pharaoh Amenhotep III. It was the only long Hurrian text known until a multi-tablet collection of literature in Hurrian with a Hittite translation was discovered at Hattusas in 1983. The Lion Gate in the south-west Hattusa (also known as Hattusas or Khattushash) was the capital of the Hittite Empire. ... Entrance to the Palace of Ugarit Ugarit (modern site Ras Shamra رأس شمرة; in Arabic) 35°35´ N; 35°45´E) was an ancient cosmopolitan port city, sited on the Mediterranean coast of northern Syria a few kilometers north of the modern city of Latakia. ... One of the Amarna letters The designation Amarna letters denotes an archive of correspondence, mostly diplomatic, between the Egyptian administration and its representatives in Canaan and Amurru. ... Tushratta was a king of the Mitanni at the end of the reign of Amenhotep III and throughout the reign of Akhenaten -- approximately the late 14th century BC. He was the son of Shuttarna II, and his daughter Tadukhipa was married to Akhenaten. ... Nebmaatre The Lord of Truth is Re Nomen Amenhotep Hekawaset Amun is Satisfied, Ruler of Thebes[2] Horus name Kanakht Emkhaimaat The strong bull, appearing in truth Nebty name Semenhepusegerehtawy One establishing laws, pacifying the two lands Golden Horus Aakhepesh-husetiu Great of valour, smiting the Asiatics Consort(s) Tiye...


History

Like most aspects of Hurrian society, their origins are still a mystery. By about 2400 BC, the Hurrians may have expanded from the foothills of the Caucasus. In the following centuries, Hurrian names occur sporadically in northern Mesopotamia and the area of Kirkuk in modern Iraq. Their presence was attested at Nuzi, Urkesh and other sites. They eventually infiltrated and occupied a broad arc of fertile farmland stretching from the Khabur River valley to the foothills of the Zagros Mountains. (Redirected from 2400 BC) (25th century BC - 24th century BC - 23rd century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC -- Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period 2350 BC - End of the Early Dynastic IIIb Period in Mesopotamia 2334 - 2279 BC -- Sargon... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Location of Kirkuk in Iraqi map Kirkuk (also spelled Karkuk or Kerkuk; Arabic: كركوك, KirkÅ«k; Kurdish: كركوك ; Syriac: ܐܪܦܗܐ, Arrapha; Persian: کرکوک; Turkish: Kerkük) is a city in northern Iraq and capital of Tamim governorate. ... Nuzi was an ancient city southwest of Kirkuk in modern Iraq, located near the Tigris river. ... Urkesh was a city situated at the base of the Taurus Mountains in what is now northern Syria near the modern city of Qamishli. ... The Khabur river (also Habor, Habur) is 200 miles (320 km) long, beginning in southeastern Turkey, and flowing generally south to Syria where it is joined by the Jaghjagh River and eventually empties into Euphrates River. ... The Zagros Mountains are the most extensive range in Western Asia in terms of the area covered. ...


The city state of Urkesh

The Khabur River valley became the heart of the Hurrian lands for a millennium. The first known Hurrian kingdom emerged around the city of Urkesh at the end of the third millennium BC. The end of the Akkadian Empire enabled the Hurrians to gain control of the area. This region had since long been the center of rich cultures (see Tell Halaf and Tell Brak). Now the Hurrians could benefit from this and organize their own advanced city-state. Urkesh was a city situated at the base of the Taurus Mountains in what is now northern Syria near the modern city of Qamishli. ... The Akkadian Empire usually refers to the Semitic speaking state that grew up around the city of Akkad north of Sumer, and reached its greatest extent under Sargon of Akkad. ... Hunting scene relief in basalt found at Tell Halaf, dated 850-830 BCE Tell Halaf is an archaeological site in the Al Hasakah governorate of northeastern Syria, near the Turkish border. ... Nagar was an ancient pre-Akkadian and Akkadian city on the Khabur River in northeastern Syria which is now represented by the mound named Tell Brak. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ...


The city state of Urkesh still had some powerful neighbors, however. At some point in the early second millennium BC the Amorite kingdom of Mari to the south subdued Urkesh into a vassal state. In the continuous power struggle over Mesopotamia another Amorite dynasty made themselves masters over Mari in the eighteenth century BC. The capital of this Old Assyrian kingdom called Shubat-Enlil was founded some distance from Urkesh at another Hurrian settlement in the Khabur River valley. Intendant Ebih-Il, found in the temple of Ishtar at Mari, Archaic Dynasties (ca. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Shubat-Enlil was an ancient city located at the modern village of Tell Leilan in northern Syria, at the Khabur river basin by river Jarrah. ... The Khabur river (also Habor, Habur) is 200 miles (320 km) long, beginning in southeastern Turkey, and flowing generally south to Syria where it is joined by the Jaghjagh River and eventually empties into Euphrates River. ...


The kingdom of Yamhad

The Hurrians also migrated west in this period. By 1725 BC they are found also in parts of northern Syria, such as Alalakh. The Amoritic-Hurrian kingdom of Yamhad is recorded as struggling for this area with the early Hittite king Hattusilis I around 1600 BC. Hurrians also settled in the coastal region of Adaniya in the country of Kizzuwatna. Yamhad eventually weakened to the powerful Hittites, but this also opened Anatolia for Hurrian cultural influences. The Hittites were influenced by the Hurrian culture over the course of several centuries. (Redirected from 1725 BC) (19th century BC - 18th century BC - 17th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 1787 - 1784 BC -- Amorite conquests of Uruk and Isin 1786 BC -- Egypt: End of Twelfth Dynasty, start of Thirteenth Dynasty, start of Fourteenth Dynasty 1766... Alalakh is the name of an ancient city and its associated city-state of the Amuq River valley, located in the Hatay region of southern Turkey near the city of Antakya (ancient Antioch), and now represented by an extensive city-mound known as Tell Atchana. ... Yamhad (also written Jamhad or Yamkhad) was an ancient Amorite kingdom centered at Halab, Aleppo, in northern Syria. ... Labarna II was the first king of the Hittite empire, reigning in Hattusa (while the earlier kings had been at Nesa), and taking the throne name of Hattusili I on that occasion. ... Kizzuwatna is the name of an ancient kingdom of the second millennium BC. It was situated in the highlands of Anatolia, Turkey. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The emergence of Mitanni

Main article: Mitanni

The Hittites continued expanding south after the defeat of Yamhad. The army of the Hittite king Mursili I made its way down to Babylon and sacked the city. The destruction of the Babylonian kingdom, as well as the kingdom of Yamhad, helped the rise of another Hurrian dynasty. The first ruler was a legendary king called Kirta who founded the kingdom of Mitanni around 1500 BC. Mitanni gradually grew from the region around Khabur river valley and became the most powerful kingdom of the Near East c.1450-1350 BC. Mitanni or Mittani (in Assyrian sources Hanilgalbat, Khanigalbat) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia (in what is today Syria) from ca. ... Yamhad (also written Jamhad or Yamkhad) was an ancient Amorite kingdom centered at Halab, Aleppo, in northern Syria. ... Mursili I (also spelled Murshili) was a king of the Hittites (c. ... Babylon was an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq), the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, about 50 miles (80 km) south of Baghdad. ... Kirta is a legendary Hurrian king. ... Mitanni or Mittani (in Assyrian sources Hanilgalbat, Khanigalbat) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia (in what is today Syria) from ca. ... The Khabur river (also Habor, Habur) is 200 miles (320 km) long, beginning in southeastern Turkey, and flowing generally south to Syria where it is joined by the Jaghjagh River and eventually empties into Euphrates River. ...


The state of Arrapha

Another Hurrian kingdom also benefited from the demise of Babylonian power in sixteenth century BC. Hurrians had inhabited the region northeast of river Tigris, around the modern Kirkuk. This was the kingdom of Arrapha. Excavations at Yorgan Tepe, ancient Nuzi, proved to be one of the most important sites for our knowledge about the Hurrians. Hurrian kings such as Ithi-Teshup and Ithiya ruled over Arrapha, yet by the mid-fifteenth century BC they had become vassals of the Great King of Mitanni. Arrapha itself was destroyed by the Assyrians in the fourteenth century BC. The Tigris River (Arabic: دجلة Dijla, Hebrew: חדקל ḥiddeqel, Kurdish: Dîjle, Pahlavi: Tigr, Old Persian: Tigrā-, Syriac: ܕܩܠܬ Deqlath, Turkish: Dicle, Akkadian: Idiqlat) is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq (the name Mesopotamia... Location of Kirkuk in Iraqi map Kirkuk (also spelled Karkuk or Kerkuk; Arabic: كركوك, KirkÅ«k; Kurdish: كركوك ; Syriac: ܐܪܦܗܐ, Arrapha; Persian: کرکوک; Turkish: Kerkük) is a city in northern Iraq and capital of Tamim governorate. ... Arrapha (ܐܪܦܐ in Assyrian) (Arabic: ‎) was an ancient Assyrian city, that laed in what is today the city of Kirkuk. ... Nuzi was an ancient city southwest of Kirkuk in modern Iraq, located near the Tigris river. ...


The end of the Hurrians

By the thirteenth century BC all of the Hurrian states had been vanquished by other peoples. The heart of the Hurrian lands, the Khabur river valley, became an Assyrian province. It is not clear what happened to the Hurrian people at the end of the Bronze Age. Some scholars have suggested Hurrians lived on in the country of Subria north of Assyria during the early Iron Age. The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ...


The Hurrian population of Syria in the following centuries seems to have given up their language in favor of the Assyrian dialect of Akkadian or, more likely, Aramaic. This was around the same time that an aristocracy speaking Urartian, similar to old Hurrian, seems to have first imposed itself on the population around Lake Van, and formed the Kingdom of Urartu. Akkadian (lišānum akkadītum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... Urartu at its greatest extent 743 BC Urartu (Biainili in Urartian) was an ancient kingdom in the mountainous plateau between Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Caucasus mountains, later known as the Armenian Highland, and it centered around Lake Van (present-day eastern Turkey). ...


The Indo-Aryan connection

The question of Indo-Aryan cultural influences, or even a ruling aristocracy, among the Hurrians is an ambiguous issue. Early scholars (Belardi, Burrow, Kammenhuber, Lesný) were convinced the Hurrians were dominated by an elite of foreign rulers. These foreigners spoke an Indo-Iranian language from Central Asia related to Avestan and even more closely related to Vedic Sanskrit (for example, the word for "one" in this language was aika, similar to Sanskrit eka vs. Avestan aeva). The presence of an Indo-Aryan people among the Hurrians was put in doubt by Manfred Mayrhofer (1966), and called in question by Gernot Wilhelm (1982). The Indo-Aryans who make up around 74% of Indias population (Hindustani: इन्दो-आर्यन, اِندو آریایی) are a wide collection of peoples united by their common status as the ethno-linguistic descendents of the Indic branch of the ancient Indo-Iranians (also known as Aryans). ... Indo-Iranian languages (also called Aryan languages) are the eastern-most group of the living Indo-European languages. ... Yasna 28. ... Vedic Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas, which are the earliest sacred texts of India,. The Vedas were first passed down orally and therefore have no known date. ...


They introduced the cremation of their dead, and introduced the use of the horse and chariot in the battlefield — a situation that has obvious similarities to the events in northern India at about the same time. While this foreign aristocracy eventually abandoned their language in favor of that of their Hurrian subjects, they retained Indo-Iranian names, they invoked Vedic gods in some of their treaties, and some words from their Indo-Iranian language survived as loanwords in Hurrian, particularly technical terms related to horses and their training (Mayrhofer, 1974). This article discusses the historical religious practices in the Vedic time period; see Dharmic religions for details of contemporary religious practices. ...


Particularly the state of Mitanni, itself believed to be an Indo-Aryan word, was connected with the Indo-Aryan culture. Most rulers of Mitanni seem to have had Indo-Aryan names, and the ruling aristocracy was called maryanni, meaning "young warrior" in Sanskrit marya. The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is an old Indo-Aryan language from the Indian Subcontinent, the classical literary language of the Hindus of India[1], a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...


Culture and society

Knowledge of Hurrian culture relies on archaeological excavations at sites such as Nuzi and Alalakh as well as on cuneiform tablets, primarily from Hattusas (Boghazköy), the capital of the Hittites, whose civilization was greatly influenced by the Hurrians. Tablets from Nuzi, Alalakh, and other cities with Hurrian populations (as shown by personal names) reveal Hurrian cultural features even though they were written in Akkadian. Hurrian cylinder seals were carefully carved and often portrayed mythological motives. They are a key to the understanding of Hurrian culture and history. Nuzi was an ancient city southwest of Kirkuk in modern Iraq, located near the Tigris river. ... Alalakh is the name of an ancient city and its associated city-state of the Amuq River valley, located in the Hatay region of southern Turkey near the city of Antakya (ancient Antioch), and now represented by an extensive city-mound known as Tell Atchana. ... The cuneiform script is one of the earliest known forms of written expression. ... Hattusa (also known as Hattusas or Hattush) was the capital of the Hittite Empire. ... Nuzi was an ancient city southwest of Kirkuk in modern Iraq, located near the Tigris river. ... Alalakh is the name of an ancient city and its associated city-state of the Amuq River valley, located in the Hatay region of southern Turkey near the city of Antakya (ancient Antioch), and now represented by an extensive city-mound known as Tell Atchana. ... Gilgamesh and Enkidu, cylinder seal impression from Ur III, with oldest type of pictographic cuneiform The Cylinder seals in ancient times, were used to put an impression in clay. ...


Ceramic ware

The Hurrians were masterful ceramists. Their pottery is commonly found in Mesopotamia and in the lands west of the Euphrates; it was highly valued in distant Egypt, by the time of the New Kingdom. Archaeologists use the terms Khabur ware and Nuzi ware for the Hurrian wheel-made pottery. It is characterized by reddish painted lines with a geometric triangular pattern and dots, also occurring in brown and black. Image of a Khabur ware jar found at Chagar Bazar, now in British Museum. The New Kingdom is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BCE and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. ...


Metallurgy

The Hurrians had a reputation in metallurgy. The Sumerians borrowed their copper terminology from the Hurrian vocabulary. Copper was traded south to Mesopotamia from the highlands of Anatolia. The Khabur River Valley had a central position in the metal trade, and copper, silver and even tin were accessible from the Hurrian-dominated countries Kizzuwatna and Ishuwa situated in the Anatolian highland. Gold was in short supply, and the Amarna letters inform us that it was acquired from Egypt. Not many examples of Hurrian metal work have survived, except from the later Urartu. Some small fine bronze lion figurines were discovered at Urkesh. Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and of materials engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. ... Sumer (or Å umer, Sumerian ki-en-gir[1], Egyptian Sanhar[2]) was one of the early civilizations of the Ancient Near East, located in the southern part of Mesopotamia (southeastern Iraq) from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Khabur river (also Habor, Habur) is 200 miles (320 km) long, beginning in southeastern Turkey, and flowing generally south to Syria where it is joined by the Jaghjagh River and eventually empties into Euphrates River. ... Kizzuwatna is the name of an ancient kingdom of the second millennium BC. It was situated in the highlands of Anatolia, Turkey. ... Ishuwa was an ancient kingdom in Anatolia, Turkey. ... One of the Amarna letters The designation Amarna letters denotes an archive of correspondence, mostly diplomatic, between the Egyptian administration and its representatives in Canaan and Amurru. ... Urartu at its greatest extent 743 BC Urartu (Biainili in Urartian) was an ancient kingdom in the mountainous plateau between Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Caucasus mountains, later known as the Armenian Highland, and it centered around Lake Van (present-day eastern Turkey). ... Urkesh was a city situated at the base of the Taurus Mountains in what is now northern Syria near the modern city of Qamishli. ...


The horse

The Hurrians were closely associated with horses. They might actually have introduced the horse into the Near East from Central Asia around 2000 BC. The name of the country of Ishuwa, which might have had a substantial Hurrian population, meant “horse-land”. A famous text discovered at Hattusa deal with the training of horses. The man who was responsible for the horse-training was a Hurrian called Kikkuli. The terminology used in connection with horses contains many Indo-Aryan loan-words (Mayrhofer, 1974). This convinced earlier scholars the elite in the Hurrian society was an Indo-Aryan ethnic group who invaded the region with their horses and chariots, like the Vedic Indians. Ishuwa was an ancient kingdom in Anatolia, Turkey. ... The Lion Gate in the south-west Hattusa (also known as Hattusas or Khattushash) was the capital of the Hittite Empire. ... Kikkuli, master horse trainer (assussanni) of the land Mitanni (LÚA-AÅ -Å U-UÅ -Å A-AN-NI Å A KUR URUMI-IT-TA-AN-NI, virtually Sanskrit ) is known as the author of Middle Hittite horse training texts, dating to the Hittite New Kingdom (around 1400 BC). ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Music

Among the Hurrian texts from Ugarit are the oldest known instances of written music, dating from c.1800 BC. A reconstructed hymn is replayed at the Urkesh webpage. Entrance to the Palace of Ugarit Ugarit (modern site Ras Shamra رأس شمرة; in Arabic) 35°35´ N; 35°45´E) was an ancient cosmopolitan port city, sited on the Mediterranean coast of northern Syria a few kilometers north of the modern city of Latakia. ...


Religion

The Hurrian culture made a great impact on the religion of the Hittites. From the Hurrian cult centre at Kummanni in Kizzuwatna Hurrian religion spread to the Hittite people. Syncretism merged the Old Hittite and Hurrian religions. Hurrian religion spread to Syria, where Baal became the counterpart of Teshub. The later kingdom of Urartu also venerated gods of Hurrian origin. The Hurrian religion, in different forms, influenced the entire ancient Near East, except ancient Egypt and southern Mesopotamia. Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite empire was... Kizzuwatna is the name of an ancient kingdom of the second millennium BC. It was situated in the highlands of Anatolia, Turkey. ... For other uses, see Baal (disambiguation). ... Teshub was the Hurrian god of sky and storm. ... Urartu at its greatest extent 743 BC Urartu (Biainili in Urartian) was an ancient kingdom in the mountainous plateau between Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Caucasus mountains, later known as the Armenian Highland, and it centered around Lake Van (present-day eastern Turkey). ... Overview map of the Ancient Near East The term Ancient Near East or Ancient Orient encompasses the early civilizations predating Classical Antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey), during the time roughly spanning the Bronze Age from the rise... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ...


The main gods in the Hurrian pantheon were:

  • Teshub, Teshup; the mighty weathergod.
  • Hebat, Hepa; his wife, the mother goddess, regarded as the Sun goddess among the Hittites.
  • Sharruma, or Sarruma, Šarruma; their son.
  • Kumarbi; the ancient father of Teshub.
  • Shaushka, or Shawushka, Šauska; was the Hurrian counterpart of Assyrian Ishtar, and a goddess of healing.
  • Shimegi, Šimegi; the sun god.
  • Kushuh, Kušuh; the moon god. Symbols of the sun and the crescent moon appear joined together in the Hurrian iconography.
  • Nergal; a Babylonian deity of the netherworld, whose Hurrian name is unknown.

Names of Indo-Aryan gods from the Vedic religion have survived in texts and personal names, but it is not known if any cult or temples actually existed. Teshub was the Hurrian god of sky and storm. ... The mother goddess of the Hurrians. ... A Hurrian god whose name means king of the mountains. He is a son of the weather-god Teshub and the goddess Hebat. ... The Hurrian father of the gods. ... Teshub was the Hurrian god of sky and storm. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Ishtar is the Assyrian and Babylonian counterpart to the Sumerian Inanna and to the cognate northwest Semitic goddess Astarte. ... The Hurrian moon-god. ... Iconography usually refers to the design or creation of images and more specifically to the historical study of art which aims at the identification, description and the interpretation of the content of images. ... The name Nergal (or Nirgal, Nirgali) refers to a deity in Babylonia with the main seat of his cult at Cuthah represented by the mound of Tell-Ibrahim. ... Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... The Indo-Aryans who make up around 74% of Indias population (Hindustani: इन्दो-आर्यन, اِندو آریایی) are a wide collection of peoples united by their common status as the ethno-linguistic descendents of the Indic branch of the ancient Indo-Iranians (also known as Aryans). ... This article discusses the historical religious practices in the Vedic time period; see Dharmic religions for details of contemporary religious practices. ...


Hurrian cylinder seals often depict mythological creatures such as winged humans or animals, dragons and other monsters. The interpretation of these depictions of gods and demons is uncertain. They may have been both protective and evil spirits. Some is reminiscent of the Assyrian shedu. Gilgamesh and Enkidu, cylinder seal impression from Ur III, with oldest type of pictographic cuneiform The Cylinder seals in ancient times, were used to put an impression in clay. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Shedu at the Louvre In Akkadian mythology the shedu were a type of demon, but they were demons of a benevolent nature, protective spirits of the houses, palaces and cities. ...


The Hurrian gods do not appear to have had particular "home temples", like in the Mesopotamian religion or Ancient Egyptian religion. Some important cult centres were Kummanni in Kizzuwatna, and Hittite Yazilikaya. Harran was at least later a religious centre for the moon god, and Shauskha had an important temple in Nineve, when the city was under Hurrian rule. A temple of Nergal was built in Urkesh in the late third millennium BC. The town of Kahat was a religious centre in the kingdom of Mitanni. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ancient Near Eastern religion. ... Ancient Egyptian religion encompasses the beliefs and rituals of Ancient Egypt. ... Kizzuwatna is the name of an ancient kingdom of the second millennium BC. It was situated in the highlands of Anatolia, Turkey. ... Yazilikaya ( Türkçe inscribed rock) is a Hittite holy place near Boğazköy, Turkey. ... Harran, also known as Carrhae, is a district of Şanlıurfa Province in the southeast of Turkey, near the border with Syria, 24 miles (44 kilometres) southeast of the city of Şanlıurfa, at the end of a long straight road across the roasting hot plain of Harran. ... This article is about the ancient Middle Eastern city of Nineveh. ... The name Nergal (or Nirgal, Nirgali) refers to a deity in Babylonia with the main seat of his cult at Cuthah represented by the mound of Tell-Ibrahim. ... Urkesh was a city situated at the base of the Taurus Mountains in what is now northern Syria near the modern city of Qamishli. ... Tell Barri is an ancient site in north-eastern Syria. ... Mitanni or Mittani (in Assyrian sources Hanilgalbat, Khanigalbat) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia (in what is today Syria) from ca. ...


The Hurrian myth “The Songs of Ullikummi”, preserved among the Hittites, is a parallel to Hesiod's Theogony; the castration of Uranus by Cronus may be derived from the castration of Anu by Kumarbi, while Zeus's overthrow of Cronus and Cronus's regurgitation of the swallowed gods is like the Hurrian myth of Teshub and Kumarbi.[6] It has been argued that the worship of Attis drew on Hurrian myth.[7] The Phrygian goddess Cybele would then be the counterpart of the Hurrian goddess Hebat. Bust, traditionally thought to be Seneca, now identified by some as Hesiod. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Theogony Wikisource has original text related to this article: Theogony (in Greek) Theogony is a poem by Hesiod describing the origins of the gods of ancient Greek religion. ... Uranus is the Latinized form of Ouranos, Greek name of the sky. ... Cronus (Ancient Greek Κρόνος, Krónos), also called Cronos or Kronos, was the leader and the youngest of the first generation of Titans, divine descendants of Gaia, the earth, and Uranus, the sky. ... In Sumerian mythology and later for Assyrians and Babylonians, Anu (also An; (from Sumerian *An = sky, heaven)) was a sky-god, the god of heaven, lord of constellations, king of gods, spirits and demons, and dwelt in the highest heavenly regions. ... The Hurrian father of the gods. ... The Statue of Zeus at Olympia Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall statue of Zeus at Olympia about 435 BC. The statue was perhaps the most famous sculpture in Ancient Greece, imagined here in a 16th century engraving Zeus (in Greek: nominative: Zeús, genitive: Díos), is... Teshub was the Hurrian god of sky and storm. ... Attis, a life-death-rebirth deity, was both the son and the lover of Cybele, her eunuch attendant and driver of her lion-driven chariot; he was driven mad by her and castrated himself. ... Phrygian can refer to: A person from Phrygia The Phrygian language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Cybele with her attributes. ... The mother goddess of the Hurrians. ...


Urbanism

The Hurrian urban culture was not represented by a large number of cities. Urkesh was the only Hurrian city in the third millennium BC. In the second millennium BC we know a number of Hurrian cities, such as Arrapha, Harran, Kahat, Nuzi, Taidu and Washukanni – the capital of Mitanni. Although the site of Washukanni, alleged to be at Tell Fakhariya, is not known for certain, no tell (city mound) in the Khabur River Valley much exceeds the size of 1 square kilometre (250 acres), and the majority of sites are much smaller. The Hurrian urban culture appears to have been quite different from the centralized state administrations of Assyria and ancient Egypt. An explanation could be that the feudal organization of the Hurrian kingdoms did not allow large palace or temple estates to develop. Urkesh was a city situated at the base of the Taurus Mountains in what is now northern Syria near the modern city of Qamishli. ... Arrapha (ܐܪܦܐ in Assyrian) (Arabic: ‎) was an ancient Assyrian city, that laed in what is today the city of Kirkuk. ... Harran, also known as Carrhae, is a district of Åžanlıurfa Province in the southeast of Turkey, near the border with Syria, 24 miles (44 kilometres) southeast of the city of Åžanlıurfa, at the end of a long straight road across the roasting hot plain of Harran. ... Tell Barri is an ancient site in north-eastern Syria. ... Nuzi was an ancient city southwest of Kirkuk in modern Iraq, located near the Tigris river. ... Taidu also means Taiwan Independence. The pronounciation of Taiwan Independence in Mandarin Chinese is tai2 du2. Taidu-ers represent the people who support the Pan Green political party in Taiwan. ... Washshukanni (also spelled Wassuganni, Vasukhani, or a combination of these variants) was the capital of the Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni (c. ... Mitanni or Mittani (in Assyrian sources Hanilgalbat, Khanigalbat) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia (in what is today Syria) from ca. ... Tell Mar Elias, North Jordan in 2005 Tell or tall (Arabic: ‎, tall, and Hebrew: , tel), meaning hill or mound, is an archaeological site in the form of an earthen mound that results from the accumulation and subsequent erosion of material deposited by human occupation over long periods of time. ... The Khabur river (also Habor, Habur) is 200 miles (320 km) long, beginning in southeastern Turkey, and flowing generally south to Syria where it is joined by the Jaghjagh River and eventually empties into Euphrates River. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ...


Archaeology

Hurrian settlements are distributed over three modern countries, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. The heart of the Hurrian world is dissected by the modern border between Syria and Turkey. Several sites are situated within the border zone, making access for excavations problematic. A threat to the ancient sites are the dam projects in the Euphrates, Tigris and Khabur river. Several rescue operations have already been undertaken when the construction of dams put entire river valleys under water. Surfer Rosa The Euphrates (Greek: Euphrátēs; Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu; Hebrew: פְּרָת Pĕrāth; Syriac: Prâth; Arabic: الفرات Al-Furāt; Turkish: Fırat; Kurdish: فرهات, Firhat, Ferhat) is the western of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (the other being the Tigris). ... The Tigris River (Arabic: دجلة Dijla, Hebrew: חדקל ḥiddeqel, Kurdish: Dîjle, Pahlavi: Tigr, Old Persian: Tigrā-, Syriac: ܕܩܠܬ Deqlath, Turkish: Dicle, Akkadian: Idiqlat) is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq (the name Mesopotamia... The Khabur river (also Habor, Habur) is 200 miles (320 km) long, beginning in southeastern Turkey, and flowing generally south to Syria where it is joined by the Jaghjagh River and eventually empties into Euphrates River. ...


The first major excavations of Hurrian sites in Iraq and Syria began in the 1920s and 1930s. They were led by the American archaeologist Edward Chiera at Yorghan Tepe (Nuzi), and the British archaeologist Max Mallowan at Chagar Bazar and Tell Brak. Recent excavations and surveys in progress are conducted by American, Belgian, Danish, Dutch, French, German and Italian teams of archaeologists, with international participants, in cooperation with the Syrian Department of Antiquities. The tells, or city mounds, often reveal a long occupation beginning in the Neolithic and ending in the Roman period or later. The characteristic Hurrian pottery, the Khabur ware, is helpful in determining the different strata of occupation within the mounds. The Hurrian settlements are usually identified from the Middle Bronze Age to the end of the Late Bronze Age, with Tell Mozan (Urkesh) being the main exception. Sir Max Edgar Lucien Mallowan (6 May 1904 – 19 August 1978) was a prominent archaeologist, specialising in ancient Middle Eastern history, and was also (despite his Roman Catholicism) the second husband of Dame Agatha Christie, who was 14 years his senior. ... Chagar Bazar is an ancient site in northern Syria, occupied from the sixth to the second millennium BC. It is situated by the small river Dara, a tributary to the Khabur River. ... Nagar was an ancient pre-Akkadian and Akkadian city on the Khabur River in northeastern Syria which is now represented by the mound named Tell Brak. ... Tell Mar Elias, North Jordan in 2005 Tell or tall (Arabic: ‎, tall, and Hebrew: , tel), meaning hill or mound, is an archaeological site in the form of an earthen mound that results from the accumulation and subsequent erosion of material deposited by human occupation over long periods of time. ... The Neolithic, or New Stone Age, was a period in the development of human technology that is traditionallly the. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Urkesh was a city situated at the base of the Taurus Mountains in what is now northern Syria near the modern city of Qamishli. ...


Important sites

The list includes some important ancient sites from the area dominated by the Hurrians. Excavation reports and images are found at the websites linked. As noted above, important discoveries of Hurrian culture and history were also made at Alalakh, Amarna, Hattusa and Ugarit. Alalakh is the name of an ancient city and its associated city-state of the Amuq River valley, located in the Hatay region of southern Turkey near the city of Antakya (ancient Antioch), and now represented by an extensive city-mound known as Tell Atchana. ... Amarna The site of Amarna (commonly known as el-Amarna or incorrectly as Tel el-Amarna; see below) (Arabic: العمارنة al-‘amārnä) is located on the east bank of the Nile River in the modern Egyptian province of al-Minya, some 58 km (38 miles) south of the city of... The Lion Gate in the south-west Hattusa (also known as Hattusas or Khattushash) was the capital of the Hittite Empire. ... Entrance to the Palace of Ugarit Ugarit (modern site Ras Shamra رأس شمرة; in Arabic) 35°35´ N; 35°45´E) was an ancient cosmopolitan port city, sited on the Mediterranean coast of northern Syria a few kilometers north of the modern city of Latakia. ...

Urkesh was a city situated at the base of the Taurus Mountains in what is now northern Syria near the modern city of Qamishli. ... Nuzi localisation Nuzi (or Nuzu) was an ancient Mesopotamian city southwest of Kirkuk in modern Iraq, located near the Tigris river. ... Nagar was an ancient pre-Akkadian and Akkadian city on the Khabur River in northeastern Syria which is now represented by the mound named Tell Brak. ... Tell Leilan, Syria is the site of a city known as Shekhna in ancient times. ... Tell Barri is an ancient site in north-eastern Syria. ... Tuba (now called Umm el-Marra), east of modern Aleppo in the Jabbul Plain of northern Syria, was one of the ancient Near Easts oldest cities, located on a crossroads of two trade routes northwest of Ebla, in a landscape that was much more fertile than it is today. ... Hamoukar is a large archaeological site located in a remote part of northeastern Syria near the Iraqi border, in the Jazira region in the Al Hasakah governorate. ... Chagar Bazar is an ancient site in northern Syria, occupied from the sixth to the second millennium BC. It is situated by the small river Dara, a tributary to the Khabur River. ... Tell el Fakhariya, or Tell el Fecheriyeh with variants, is an ancient site in the Khabur River basin in the Al Hasakah Governorate of northern Syria. ... Washshukanni (also spelled Wassuganni, Vasukhani, or a combination of these variants) was the capital of the Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni (c. ... Taite (called Taidu in Assyrian sources) was one of the capitals of the Mitanni Empire. ...

Connections and origin theories

It is believed by some scholars that the Hurrians mixed with their neighbors, such as the Armenians after arriving in the Caucasus around 2700 BC from an unknown place. Another theory is that the Armenians came to the Caucasus with the Hurrians from the Proto-Indo-European homeland. (Redirected from 2700 BC) (28th century BC - 27th century BC - 26th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC -- Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period 2775 - 2650 BC -- Second Dynasty wars in Egypt Germination of the Bristlecone pine tree Methuselah... The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age. ...


I. J. Gelb & E. A. Speiser believed Subarians had been the linguistic and ethnic substratum of northern Mesopotamia since earliest times, while Hurrians were merely late arrivals. Ignace J. Gelb (October 14, 1907 – December 22, 1985) was a Polish - American ancient historian and Assyriologist who pioneered the scientific study of writing systems. ... Ephraim Avigdor Speiser (January 24, 1902–June 15, 1965) was University Professor and Chairman of the Department of Oriental Studies at the University of Pennsylvania. ... Subarian is the term used by certain scholars (such as I. J. Gelb & E. A. Speiser) to describe the aboriginal language and inhabitants of Subar-Tu an ancient kingdom in Ararat mentioned in Sumerian records. ...


Tolstov identified the Hurrians as the founders of Khwarezmia, which he explained as meaning Hurri-Land. Khwarezmia (also with various alternate spellings, including Chorasmia and Khorezm) was a state located on what was then the coast of the Aral Sea, including modern Karakalpakstan across the Ust-Urt plateau and perhaps extending to as far west as the eastern shores of the North Caspian Sea. ...


In the past, Bible scholars sometimes identified them as the Biblical Horites, Hivites and Jebusites, though there is little factual basis for such a connection. Horites (Egyptian Khar) were cave-dwellers mentioned in the Torah (Genesis 14:6, 36:20, Deuteronomy 2:12) inhabiting areas around Petra. ... The Hivites were one of the sons of Canaan according to the Table of Nations in Genesis 10. ... Jebus redirects here. ...


Several other ancient peoples of the region, including the Kesedim, Subarians, Gutians, Kassites and Lullubi have all been described at one time or another as Hurrian peoples. Recently, with the discovery of the Tikunani Prism, there has been growing support for the theory that the Habiru, who were for a time believed to be the ancient Hebrews, may have been Hurrian speakers. Subarian is the term used by certain scholars (such as I. J. Gelb & E. A. Speiser) to describe the aboriginal language and inhabitants of Subar-Tu an ancient kingdom in Ararat mentioned in Sumerian records. ... The Gutian kings came to some power in Mesopotamia in ca. ... The Kassites were a Near Eastern mountain tribe of obscure origins, who spoke a non-Indo-European, non-Semitic language. ... An ancient group of tribes that inhabited the Zagros Mountains of Western Iran, or the language thereof. ... The Tikunani Prism is an 8½ inch square clay artifact with an Akkadian cuneiform inscription listing the names of the Habiru soldiers of King Tunip-Teššup of Tikunani (a small N. Mesopotamian kingdom). ... Habiru or Hapiru was the name given by various Sumerian, Egyptian, Akkadian, Hittite, Mitanni, and Ugaritic sources (dated, roughly, from before 2000 BC to around 1200 BC) to a group of people living in the areas of Northeastern Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent from the borders of Egypt in Canaan... Hebrews (or Heberites, Eberites, Hebreians; Hebrew: עברים or עבריים, Standard , Tiberian , ; meaning descendants of biblical Patriarch Eber), were people who lived in Canaan, an area encompassing Israel, both banks of the Jordan River (The West Bank and Jordan), Sinai, Lebanon, and the coastal portions of Syria. ...


Many researchers believe that the Hurrians (Khurrites) are the ancestors of the modern Kurds, and that their language was influenced by the immigrating Mede tribes [2]. Recent genetic analyses of the Kurdish people support these studies [3] [4].


See also

Mitanni or Mittani (in Assyrian sources Hanilgalbat, Khanigalbat) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia (in what is today Syria) from ca. ... Urartu at its greatest extent 743 BC Urartu (Biainili in Urartian) was an ancient kingdom in the mountainous plateau between Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Caucasus mountains, later known as the Armenian Highland, and it centered around Lake Van (present-day eastern Turkey). ... Horites (Egyptian Khar) were cave-dwellers mentioned in the Torah (Genesis 14:6, 36:20, Deuteronomy 2:12) inhabiting areas around Petra. ... The Kassites were a Near Eastern mountain tribe of obscure origins, who spoke a non-Indo-European, non-Semitic language. ... The Tikunani Prism is an 8½ inch square clay artifact with an Akkadian cuneiform inscription listing the names of the Habiru soldiers of King Tunip-Teššup of Tikunani (a small N. Mesopotamian kingdom). ...

References

  1. ^ Hittites on Bartleby.
  2. ^ Kurdish Origins at XS4All.
  3. ^ “Armenians” in Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture or EIEC, edited by J. P. Mallory and Douglas Q. Adams, published in 1997 by Fitzroy Dearborn.
  4. ^ Hurrians. The Macmillan Encyclopedia (2003). Retrieved 17 July 2006, from xreferplus
  5. ^ Rafael Ishkhanyan, Illustrated History of Armenia, Yerevan, 1989; Martiros Kavoukjian, Armenia, Subartu and Sumer, Montreal, 1989; Martiros Kavoukjian, The Genesis of Armenian people, Montreal, 1982; Hovick Nersessian, Highlands of Armenia, Los Angeles, 1998
  6. ^ Güterbock, Hans Gustav: "Hittite Religion"; in Forgotten Religions: Including Some Living Primitive Religions (ed. Vergilius Ferm) (NY, Philosophical Library, 1950), pp. 88–89, 103–104
  7. ^ Suggested by Jane Lightfoot in the Times Literary Supplement 22 July 2005 p 27, in her account of Philippe Borgeaud, Mother of the Gods: from Cybele to the Virgin Mary, Johns Hopkins 2005 ISBN 0-8018-7985-X.

2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The land of Subar (Sumerian Su-bir4/Subar/Šubur) or Subartu (Akkadian Šubartum/Subartum/ina Šú-ba-ri, Assyrian mât Šubarri) was situated at the Tigris, north of Babylonia. ... Sumer (or Šumer, Sumerian ki-en-gir[1], Egyptian Sanhar[2]) was one of the early civilizations of the Ancient Near East, located in the southern part of Mesopotamia (southeastern Iraq) from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in...

Bibliography

  • Martiros Kavoukjian, Armenia, Subartu and Sumer, Montreal, 1989
  • Jacquetta Hawkes, "The First Great Civilizations"

"Yet the Hurrians did not disappear from history. Away to the North in their Armenian homeland, they entrenched themselves and build up the kingdom of Urartu." The land of Subar (Sumerian Su-bir4/Subar/Šubur) or Subartu (Akkadian Šubartum/Subartum/ina Šú-ba-ri, Assyrian mât Šubarri) was situated at the Tigris, north of Babylonia. ... Sumer (or Šumer, Sumerian ki-en-gir[1], Egyptian Sanhar[2]) was one of the early civilizations of the Ancient Near East, located in the southern part of Mesopotamia (southeastern Iraq) from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in...

  • E. A. Speiser, "Introduction to Hurrians,"
  • E. A. Speiser, "Hurrians and Subarians,"
  • Artak Movsisyan, Sacred Highland: Armenia in the spiritual conception of the Near East, Yerevan, 2000.
  • Artak Movsisyan, Aratta: Land of the Sacred Law, Yerevan, 2001.
  • Vahan Kurkjian, History of Armenia, Michigan, 1958
  • Martiros Kavoukjian, The Genesis of Armenian People, Montreal, 1982.
  • O.R. Gurney, "The Beginning of Civilization,"

"The influence of the Hurro-Hittite upon Greek religion is indeed remarkable." "The weather god Teshub, standing on the bull, who became well known throughout the Roman Empire under the name of Jupiter dolic henus."

  • Hovick Nersessian, Highlands of Armenia, Los Angeles, 2000.
  • Vyacheslav V. Ivanov and Thomas Gamkrelidze, The Early History of Indo-­European Languages, Scientific American, vol. 262, N3, 110­116, March, 1990
  • Chahin, M. 1987. The Kingdom of Armenia. Reprint: Dorset Press, New York. 1991.
  • Isaac Asimov, The Near East: 10,000 Years of History,Boston :Houghton Mifflin, 1968.
  • Ignace J. Gelb, 1944, Hurrians and Subarians, Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization No. 22, Illinois, University of Chicago Press.
  • Mayrhofer, Manfred: Die Arier im Vorderen Orient - ein Mythos?, Wien 1974.
  • Wilhelm, Gernot: The Hurrians, Aris & Philips Warminster 1989.
  • Wilhelm, Gernot (ed.): Nuzi at seventy-five (Studies in the Civilization and Culture of Nuzi and the Hurrians), Capital Decisions Ltd Bethesda 1999.
  • Diakonov I.M., Starostin S.A.Hurro-Urartian as an Eastern Caucasian Languages. Münchener Studien zur Sprachwissenschaft, R. Kitzinger, München 1986.

Dr. Isaac Asimov (c. ... Igor Mikhailovich Diakonov (Russian: ) (born December 30, 1914 in Petrograd) is a Russian historian who should be ranked among the greatest authorities on Ancient East and its languages. ... Dr. Sergei Anatolyevich Starostin (b. ...

External links

  • Jacquetta Hawkes, "The First Great Civilizations"

"Yet the Hurrians did not disappear from history. Away to the North in their Armenian homeland, they entrenched themselves and build up the kingdom of Urartu." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacquetta_Hawkes

"If they did not invent at least the Hurri spread far a field and so perpetuated much of the highest Civilization that men have yet envolved"

"All indications point toward the general region of Armenia as a main area of Hurrian concentration."

"The evidence as a whole admits of only one possible interpretation in the historical records of Assyria: the term Subarians is applied specifically to Hurrians."


  Results from FactBites:
 
Hurrians - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1178 words)
The Hurrian city-state of Yamkhad (Aleppo) is recorded as struggling for this area with the early Hittite king Hattusilis I around 1650 BC; and around 1590 BC, Hurrians seized the coastal region of Adaniya from the Hittites and renamed it Kizzuwadna (later known as Cilicia).
By 1530 BC the state of Mitanni, still with a mostly Hurrian population and foreign-named aristocracy, was founded between the Euphrates and Balikh rivers with its capital at Washshukanni (thought to have been in northern Syria).
Hurrian speakers formed the majority population of the kingdom of Mitanni, though they appear to have been governed by a class of foreign nobility.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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