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Encyclopedia > Hunting
Boar hunting, tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (14th century)
Boar hunting, tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (14th century)

Hunting is the practice of pursuing animals for food, recreation, or trade. In modern use, the term refers to regulated and legal hunting, as distinguished from poaching, which is the killing, trapping or capture of animals contrary to law. Hunted animals are referred to as game animals, and are usually large or small mammals, migratory gamebirds, or non-migratory gamebirds. Hunting refers to the pursuit of prey by human society. ... Look up hunter in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x1107, 302 KB) Tacuina sanitatis (XIV century) Česky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | Românǎ | Русский | Slovenščina | Српски | Sunda | 简体中文 | 正體中文 | Türkçe | Русский | Українська +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x1107, 302 KB) Tacuina sanitatis (XIV century) Česky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | Românǎ | Русский | Slovenščina | Српски | Sunda | 简体中文 | 正體中文 | Türkçe | Русский | Українська +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is the wild ancestor of the domestic pig. ... The Tacuinum (sometimes Taccuinum) Sanitatis is a medieval handbook on wellness, based on the Taqwin al‑sihha (Tables of Health), an Arab medical treatise by Ibn Butlan; it exists in several variant Latin versions, the manuscripts of which are profusely illustrated. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Fun redirects here. ... This article is about economic exchange. ... For other uses, see Poaching (disambiguation). ... Game is any animal hunted for food or not normally domesticated (such as venison). ... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... Flock of Barnacle Geese during autumn migration Bird migration refers to the regular seasonal journeys undertaken by many species of birds. ... Game is any animal hunted for food. ... Species that periodically migrate are called migratory bird. ...


domestic animals, or vermin as a means of pest control. Hunting advocates claim that hunting can be a necessary[1] component of modern wildlife management, for example to help maintain a population of healthy animals within an environment's ecological carrying capacity when natural checks such as predators are absent.[2] In the United States, wildlife managers are frequently part of hunting regulatory and licensing bodies, where they help to set rules on the number, manner and conditions in which game may be hunted. Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated. ... Look up vermin in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A crop duster applies low-insecticide bait that is targeted against Western corn rootworms Pest control refers to the regulation or management of another species defined as a pest, usually because it is believed to be detrimental to a persons health, the ecology or the economy Pest control is... Wildlife management is the process of keeping certain wildlife populations at desirable levels determined by wildlife managers. ... The equilibrium maximum of the population of an organism is known as the ecosystems carrying capacity for that organism. ...


The pursuit, capture and release, or capture for food of fish is called fishing, which is not commonly categorized as a kind of hunting. Trapping is also usually considered a separate activity. Neither is it considered hunting to pursue animals without intent to take them, as in wildlife photography or birdwatching. The practice of hunting for plants or mushrooms is a colloquial term for gathering. For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... For the computer security term, see Phishing. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... -1... Birdwatching or birding is the observation and study of birds. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Basidiocarps (mushrooms) of the fungus Leucocoprinus sp. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ...

Contents

History

Ancient roots

Artemis with a Hind, a Roman copy of an Ancient Greek sculpture, circa 325 BC, by Leochares
Artemis with a Hind, a Roman copy of an Ancient Greek sculpture, circa 325 BC, by Leochares

Hunting has an extremely long history and may well pre-date the rise of species Homo sapiens. While our earliest primate ancestors were probably insectivores, there is evidence that we have used larger animals for subsistence for up to 1.8 million years and that hunting may have been one of the multiple environmental factors leading to replacement of holocene megafauna by smaller herbivores.[3] The North American megafauna extinction was coincidental with the Younger Dryas impact event, making hunting a less critical factor in prehistoric species loss than had been previously thought.[4] Download high resolution version (800x1230, 153 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (800x1230, 153 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... Sculptor redirects here. ... Leochares was an Greek sculptor, who lived in the 4th Century B.C. He is theorised as the creator of Apollo Belvedere, which is currently housed in Vatican City. ... For the history of humans on Earth, see History of the world. ... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... Any organism with a diet that consists chiefly of insects and similar small creatures is an insectivore. ... The following is a list of subsistence techniques: Hunting and Gathering, also known as Foraging freeganism involves gathering of discarded food in the context of an urban environment gleaning involves the gathering of food that traditional farmers have left behind in their fields Cultivation Horticulture - plant cultivation, based on the... In epidemiology, environmental factors are those determinants of disease that are not transmitted genetically. ... The Holocene epoch is a geological period, which began approximately 11,550 calendar years BP (about 9600 BC) and continues to the present. ... It has been suggested that Charismatic megafauna be merged into this article or section. ... In zoology, an herbivore is an animal that is adapted to eat primarily plants (rather than meat). ... The Younger Dryas impact event is the name of a hypothesized impact event at the beginning of the Younger Dryas cold spell about 10,900 BCE. The impact seems to have occurred near the North American Great Lakes; the bolide may have disintegrated in the air. ...


Hunting was a crucial component of hunter-gatherer societies before the domestication of animals and the dawn of agriculture. There is fossil evidence for spear use in Asian hunting dating from approximately 16,200 years ago.[5] In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated. ...


With the establishment of language and culture, hunting became a theme of stories and myths, as well as proverbs, aphorisms, adages and metaphors which continue even today. In literature, a theme is a broad idea in a story, or a message or lesson conveyed by a work. ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... Look up proverb in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An aphorism is a wise saying that bears repetition. ... An adage is a short, but memorable saying, which holds some important fact of experience that is considered true by many people, or it has gained some credibility through its long use. ... In language, a metaphor is a rhetorical trope where a comparison is made between two seemingly unrelated subjects. ...


Many species of animals have been hunted and caribou/wild reindeer "may well be the species of single greatest importance in the entire anthropological literature on hunting."[6] Caribou redirects here. ...


Even as animal domestication became relatively widespread, hunting was usually a significant contributor to the human food supply, even after the development of agriculture. The supplementary meat and materials from hunting included protein, bone for implements, sinew for cordage, fur, feathers, rawhide and leather used in clothing. The earliest hunting tools would have included rocks, spears, the atlatl, bow and arrows. Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... A tendon or sinew is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue, attached on one end to a muscle and on the other to a bone. ... For other uses, see Fur (disambiguation). ... Closeup on a single white feather A feather is one of the epidermal growths that forms the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on a bird. ... Rawhide is a hide or animal skin that has not been exposed to tanning and thus is much lighter in color than treated animal hides. ... For other uses, see Leather (disambiguation). ... Look up spears in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An atlatl (from Nahuatl ahtlatl ; in English pronounced [1] or [2]) or spear-thrower is a tool that uses leverage to achieve greater velocity in spear-throwing, and includes a bearing surface which allows the user to temporarily store energy during the throw. ... This article is about the projectile weapon bow. ... This article is about the weapon. ...


On ancient reliefs, especially from Mesopotamia, kings are often depicted as hunters of big game such as lions, especially from a war chariot. The cultural and psychological importance of hunting in ancient societies is represented by deities such as the horned god Cernunnos, or lunar goddesses of classical antiquity, Greek Artemis or Roman Diana. Taboos are often related to hunting, and mythological association of prey species with a divinity could be reflected in hunting restrictions such as a 'reserve' surrounding a temple, Euripides' tale of Artemis and Acteon, for example, may be seen as a caution against disrespect of prey or impudent boasting. For the torpedo-shaped underwater vehicle ridden by two frogmen, sometimes referred to as a chariot, see Human torpedo. ... Depiction of Cernunnos from the Pilier des nautes, Paris Cernunnos in Celtic polytheism is the deified spirit of horned male animals, especially of stags, a nature god associated with produce and fertility. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... For other uses, see Artemis (disambiguation). ... The Diana of Versailles In Roman mythology, Diana was the goddess of the hunt, in literature the equivalent of the Greek goddess Artemis, though in cult she was Italic in origin. ... This article is about cultural prohibitions in general; for other uses, see Taboo (disambiguation). ... A statue of Euripides. ... A genus of Acteonidae Actéon, a work by Marc-Antoine Charpentier ...


Hunting is still vital in marginal climates, especially those unsuited for pastoral uses or agriculture. Inuit peoples in the Arctic trap and hunt animals for clothing. From the skins of sea mammals, they may make kayaks, clothing, and footwear. For other uses, see Pastoral (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ...


With domestication of the dog, birds of prey and the ferret, various forms of animal-aided hunting developed including venery (scent hound hunting, such as fox hunting), coursing (sight hound hunting), falconry and ferreting. These are all associated with medieval hunting; in time various dog breeds were selected for very precise tasks during the hunt, reflected in such names as pointer and setter. Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... Orders Accipitriformes     Cathartidae     Pandionidae     Accipitridae     Sagittariidae Falconiformes     Falconidae A bird of prey or raptor is a bird that hunts its food, especially one that preys on mammals or other birds. ... This article is about the mammal. ... Like most scent hounds, the Basset Hound has long ears, large nasal passages, and a sturdy body for endurance. ... A fox hunt Fox hunting is a form of hunting for foxes using a pack of scent hounds. ... Coursing is the pursuit of game by dogs—chiefly Greyhounds—running by sight, not by scent. ... The Whippet shows the characteristic long legs, deep chest, and narrow waist of a sight hound. ... Flying a Saker Falcon A Goshawk A Hobby Falconry or hawking is an art or sport which involves the use of trained raptors (birds of prey) to hunt or pursue game for humans. ... King William I and King Harold II of England are portrayed hawking in the Bayeux Tapestry. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Pointer (dog) redirects here. ... The Setter is a type of gundog used most often for hunting game such as quail, pheasant, and grouse. ...


Hunting in pastoral and agricultural societies

Ladies Hunting, Costumes of the fifteenth century, from a miniature in a ms. copy of Ovid's Epistles. No 7231 bis. Bibl. natle de Paris
Ladies Hunting, Costumes of the fifteenth century, from a miniature in a ms. copy of Ovid's Epistles. No 7231 bis. Bibl. natle de Paris

Even as agriculture and animal husbandry became more prevalent, hunting often remained as a part of human culture where the environment and social conditions allow. Hunting may be used to kill animals who prey upon domestic animals or to attempt to extirpate native animals seen as competition for resources such as water or forage. Download high resolution version (2303x1663, 185 KB)Ladies Hunting. ... Download high resolution version (2303x1663, 185 KB)Ladies Hunting. ... Shepherd with his sheep in Făgăraş Mountains, Romania. ... Extirpation is the localized extinction of a species. ...


As hunting moved from a subsistence activity to a social one, two trends emerged. One was that of the specialist hunter with special training and equipment. The other was the emergence of hunting as a sport for those of an upper social class. The meaning of the word "game" in middle English evolved to include an animal which is hunted. Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the...


As game became more of a luxury than a necessity, the stylized pursuit of it also became a luxury. Dangerous hunting, as for lions or wild boars, usually on horseback (or from a chariot had similar function to tournaments and manly sports. Hunting was considered to be an honourable, somewhat competitive pastime to help the aristocracy practice skills of war in times of peace. Game is any animal hunted for food or not normally domesticated (such as venison). ... For other uses, see Chariot (disambiguation). ... A Tournament, or tourney (from Old French torneiement, tornei[1]) is the name popularly given to chivalrous competitions or mock fights of the Middle Ages and Renaissance (12th to 16th centuries). ... -1...

Nobleman in Hunting Costume, preceded by his Servant, trying to find the Scent of a Stag, from a manuscript of the 14th century
Nobleman in Hunting Costume, preceded by his Servant, trying to find the Scent of a Stag, from a manuscript of the 14th century

In most parts of medieval Europe, the upper-class obtained the sole rights to hunt in certain areas of a feudal territory. Game in these areas was certainly used as a source of food and furs, often provided via professional huntsmen; but it was also expected to provide a form of recreation for the aristocracy. The importance of this proprietary view of game can be seen in the Robin Hood legends, in which one of the primary charges against the outlaws is that they "hunt the King's deer". Image File history File links Size of this preview: 587 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1435 × 1465 pixel, file size: 146 KB, MIME type: image/png) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 587 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1435 × 1465 pixel, file size: 146 KB, MIME type: image/png) (All user names refer to en. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Aristocrat redirects here. ... For other uses, see Robin Hood (disambiguation). ...


Hunting played an important role in the culture of the antebellum South. In most southern states, members of the slaveowning elite attempted to mimic the English aristocracy by imposing a variety of hunting laws and, in a few cases, by creating private game reserves.[citation needed] In general, these efforts failed due to the determined efforts of slaves and poor whites to hunt. Consequently, beginning in the early 19th century, members of the elite began importing the idea of "sport" from England. This allowed them to construct a cultural difference between their approach to hunting, which focused on pursuit and the thrill of the chase, and the hunting methods used by poor whites and slaves, which focused on the acquisition of skins, hides, and fresh meat. Antebellum is a Latin word meaning before war(ante means before and bellum is war). ... Historic Southern United States. ...


Hunting with dogs

Hunting dogs with pheasants
Hunting dogs with pheasants

Although various animals have been used to aid the hunter, none has been as important as the dog. The domestication of the dog has led to a symbiotic relationship in which the dog has lost its evolutionary independence to man in exchange for support. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1152 × 864 pixel, file size: 221 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1152 × 864 pixel, file size: 221 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Symbiosis (disambiguation). ...


The word for hunting in Ancient Greek, kynègia, is derived from kynos 'dog'. In the Ottoman empire, some of the elite force of Janissaries, the ruler's guard, were Sekban, or dog guards.[citation needed] Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... The Janissaries (or janizaries; in Turkish: Yeniçeri, meaning New Troops) comprised infantry units that formed the Ottoman sultans household troops and bodyguard. ...


Dogs today are used to find, chase and retrieve game and sometimes to kill it. Hunting dogs allow man to pursue and kill prey that would otherwise be very difficult or dangerous to hunt. Game is any animal hunted for food or not normally domesticated (such as venison). ... A hunting dog refers to any dog who assists humans in hunting, or whose breed was originally developed to do so. ...


Modern sport hunting

In time, hunting came to be seen as a sporting activity. Ultimately, the rising middle class or bourgeoisie adopted the practice and retained its image. The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... Bourgeois redirects here. ...


Although recreational hunters may choose to be selective hunters, many people hunt to enjoy the outdoors. Others enjoy game as an alternative to store bought meat.


The advent of recreational hunting spurred the advent of the modern environmental conservation movement.[citation needed] Hunters such as Aldo Leopold, John Muir, and Teddy Roosevelt, became the founding fathers of the modern Conservation movement. The conservation movement is a political and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including plant and animal species as well as their habitat for the future. ... Aldo Leopold (January 11, 1887 - April 21, 1948) was a United States ecologist, forester, and environmentalist. ... For other persons named John Muir, see John Muir (disambiguation). ... Theodore Roosevelt (October 27, 1858–January 6, 1919) was the twenty-fifth (1901) Vice President and the twenty-sixth (1901-1909) President of the United States, succeeding to the office upon the assassination of William McKinley. ... The conservation movement is a political and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including plant and animal species as well as their habitat for the future. ...


Hunting and religion

Since prehistory, the importance of hunting for most cultures was reflected in their religions. For example, many old (often zoomorph) deities are either predators or prey of man. In pagan religions, specific rituals may be present before or after a hunt, the rituals done may vary according to the species hunted or the season the hunt is taking place. Zoomorphic decoration from the Book of Kells Zoomorphism, from Greek ζωον zōon, meaning animal, and μορφη, morphē, meaning shape or form, refers to the representation of animal forms in ornaments, or to the representation of gods in the form, or with attributes, of non-human animals, and also to the transformation...


Often a hunting ground, or the hunt for one or more species, was reserved or prohibited in the context of a temple cult.


Indian religions

The first Precept of Buddhism is the respect for all sentient life. The general approach by all Buddhists is to avoid killing any living creatures. The Buddha explained the issue by saying "all fear death; comparing others with oneself, one should neither kill nor cause to kill". The Hindu doctrine of Ahimsa is generally antagonistic to hunting. Jainism teaches to have tremendous respect for all of life. Prohibitions for hunting and meat eating are the fundamental conditions for being a Jain. Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... Siddhartha and Gautama redirect here. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Ahimsa (Devanagari: ; IAST ) is a Sanskrit term meaning non-violence (literally: the avoidance of violence - himsa). ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ...


Christianity and Judaism

From early Christian times, hunting has been forbidden to Roman Catholic Church clerics. Thus the "Corpus Juris Canonici" (C. ii, X, De cleric. venat.) we sais "We forbid to all servants of God hunting and expeditions through the woods with hounds; and we also forbid them to keep hawks or falcons." The Fourth Council of the Lateran, held under Pope Innocent III, decreed (canon xv): "We interdict hunting or hawking to all clerics." The decree of the Council of Trent is worded more mildly: "Let clerics abstain from illicit hunting and hawking" (Sess. XXIV, De reform., c. xii), which seems to imply that not all hunting is illicit, and canonists generally make a distinction declaring noisy (clamorosa) hunting unlawful but not quiet (quieta) hunting. Catholic Church redirects here. ... The Fourth Council of the Lateran was summoned by Pope Innocent III with his Bull of April 19, 1213. ... Pope Innocent III (c. ... The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


Ferraris (s.v. "Clericus", art. 6) gives it as the general sense of canonists that hunting is allowed to clerics if it be indulged in rarely and for sufficient cause, as necessity, utility or honest recreation, and with that moderation which is becoming to the ecclesiastical state. Ziegler, however (De episc., l. IV, c. xix), thinks that the interpretation of the canonists is not in accordance with the letter or spirit of the laws of the Church. An ecclesiastical government is a governmental body that derives its powers from spiritual or religious teachings. ...


Nevertheless, although the distinction between lawful and unlawful hunting is undoubtedly permissible, it is certain that a bishop can absolutely prohibit all hunting to the clerics of his diocese, as was done by synods at Milan, Avignon, Liège, Cologne and elsewhere. Benedict XIV (De synodo diœces., l. II, c. x) declared that such synodal decrees are not too severe, as an absolute prohibition of hunting is more conformable to the ecclesiastical law. In practice, therefore, the synodal statutes of various localities must be consulted to discover whether they allow quiet hunting or prohibit it altogether. Scholar Pope, Benedict XIV Benedict XIV, né Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini (Bologna, March 31, 1675 - Rome, May 3, 1758) was pope from 1740 to 1758. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Canon law is the term used for...


It is important to note that the Bible places no such restrictions on any Christian; however, the animal must be properly drained of blood before consuming.[citation needed] Hence, Protestant clerics, Catholic lay parishioners, and Protestants have no religious restrictions on hunting. This is in accord with what is found in the Bible book of Acts 15:28-29. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... For the literature genre, see Acts of the Apostles (genre). ...


Jewish hunting law, based on the Torah, is similar, permitting hunting of non-prey animals that are additionally considered Kosher for food, although hunting preying animals for food is strictly prohibited under Rabbinic law. Hence, birds of prey are specifically prohibited, being non-Kosher. Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... The circled U indicates that this can of tuna is certified kosher by the Union of Orthodox Congregations. ...


National hunting traditions

Shikar (India)

During the feudal and colonial epoch on the Indian continent, hunting was a true 'regal sport' in the numerous princely states, as many (Maha)rajas, Nawabs, as well as British officers maintained a whole corps of shikaris, who were native professional hunters. They would be headed by a master of the hunt, who might be styled Mir-shikar. Often these were recruited from the normally low-ranking local tribes because of their traditional knowledge of environment and hunting techniques. Big game, such as Bengal tigers, might be hunted from the back of an elephant. A princely state or native state was a feudal monarchy in British India ruled by a hereditary ruler, who was nominally sovereign. ... Traditional knowledge (TK), indigenous knowledge (IK), and local knowledge generally refer to the matured long-standing traditions and practices of certain regional, indigenous, or local communities. ... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea...


Indian social norms are generally antagonistic to hunting, while a few sects like the Bishnoi lay special emphasis on the conservation of particular species like the antelope. India's Wildlife Protection Act of 1972 bans the killing of all wild animals. However, the Chief Wildlife Warden may, if he is satisfied that any wild animal from a specified list has become dangerous to human life or is so disabled or diseased as to be beyond recovery, permit any person to hunt such animal. In such a case, the body of any wild animal killed or wounded becomes government property.[7] It has been suggested that Convention (norm) be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about religious groups. ... The Bishnois are a community of nature worshippers in the state of Rajasthan, India. ... This article is about the herbivorous mammals. ... The Wildlife Protection Act of 1972 refers to a sweeping package of legislation enacted in 1972 by the Government of India. ...


Safari

In 1977 Kenya chose to ban all hunting in favor of other tourism.
In 1977 Kenya chose to ban all hunting in favor of other tourism.

A safari, from Swahili word meaning a long journey, is an overland journey (especially in Africa). Image File history File links Hunters in Kenya. ... Image File history File links Hunters in Kenya. ... Map of Africa 1890 Look up safari in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the language. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


Safari as a distinctive way of hunting was popularized by US author Ernest Hemingway and president Theodore Roosevelt. A safari may consist of several days or even weeks-long journey and camping in the bush or jungle, while pursuing big game. Nowadays, it's often used to describe tours through African national parks to watch or hunt wildlife. Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 — July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. ... For other persons named Theodore Roosevelt, see Theodore Roosevelt (disambiguation). ... The Bush (Australian) The Bush (Australian) is Australian English for rural, undeveloped land or country areas, as distinct from the Outback. ... Box Log Falls, Lamington National Park, Queensland, Australia Jungle usually refers to a dense forest in a hot climate, such as a tropical rainforest. ... Game is any animal hunted for food or not normally domesticated (such as venison). ... This is a list of national parks ordered by nation. ...


Hunters are usually tourists, accompanied by (licensed and highly regulated) professional hunter ("PH"), local guides, skinners and porters in more difficult terrains. A special safari type is the solo-safari where all the license acquiring, stalking, preparation and outfitting is done by the hunter himself. This article is in need of attention. ... A porter carries objects. ... A hunting license is an American regulatory or legal mechanism to control recreational and sports hunting. ... Defined narrowly, a game stalker is a hunter who for sport, approaches close to his timid quarry before making a kill. ...


Photo-safaris were popular even before the advent of ecotourism. The synonym bloodless hunt for hunting with the use of film and a still photo camera was first used by the Polish photographer Włodzimierz Puchalski.[citation needed] Tapanti National Park in Costa Rica Ecotourism, also known as ecological tourism, is a form of tourism that appeals to the ecologically and socially conscious individuals. ... WÅ‚odzimierz Puchalski (b. ...


United Kingdom

Fox hunting in 1850s England
Fox hunting in 1850s England
See also: Hunting in the United Kingdom

Fox hunting is the type of hunting most closely associated with the United Kingdom. Originally a form of vermin control to protect livestock, it became a popular social activity for newly wealthy upper classes in Victorian times, and a traditional rural activity for riders and foot followers alike. The complicated rituals of the fox hunt are addressed in the article fox hunting. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (865x577, 74 KB) Summary http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (865x577, 74 KB) Summary http://www. ... A Cocker Spaniel in a typical English shooting scene Hunting and Shooting in the United Kingdom has been practised there for many centuries and is a major part of British rural culture. ... A fox hunt Fox hunting is a form of hunting for foxes using a pack of scent hounds. ... Look up vermin in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Queen Victoria redirects here. ... A fox hunt Fox hunting is a form of hunting for foxes using a pack of scent hounds. ...


Similar to fox hunting in many ways is the chasing of hare with hounds. Sight hounds such as greyhounds may be used to run down hare in coursing with scent hounds such as beagles used for beagling, the hunting of hares on foot. Other sorts of foxhounds may also be used for hunting deer or mink. For other uses, see Hare (disambiguation). ... Categories: Dog stubs | Dog types ... The Whippet shows the characteristic long legs, deep chest, and narrow waist of a sight hound. ... This article is about the breed of dog; for other meanings of Greyhound, see Greyhound (disambiguation). ... Like most scent hounds, the Basset Hound has long ears, large nasal passages, and a sturdy body for endurance. ... This article is about the dog breed. ... The FOXHOUND emblem from the Metal Gear Solid series. ... Genera About 15 in 4 subfamilies. ... Binomial name (Schreber, 1777) The American Mink is a trademark of the American Legend Cooperative The American Mink, Neovison vison, is a North American member of the Mustelidae family found in Alaska, Canada and most of the United States. ...


These forms of hunting have been controversial in the UK. Animal welfare supporters believe that hunting causes unnecessary suffering to foxes, horses and hounds. Proponents argue that it is both culturally and economically important. Using dogs to chase wild mammals in this way was made illegal in February 2005 by the Hunting Act 2004. The issues involved are addressed in the article fox hunting legislation. Animal welfare is the viewpoint that animals, especially those under human care, should not suffer. ... The Hunting Act 2004 is an Act in the United Kingdom passed in 2004. ... Fox hunting legislation refers to various laws and legislative history related to fox hunting in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. ...


Hunting deer by foot without hounds is called game stalking. This article is about the ruminent animal. ... Defined narrowly, a game stalker is a hunter who for sport, approaches close to his timid quarry before making a kill. ...


The open season for grouse in the UK begins on August 12, the so-called Glorious Twelfth. The definition of game in the United Kingdom is governed by the Game Act 1831. Genera Tetrao Lagopus Falcipennis Centrocercus Bonasa Dendrapagus Tympanuchus Grouse are from the order Galliformes which inhabit temperate and subarctic regions of the northern hemisphere. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Glorious Twelfth is usually used to refer to August 12, the start of the open season for grouse shooting in the United Kingdom. ... This is an incomplete list of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom for the years 1800-1899. ...


The British Shooting Tradition

The shooting of game birds, especially pheasants is a widespread sport in the UK, with the British Association for Shooting and Conservation saying that over a million people per year participate in shooting, though this figure includes game shooting, clay shooting and target shooting.[8] Shooting, as opposed to traditional hunting, requires little questing for game - around 35 million birds are released onto shooting estates every year, some having been intensively reared. Shoots can be elaborate affairs with guns placed in assigned positions with assistants to help load shotguns. When in position, "beaters" move through the areas of cover swinging sticks or flags to drive the game out. Such events are often called "drives". Genera Ithaginis Catreus Rheinartia Crossoptilon Lophura Argusianus Pucrasia Syrmaticus Chrysolophus Phasianus † See also partridge, quail Pheasants are a group of large birds in the order Galliformes. ... The British Association for Shooting and Conservation (BASC) is a British organisation whose mission is to promote and protect sporting shooting and the well-being of the countryside throughout the United Kingdom and overseas. ... Game is any animal hunted for food or not normally domesticated (such as venison). ... Clay pigeon shooting, formally known as Inanimate Bird Shooting, is the art of shooting at special flying targets, known as clay pigeons or clay targets, with a shotgun. ... The shooting sports include those competitive sports involving tests of proficiency (accuracy and speed) using various types of guns such as firearms and airguns (see Archery for more information on shooting sports that make use of bows and arrows). ... The factual accuracy of part of this article is disputed. ...


United States

Carrying a bear trophy head at the Kodiak Archipelago
Carrying a bear trophy head at the Kodiak Archipelago

North American hunting predates the United States by thousands of years, and was an important part of many pre-Columbian Native American cultures. Native Americans retain some hunting rights and are exempt from some laws as part of Indian treaties and otherwise under federal law—examples include eagle feather laws and exemptions in the Marine Mammal Protection Act. This is considered particularly important in Alaska Native communities. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 477 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (835 × 1050 pixel, file size: 104 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Source: Fish and Wildlife Services image library Summary: Close view of man with huge bear head strapped to his back on the Kodiak Archipelago. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 477 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (835 × 1050 pixel, file size: 104 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Source: Fish and Wildlife Services image library Summary: Close view of man with huge bear head strapped to his back on the Kodiak Archipelago. ... For other uses, see Bear (disambiguation). ... The Kodiak Archipelago is an archipelago, or group of islands, south of the mainland of the United States state of Alaska, about 405 km (252 miles) by air south of Anchorage in the Gulf of Alaska. ... The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... Federal law is the body of law created by the federal government of a nation. ... There are a number of federal wildlife laws pertaining to eagles and their feathers (e. ... The Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 prohibits, with certain exceptions, the take of marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high seas, and the importation of marine mammals and marine mammal products into the U.S. Congress defines take as “harass, hunt, capture... Alaskan Natives are Aboriginal Americans who live in Alaska. ...


Regulation of hunting is primarily regulated by state law; additional regulations are imposed through United States environmental law in the case of migratory birds and endangered species. State law, in the United States, is the law of each separate U.S. state, as passed by the state legislature and signed into law by the state governor. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Long-distance land bird migration Many species of land birds migrate very long distances, the most common pattern being for birds to breed in the temperate or arctic northern hemisphere and winter in warmer regions, often in the tropics or the southern hemisphere. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ...


Regulations vary widely from state to state, and govern the areas, time periods, techniques and methods by which specific game animals may be hunted. Some states make a distinction between protected species and unprotected species (often vermin or varmints) for which there are no hunting regulations. Hunters of protected species require a hunting license in all states, for which completion of a hunting safety course is sometimes a prerequisite. Look up vermin in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Vermin is a term given to animals which are considered by humans to be pests or nuisances, most associated with the carrying of disease. ... A hunting license is an American regulatory or legal mechanism to control recreational and sports hunting. ...


Typically game animals are divided into several categories for regulatory purposes. Typical categories, along with example species, are as follows:

Hunting big game typically requires a "tag" for each animal harvested. Tags must be purchased in addition to the hunting license, and the number of tags issued to an individual is typically limited. In cases where there are more prospective hunters than the quota for that species, tags are usually assigned by lottery. Tags may be further restricted to a specific area or "wildlife management unit." Hunting migratory waterfowl requires a "duck stamp" from the Fish and Wildlife Service. Game is any animal hunted for food or not normally domesticated (such as venison). ... Binomial name Zimmermann, 1780 The White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), also known as the Virginia deer, or simply as the whitetail, is a medium-sized deer found throughout most of the continental United States, southern Canada, Mexico, Central America, northern portions of South America as far south as Peru, and... Binomial name (Rafinesque, 1817) The mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) is a deer whose habitat is in the western half of North America. ... For other uses, see Moose (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Elk (disambiguation). ... Caribou redirects here. ... For other uses, see Bear (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Shaw, 1804 Synonyms Desmarest Cuvier[1] Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis)[2] is one of three species of mountain sheep in North America and Siberia; the other two species being Ovis dalli, that includes Dall Sheep and Stones Sheep, and the Siberian Snow sheep Ovis nivicola. ... Binomial name Antilocapra americana Ord, 1815 Subspecies The Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) is the only surviving member of the family Antilocapridae, and the fastest mammal in North America running at speeds of 58 mph (90 km/h). ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is the wild ancestor of the domestic pig. ... Species Dicotyles tajacu Tyassu pecari Catagonus wagneri A peccary (also known by its Spanish name, Javelina) is a medium-sized mammal of the family Tayassuidae. ... A canned hunt is essentially a trophy hunt where the customer is guaranteed a kill by the simple expedient of the hosts pre-capturing the animal, and releasing it into an area where the hunter can take a shot at it, such as in a fenced-in area. ... For other uses, see Rabbit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hare (disambiguation). ... This article is about the animal. ... This article or section should be merged with Virginia_opossum The word opossum (usually pronounced without the leading O, or with only a very slight schwa) refers either to the Virginia Opossum in particular, or more generally to any of the other marsupials of magnorder Ameridelphia. ... For the river, see Raccoon River. ... For other uses, see Beaver (disambiguation). ... For the American comedian, see Redd Foxx. ... For other uses, see Mink (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Ondatra zibethicus (Linnaeus, 1766) The Muskrat or Musquash (Ondatra zibethicus), the only species in genus Ondatra, is a large aquatic rodent native to North America, and introduced in parts of Europe. ... For other uses, see Bobcat (disambiguation). ... Predator and Prey redirect here. ... For other uses, see Cougar (disambiguation), Puma (disambiguation), or Panther. ... For other uses, see Coyote (disambiguation). ... Upland game is an American term which refers to those game birds hunted with pointing breeds, flushing spaniels, and retrievers which are not water fowl. ... Genera Tetrao Lagopus Falcipennis Centrocercus Bonasa Dendrapagus Tympanuchus Grouse are from the order Galliformes which inhabit temperate and subarctic regions of the northern hemisphere. ... Binomial name Alectoris chukar (Gray, JE, 1830) The chukar, Alectoris chukar, is a gamebird in the pheasant family Phasianidae of the order Galliformes, gallinaceous birds. ... Genera Ithaginis Catreus Rheinartia Crossoptilon Lophura Argusianus Pucrasia Syrmaticus Chrysolophus Phasianus † See also partridge, quail Pheasants are a group of large birds in the order Galliformes. ... Binomial name Colinus virginianus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Bobwhite Quail or Northern Bobwhite, Colinus virginianus, is a ground-dwelling bird native to North America. ... Subfamilies see article text Feral Rock Pigeon beside Weiming Lake, Peking University Dove redirects here. ... Falcated Duck at Slimbridge Wildfowl and Wetlands centre, Gloucestershire, England Wildfowl or waterfowl, also waterbirds, is the collective term for the approximately 147 species of swans, geese and ducks, classified in the order Anseriformes, family Anatidae. ... Subfamilies Dendrocygninae Oxyurinae Anatinae Aythyinae Merginae Duck is the common name for a number of species in the Anatidae family of birds. ... For other uses, see Mallard (disambiguation). ... Geese redirects here. ... For the outerwear manufacturer, see Canada Goose (clothing). ... The USFWS logo The United States Fish and Wildlife Service is a unit of the United States Department of the Interior that is dedicated to managing and preserving wildlife. ...

Hunting camp with dressed deer at Schoodic Lake, Maine in 1905
Hunting camp with dressed deer at Schoodic Lake, Maine in 1905

Harvest of animals other than big game is typically restricted by a "bag limit" and a "possession limit." A bag limit is a maximum number of a specific animal species that an individual can harvest in a single day. A possession limit is a maximum number of a specific animal species that can be in an individual's possession at any time. Field dressing deer, also called gutting, is a necessary step in preserving meat from deer harvested in the wild. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ...


Guns usage in hunting is also typically regulated by game category, area within the state, and time period. Regulations for big game hunting often specify a minimum caliber or muzzle energy for firearms. The use of rifles is often banned for safety reasons in areas with high population density or limited topographic relief. Regulations may also limit or ban the use of lead in ammunition because of environmental concerns. Specific seasons for bow hunting or muzzle-loading black powder guns are often established to limit competition with hunters using more effective weapons. Hunting in the United States is not associated with any particular class or culture. In fact, 78% of Americans support legal hunting,[9] but relatively few Americans actually hunt. At the beginning of the 21st century, 6% of Americans hunted. Southerners in states along the eastern seaboard hunted at a rate slightly below the national average (5%), and while hunting was more common in other parts of the South (9%), these rates did not surpass those of the Plains states, where 12% of Midwesterners hunted. Hunting in other areas of the country fell below the national average.[10] Overall in the 1996–2006 period, the number of hunters over the age of 16 declined by 10%, a drop attributable to a number of factors including habitat loss and changes in recreation habits.[11] Calibre redirects here. ... Muzzle energy is the measurement of the kinetic energy of a bullet as it is expelled from the barrel of a firearm. ... Firearms redirects here. ... For other uses, see Rifle (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Terrain (journal). ... This article is about the projectile weapon bow. ... A US soldier drops a shell into the muzzle of an M224 60-mm mortar. ... Black powder was the original gunpowder and practically the only known propellant and explosive until the middle of the 19th century. ... Habitat destruction is a process of land use change in which one habitat-type is removed and replaced with another habitat-type. ...


Regulation of hunting within the United States dates from the 19th century. Some modern hunters see themselves as conservationists and sportsmen in the mode of Theodore Roosevelt and the Boone and Crockett Club. Local hunting clubs and national organizations provide hunter education and help protect the future of the sport by buying land for future hunting use. Some groups represent a specific hunting interest, such as Ducks Unlimited, Pheasants Forever or Delta Waterfowl. Many hunting groups also participate in lobbying the federal government and state government. The conservation movement is a political and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including plant and animal species as well as their habitat for the future. ... For other persons named Theodore Roosevelt, see Theodore Roosevelt (disambiguation). ... The Boone and Crockett Club is a conservationist organization, founded in the United States in 1877 by Theodore Roosevelt. ... Ducks Unlimited is an international non-profit organization dedicated to the conservation of wetlands and associated upland habitats for waterfowl, other wildlife, and people. ...


Each year, nearly $200 million in hunters' federal excise taxes are distributed to state agencies to support wildlife management programs, the purchase of lands open to hunters, and hunter education and safety classes. Since 1934 the sale of Federal Duck Stamps, a required purchase for migratory waterfowl hunters over 16 years old, has raised over $700 million to help purchase more than 5.2 million acres (8,100 sq mi/20,000 km²) of habitat for the National Wildlife Refuge System lands that support waterfowl and many other wildlife species, and are often open to hunting. States also collect monies from hunting licenses to assist with management of game animals, as designated by law. A key task of Federal and state park rangers and game wardens is to enforce laws and regulations related to hunting, including species protection, hunting seasons, and hunting bans. Falcated Duck at Slimbridge Wildfowl and Wetlands centre, Gloucestershire, England Wildfowl or waterfowl, also waterbirds, is the collective term for the approximately 147 species of swans, geese and ducks, classified in the order Anseriformes, family Anatidae. ... National Wildlife Refuge is a designation for certain protected areas of the United States managed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. ... Game is any animal hunted for food or not normally domesticated (such as venison). ... NPS director Mary Bomar in her park ranger uniform A park ranger is a person charged with protecting and preserving protected parklands, forests (then called a forest ranger), wilderness areas, as well as other natural resources and protected cultural resources. ... In the United States, game wardens are state or local officials responsible for enforcing environmental protection laws pertaining to the hunting, fishing, and trapping of wild animals. ...


Varmint hunting is an American phrase for the selective killing of non-game animals seen as pests. While not always an efficient form of pest control, varmint hunting achieves selective control of pests while providing recreation and is much less regulated. Varmint species are often responsible for detrimental effects on crops, livestock, landscaping, infrastructure, and pets. Some animals (such as wild rabbits or squirrels) may be utilized for fur or meat, but often no use is made of the carcass. Which species are "varmints" depends on the circumstance and area. Common varmints may include various rodents, coyotes, crows, foxes, feral cats, and feral hogs. Some animals once considered varmints are now protected, such as wolves. In the US state of Louisiana, a non-native rodent known as a nutria have become so destructive to the local ecosystem that the state has initiated a bounty program to help control the population. One example of a Landscape and Design project from Beaverton, Oregon, including trees, shrubs, perennials, rock, ornamental grasses and wooden deck. ... For other uses, see Rabbit (disambiguation). ... This article is about the animal. ... Binomial name Canis latrans Say, 1823 A coyote (Canis latrans) is a member of the Canidae (the dog family) and a relative of the domestic dog. ... For other uses, see Crow (disambiguation). ... This article is about the animal. ... Most feral kittens have little chance of surving more than a few months and are vulnerable to starvation, predators, disease and even flea-induced anemia. ... Wolf Wolf Man Mount Wolf Wolf Prizes Wolf Spider Wolf 424 Wolf 359 Wolf Point Wolf-herring Frank Wolf Friedrich Wolf Friedrich August Wolf Hugo Wolf Johannes Wolf Julius Wolf Max Franz Joseph Cornelius Wolf Maximilian Wolf Rudolf Wolf Thomas Wolf As Name Wolf Breidenbach Wolf Hirshorn Other The call... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Binomial name Myocastor coypus (Molina, 1782) The Coypu (Myocastor coypus) or Nutria is a large, crepuscular, semiaquatic rodent native to South America, but now also present in Europe, Asia, and North America. ...


The American Fair Chase Tradition

En uheldig bjørnejakt (An Unfortunate Bear Hunt) by Theodor Kittelsen
En uheldig bjørnejakt (An Unfortunate Bear Hunt) by Theodor Kittelsen

The principles of the Fair Chase[12] have been a part of the American hunting tradition for over 100 years. The role of the hunter-conservationist, popularized by Theodore Roosevelt, has been central to the development of the modern Fair Chase tradition. Today, 95% of American hunters[citation needed] see hunter ethics as an important part of the hunting tradition. Image File history File links Theodor_Kittelsen-En_uheldig_bjørnejakt. ... Image File history File links Theodor_Kittelsen-En_uheldig_bjørnejakt. ... Kittelsen is known for his drawings of trolls. ... For other persons named Theodore Roosevelt, see Theodore Roosevelt (disambiguation). ...


Hunting ranches

Indian Blackbuck, Nilgai, exotic deer antelope and Barasingha can now be found on hunting ranches in Texas, USA where they are shot for sport hunting. Hunters can pay upwards of $4000 as fees for hunting a Barasingha. For other uses, see Blackbuck (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Boselaphus tragocamelus Pall. ... Exotic can mean: Exotic dance - a form of dancing or stripping Exotic pets - non common pets e. ... This article is about the ruminent animal. ... This article is about the herbivorous mammals. ... Binomial name Cervus duvaucelii (G. Cuvier, 1823) The Barasingha (sometimes spelt Barasinga) is a type of deer, native to India and Nepal. ... Ranching is the raising of cattle or sheep on rangeland, although one might also speak of ranching with regard to less common livestock such as elk, bison or emu. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Hunters was a commissioned soundtrack for the Discovery Channel series Hunters: The World of Predators and Prey. ...


Russia

Main article: Hunting in Russia

The hunters at rest by Vasily Perov. ...

Wildlife management

Hunting gives resource managers an important tool[13][14] in managing populations that might exceed the carrying capacity of their habitat and threaten the well-being of other species or, in some instances, damage human health or safety.[15] Hunting reduces intraspecific competition for food and shelter, reducing mortality among the remaining animals. Some environmentalists assert that (re)introducing predators would achieve the same end with greater efficiency and less negative effect. Others disagree, citing hunting as more selective. For science on this topic see: Aldo Leopold. Wildlife management is the process of keeping certain wildlife populations at desirable levels determined by wildlife managers. ... Intraspecific competition is the interaction between members of the same species that vie for the same resource in an ecosystem (e. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ... Aldo Leopold (January 11, 1887 - April 21, 1948) was a United States ecologist, forester, and environmentalist. ...


Management agencies sometimes rely on hunting to control specific animal populations, as has been the case with deer in North America. These hunts may sometimes be carried out by professional shooters although others may include amateur hunters.


A large part of managing populations involves managing the number and, sometimes, the size or age of animals harvested so as to ensure the sustainability of the population. Tools which are frequently used to control harvest are bag limits and season closures, although gear restrictions such as archery-only seasons are becoming increasingly popular in an effort to reduce hunter success rates.[citation needed]


Violations of hunting laws and regulations are normally punishable by law and, collectively, such violations are known as poaching. For other uses, see Poaching (disambiguation). ...


Bag limits

Main article: Bag limits

Bag limits are provisions under the law which control how many animals of a given species or group of species can be killed although there are often species for which bag limits do not apply. There are also jurisdictions where bag limits are not applied at all or are not applied under certain circumstances. Where bag limits are used, however, there can be daily or seasonal bag limits. For example, ducks can often be harvested at a rate of six per hunter per day.[16] Big game, like moose, most often have a seasonal bag limit of one animal per hunter.[17] Bag limits may also regulate the size, sex or age of animal that a hunter can kill. In many cases, bag limits are designed to more equitably allocate harvest among the hunting population rather than to protect animal populations. The phrase "bag limits" comes from the custom among hunters of small game to carry successful kills in a small bag, similar to a fishing kreel. A bag limit is a law imposed on hunters and fishermen restricting the number of animals within a specific species or group of species they may kill and keep. ... The word duck was also used as slang for the WWII amphibious vehicle called a DUKW. It is also a cricketing term denoting a batsman being dismissed with a score of zero; see golden duck. ... For other uses, see Moose (disambiguation). ...


Closed season

A closed season is a time during which hunting an animal of a given species is contrary to law. Typically, closed seasons are designed to protect a species when they are most vulnerable or, sometimes, to protect them during their breeding season. By extension, the period that is not the closed season is known as the open season.


Hunting methods

Native Americans hunting bison, from an 1855 illustration
Native Americans hunting bison, from an 1855 illustration

Historical, subsistence and sport hunting techniques can differ radically, with modern hunting regulations often addressing issues of where, when and how hunts are conducted. Techniques may vary depending on government regulations, a hunter's personal ethics, local custom, firearms and the animal being hunted. Often a hunter will use a combination of more than one technique, and some are used primarily in poaching and wildlife management, explicitly forbidden to sport hunters. For other uses, see Poaching (disambiguation). ... Wildlife management is the process of keeping certain wildlife populations at desirable levels determined by wildlife managers. ...

  • Baiting is the use of decoys, lures, scent or food to attract animals
  • Blind or stand hunting is waiting for animals from a concealed or elevated position
  • Calling is the use of animal noises to attract or drive animals
  • Camouflage is the use of visual concealment (or scent) to blend with the environment
  • Dogs may be used to course or to help flush, herd, drive, track, point at, pursue or retrieve prey
  • Driving is the herding of animals in a particular direction, usually toward another hunter in the group
  • Flushing is the practice of scaring animals from concealed areas
  • Glassing is the use of optics (such as binoculars) to more easily locate animals
  • Glue is an indiscriminate passive form to kill birds[18]
  • Netting, including active netting with the use of cannon nets and rocket nets
  • Scouting includes a variety of tasks and techniques for finding animals to hunt
  • Spotlighting or shining is the use of artificial light to find or blind animals before killing
  • Stalking or still hunting is the practice of walking quietly, in search of animals or in pursuit of an individual animal
  • Tracking is the practice of reading physical evidence in pursuing animals
  • Trapping is the use of devices (snares, pits, deadfalls) to capture or kill an animal
  • Persistence hunting is the use of running and tracking to pursue the prey to exhaustion. [19]

Bait is any substance used to attract prey, e. ... A hunting blind is a cover device for hunters, designed to reduce the chance of detection. ... In computer science and telecommunications, calling is: Any attempt to set up a communications circuit. ... A hunting dog refers to any dog who assists humans in hunting, or whose breed was originally developed to do so. ... Coursing is the pursuit of game by dogs—chiefly Greyhounds—running by sight, not by scent. ... Cannon netting is a method of catching large numbers of animals, often birds, usually to band them, or otherwise tag them, as well as acquiring biometric data (measurements), in order to find out about their movements, migration routes, survival rates and metabolism. ... A rocket net is a kind of animal trap used to trap a large number of live animals, usually birds. ... Spotlighting or shining is a method of hunting nocturnal animals using off-road vehicles and high-powered lights. ... Defined narrowly, a game stalker is a hunter who for sport, approaches close to his timid quarry before making a kill. ... Tracking in hunting is the science and art of observing a place through animal footprints and other signs, including: tracks, beds, chews, scat, hair, etc. ... Bird trapping, tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (XIV century) The activity of animal trapping has two separate but related meanings. ... Persistence hunting is a type of hunting where the predator use a combination of running and tracking to persue the prey to exhaustion. ...

Trophy hunting

Royal Liechtenstein trophy collection at Úsov Château, the Czech Republic
Royal Liechtenstein trophy collection at Úsov Château, the Czech Republic
Main article: Trophy hunting

Trophy hunting is the selective seeking of wild game. It may also include the controversial hunting of captive or semi-captive animals expressly bred and raised under controlled or semi-controlled conditions so as to attain trophy characteristics (canned hunts). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1920x2560, 2037 KB) Summary Hunting tropheys in Úsov Château, the Czech Republic. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1920x2560, 2037 KB) Summary Hunting tropheys in Úsov Château, the Czech Republic. ... Princely Family of Liechtenstein HSH Prince Hans-Adam II HSH Princess Marie HSH Prince Alois HSH Princess Sophie HSH Prince Joseph HSH Princess Marie-Caroline HSH Prince Georg HSH Prince Nikolaus HSH Prince Maximilian HSH Princess Angela HSH Prince Alfons HSH Prince Constantin HSH Princess Marie HSH Prince Moritz HSH... Úsov (German: ) is a small city located in the Olomouc Region of the Czech Republic. ... Trophy hunting is the selective seeking of wild game. ...


History

In the 19th century, southern and central European sport hunters often pursued game only for a trophy, usually the head or pelt of an animal, which was then displayed as a sign of prowess. The rest of the animal was typically discarded. Some cultures, however, disapprove of such waste. In Nordic countries, hunting for trophies was -- and still is -- frowned upon. Hunting in North America in the 19th century was done primarily as a way to supplement food supplies, although it is now undertaken mainly for sport. The safari method of hunting was a development of sport hunting that saw elaborate travel in Africa, India and other places in pursuit of trophies. In modern times, trophy hunting persists and is a significant industry in some areas. Some loving-cup trophies seen in the London Irish clubhouse at Sunbury in 2002. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ... This article is about the hunting of prey by human society. ... Trophy hunting is the selective seeking of wild game. ...


Controversy

Trophy hunting is most often criticised when it involves rare or endangered animals.[20]. Opponents may also see trophy hunting as an issue of morality[21] or animal cruelty, criticising the killing of living creatures for recreation. Advocates of trophy hunting disagree, saying that modern regulations explicitly address issues of unnecessary harassment and that the vast majority of the edible portions of the prey animal are consumed by hunters themselves or are given to local inhabitants for use in traditional ways. An endangered species is a species whose population is so small that it is in danger of becoming extinct. ... Morality (from the Latin manner, character, proper behavior) has three principal meanings. ... A man in Shanghai asks for money, holding a monkey with a rope around its neck and missing a limb. ...


There is also debate about the extent to which trophy hunting benefits the local economy. Hunters argue that fees paid contribute to the local economy and provide value to animals that would otherwise be seen as competition for grazing, livestock, and crops.[22] This analysis is disputed by opponents of trophy hunting.[23] Some argue that the animals are worth more to the community for ecotourism, than hunting. [24]


Economics of hunting

North Dakota hunter with a Mule Deer buck. Many in the midwestern United States enjoy hunting.
North Dakota hunter with a Mule Deer buck. Many in the midwestern United States enjoy hunting.

A variety of industries benefit from hunting and support hunting on economic grounds. In Tanzania, it is estimated that a safari hunter spends 50-100 times that of the average eco-tourist. The average photo tourist may demand luxury accommodations. In contrast, the average safari hunter stays in tented camps. Safari hunters are also more likely to use remote areas, uninviting to the average eco-tourist. They argue that these hunters allow for anti-poaching activities and revenue for local communities.[citation needed] Official language(s) English Demonym North Dakotan Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Area  Ranked 19th in the US  - Total 70,762 sq mi (183,272 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 2. ... This article is about the Midwestern region in the United States. ...


In the United Kingdom, the game hunting of birds as an industry is said to be extremely important to the rural economy: The Cobham Report of 1997 suggested it to be worth around £700 million, and hunting and shooting lobby groups now claim it to be worth over a billion.[citation needed] GBP redirects here. ...


Hunting also has a significant financial impact in the United States, with many companies specializing in hunting equipment or specialty tourism. Today's hunters come from a broad range of economic, social, and cultural backgrounds. In 2001, over 13 million hunters averaged eighteen days hunting and spent over $20.5 billion on their sport.[citation needed]The Outdoor Channel and OLN are cable television channels airing programs such as Hunter's Handbook TV which teach hunting safety and showcase new hunting destinations or products such as recreational vehicles, specialty clothing or firearms. In the U.S., proceeds from hunting licenses contribute to state game management programs including preservation of wildlife habitat. Sports equipment includes any object used for sport or exercise. ... Tourist redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... OLN (Outdoor Life Network) is a Canadian cable television specialty channel. ... Cable TV redirects here. ... Hunters Handbook TV is an extension of Hunter’s Handbook, the award-winning, official student publication of the International Hunter Education Association. ... Recreational Vehicle (or RV) is a term used in North America to describe a large enclosed piece of equipment with wheels designed to be moved from place to place for people to temporarily live in and be protected from the elements while away from their permanent home. ... A firearm is a kinetic energy weapon that fires either a single or multiple projectiles propelled at high velocity by the gases produced by action of the rapid confined burning of a propellant. ...


Depictions in popular culture

Huckleberry Finn, illustration by E. W. Kemble from the original 1884 edition of the book by Mark Twain
Huckleberry Finn, illustration by E. W. Kemble from the original 1884 edition of the book by Mark Twain

In addition to positive portrayals of hunting and hunters on television shows aimed at hunters, hunting is also frequently portrayed in movies and popular culture as part of a broader social commentary, such as in the Michael Cimino film, The Deer Hunter, where it takes on psychological symbolism as a prelude to war.[25] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (640x941, 145 KB)Drawing of Huckleberry finn with a rabbit and a gun, from the original 1884 edition of the book. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (640x941, 145 KB)Drawing of Huckleberry finn with a rabbit and a gun, from the original 1884 edition of the book. ... Mark Twains series of books featuring the fictional character Tom Sawyer include: The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876) Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885) Tom Sawyer Abroad (1894) Tom Sawyer, Detective (1896) Tom Sawyer also appears in at least three unfinished Twain works, Huck and Tom Among the Indians, Schoolhouse... Edward Winsor Kemble (January 18, 1861–September 19, 1933) was an American cartoonist and illustrator. ... Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humanist,[2] humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... Social commentary is the act of expressing an opinion on the nature of society. ... Michael Cimino (born February 3, 1939, New York City) is an Australia film director. ... For other uses, see Deer Hunter. ...


Some of the most widespread depictions of hunting have been through animation, particularly in feature-length movies such as the 1942 film Bambi[26][27] and shorter Looney Tunes cartoons featuring Bugs Bunny and Elmer Fudd. Such anthropomorphism of prey animals or "varmints" is frequently used as social satire, with the audience intended to sympathize with the hunted animal and the socially powerful hunter portrayed as incompetent or a macho buffoon. At the other end of the spectrum Ted Nugent portrays the hunter as a rock and roll iconoclast. The bouncing ball animation (below) consists of these 6 frames. ... Bambi is a 1942 animated feature produced by Walt Disney and originally released to theatres by RKO Radio Pictures on August 13, 1942. ... Looney Tunes opening title from mid-1950s Looney Tunes is a Warner Bros. ... For other uses, see Cartoon (disambiguation). ... Bugs Bunny is an animated rabbit/hare who appears in the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series of animated films produced by Warner Bros. ... Elmer J. Fudd is a fictional cartoon character and one of the most famous Looney Tunes/Merrie Melodies characters. ... 7th millennium BC anthropomorphized rocks, with slits for eyes, found in modern-day Israel. ... 1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a good deal of satire of the contemporary social and political scene. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... For other uses of Jester, see Jester (disambiguation). ... Theodore Ted Nugent (born December 13, 1948) (a. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ...


Hunting may also be depicted in a matter-of-fact way, as in the 1990 film Dances with Wolves or the 1970 Little Big Man which contrast modern hunters with a romantic noble savage. Filmed depictions of hunting by aboriginal cultures like American Indians tend to be more sympathetic. Hunting is portrayed as necessary subsistence, as is the case in many Inuit and Alaskan Bush communities today.[28] Varmint hunting of prairie dogs is depicted in John Ross' novel Unintended Consequences. A favorable depiction of hunting is found in L. Neil Smith's science fiction novel Pallas. Hunting is central to many works by Ernest Hemingway and even used as an extended metaphor in the new age self-help fiction of Carlos Castaneda's Journey to Ixtlan. Dances with Wolves is a 1990 epic film which tells the story of a United States cavalry officer from the Civil War who travels into the Dakota Territory, near a Sioux tribe. ... Little Big Man is a 1970 film directed by Arthur Penn and based on the 1964 novel by Thomas Berger. ... A detail from Benjamin Wests The Death of General Wolfe; Wests idealised depiction of this American Indian is in the tradition of the Noble savage (Fryd, 75) In the eighteenth-century cult of Primitivism the noble savage, uncorrupted by the influences of civilization, was considered more worthy, more... For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ... The Bush is a cultural as well as geographic division of the state of Alaska in the United States. ... Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 — July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. ... New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ... Though the term self-help can refer to any case whereby an individual or a group betters themselves economically, intellectually or emotionally, the connotations of the phrase have come to apply particularly to psychological or psychotherapeutic nostrums, often purveyed through the popular genre of the self-help book. ... Carlos Castaneda (December 25, 1925/31? – April 27, 1998) was a Peruvian- or Brazilian-born American author. ...


Many books or short stories and films also depict hunting. For example, The Most Dangerous Game features a man who, after becoming shipwrecked on a trip to South America to hunt jaguars, is himself hunted by another man. Ray Bradbury's A Sound of Thunder features people traveling back in time to hunt a Tyrannosaurus. The Lost World: Jurassic Park has a character named Roland Tembo who goes to Isla Sorna with Peter Ludlow to hunt a T. rex. This article is about the short story by Richard Connell. ... Ray Douglas Bradbury (born August 22, 1920) is an American literary, fantasy, horror, science fiction, and mystery writer best known for The Martian Chronicles, a 1950 book which has been described both as a short story collection and a novel, and his 1953 dystopian novel Fahrenheit 451. ... “A Sound of Thunder” is a science fiction short story by Ray Bradbury, first published in Collier’s magazine in 1952. ... Species T. rex (type) Osborn, 1905 Synonyms Manospondylus Cope, 1892 Dynamosaurus Osborn, 1905  ?Nanotyrannus Bakker, Williams & Currie, 1988 Stygivenator Olshevsky, 1995 Dinotyrannus Olshevsky, 1995 Tyrannosaurus (pronounced IPA: , meaning tyrant lizard) is a genus of theropod dinosaur. ... The Lost World: Jurassic Park is a 1997 movie which is a sequel to the blockbuster Jurassic Park. ... A big game hunter from Mombassa, Roland Tembo was widely regarded as the best of the best. ... A Map of Isla Sorna Isla Sorna (Sarcasm Island in English), also known as Site B, is the second island containing dinosaurs owned by InGen, featured in the novel and film The Lost World and in the movie Jurassic Park III. // Isla Sorna is part of the island chain known... Peter Ludlow (b. ...


See also

poop ... A man holds a monkey with a limb missing by a rope around her neck, a scene epitomizing the idea of animal ownership. ... Anti-hunting is a term which is (often informally) used to identify or describe persons or groups, generally in a political context, who stand in opposition to hunting. ... The Bambi Effect is an informal name used primarily by hunters and trappers for the emotional impact of the harvesting of animals which the public considers adorable, regardless of what the opponents consider are environmental and economic realities. ... A big-game hunter is a person engaged in the sport of hunting large animals or game. ... For other uses, see Blood sport (disambiguation). ... Bowhunting is the practice of taking game animals by archery. ... Alice Springs Desert Park, Bush Tucker The word Bushfood refers to any food native to Australia and used as sustenance by the original inhabitants, the Australian Aborigines, although it is sometimes used with the specific connotation of food found in the Outback while living on the land. It is also... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Breeding season is the most suitable season usually with favorable conditions and abundant food and water when wild animals and birds (wildlife) have naturally evolved to breed to achieve the best reproductive success. ... Tapetum lucidum in a calf eye, with the retina hanging down. ... Human hunting is a quasi-urban legend, where certain people go hunt and kill humans for the purpose of pleasure or entertainment. ... The Hunt Saboteurs Association is an organisation that uses direct action to stop the hunting of animals. ... The horn is a brass instrument that consists of tubing wrapped into a coiled form. ... “Hunter” redirects here. ... Jäger (plural also Jäger, IPA pronunciation: ) is a German word for hunter. In English it is often written with the (double) plural Jägers, or as jaeger (pl. ... This article concerns the National Rifle Association of the USA. For the UK organisation, see National Rifle Association of the United Kingdom The National Rifle Association, or NRA, is a non-profit group for the promotion of marksmanship, firearm safety, and the protection of hunting and personal protection firearm rights... Safari Club International is an international organization composed of hunters and supporters of wildlife conservation. ...

Notes and references

Citations

  1. ^ Williams, Ted. "Wanted: More Hunters," Audubon magazine, March 2002, copy retrieved 2007-10-26.
  2. ^ Harper, Craig A. Quality Deer Management Guidelines for Implementation (PDF). Agricultural Extension Service, The University of Tennessee. Retrieved on 2006-12-20.
  3. ^ Surovell, Todd; Nicole Waguespack and P. Jeffrey Brantingham (2005-04-13). "Global archaeological evidence for proboscidean overkill" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102 (17): 6231-6236. The National Academy of Sciences (USA). doi:10.1073/pnas.0501947102. 
  4. ^ American Geophysical Union paper PP43A-01, abstract retrieved 2007-10-26
  5. ^ Zenin, Vasiliy N.; Evgeny N. MASCHENKO, Sergey V. LESHCHINSKIY, Aleksandr F. PAVLOV, Pieter M. GROOTES, and Marie-Josée NADEAU (May 24-29, 2003). "THE FIRST DIRECT EVIDENCE OF MAMMOTH HUNTING IN ASIA (LUGOVSKOYE SITE, WESTERN SIBERIA) (L)". 3rd International Mammoth Conference, Dawson City, Yukon Territory, Canada: John Storer, Government of Yukon (John. Storer@gov.yk.ca). Retrieved on 2007-01-01. 
  6. ^ "In North America and Eurasia the species has long been an important resource--in many areas the most important resource--for peoples inhabiting the northern boreal forest and tundra regions. Known human dependence on caribou/wild reindeer has a long history, beginning in the Middle Pleistocene (Banfield 1961:170; Kurtén 1968:170) and continuing to the present....The caribou/wild reindeer is thus an animal that has been a major resource for humans throughout a tremendous geographic area and across a time span of tens of thousands of years." Ernest S. Burch, Jr. The Caribou/Wild Reindeer as a Human Resource. American Antiquity, Vol. 37, No. 3 (Jul., 1972), pp. 339-368.
  7. ^ Indian Wildlife Protection Act, 1972
  8. ^ BASC site
  9. ^ Results from a 2006 poll done by Responsive Management
  10. ^ National statistics from US Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service and US Department of Commerce, US Census Bureau, 2001 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting and Wildlife Associated Recreation, 27.
  11. ^ Jackson, Patrick. Number of hunters is dwindling—Urbanization and cultural changes discourage newcomers to the sport, The News Journal (Wilmington, Delaware) 2007-09-06, retrieved 2007-10-30.
  12. ^ Interpretations of the Fair Chase can be found on the web sites of various hunter's organizations, such as the Boone and Crockett Club and Hunt Fair Chase. See also What's Fair?, by Don Meredith, retrieved 2007-10-30.
  13. ^ (article link) Chardonnet P, des Clers B, Fischer J, Gerhold R, Jori F, Lamarque F. The Value of Wildlife; Rev. sci. tech. Off. Int. Epiz., 2002, 21(1),15-51, posted by the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, Accessed 12/12/2006
  14. ^ Herring, Hal. Today’s sportsmen and sportswomen are a powerful force for conservation, The Nature Conservancy Magazine, retrieved 2007-10-30.
  15. ^ The Hunting section of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service site includes articles and statistics relating to wildlife management.
  16. ^ US Fish and Wildlife Service 2003 proposed bag limits for waterfowl
  17. ^ An overview of moose hunting regulations in Canada
  18. ^ http://www.gepec.org/barraca-i-filat/index_eng.html Catalonian fiat, with picture
  19. ^ Nancy L. Struna, People of Prowess: Sport, Leisure, and Labor in Early Anglo-America(1996), ISBN-10: 0252065522
  20. ^ Early Day Motion on trophy hunting
  21. ^ see, for example, this internet page
  22. ^ Martin, Glen. The lion, once king of vast African savanna, suffers alarming decline in population, San Francisco Chronicle, October 6, 2005. Retrieved 2007-10-30.
  23. ^ League Against Cruel Sports. The Myth of Trophy Hunting as Conservation, December 2004. Retrieved 2007-10-30.
  24. ^ The International Ecotourism Society has published articles along this line.
  25. ^ Tim Dirks (1996-2000). The Deer Hunter (1978). review. Retrieved on 2006-12-21.
  26. ^ (article link)Ralph H. Lutts, "The Trouble with Bambi: Walt Disney's Bambi and the American Vision of Nature", Forestry and Conservation History 36(October): 160-171, Internet posting courtesy of Dr. Mark V. Barrow, Jr. of the Dept of History, Virginia Tech accessed 12/16/06, with extensive footnotes
  27. ^ UC Berkley's Disney bibliography, with direction to Bambi
  28. ^ Hunting For Subsistence. (2005-03-28). Retrieved on 2007-05-15.

PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Taiga (disambiguation). ... The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is a Cabinet department of the United States government that manages and conserves most federally owned land. ... The United States Department of Commerce is a Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with promoting economic growth. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

General information

Print Sources on Hunting in the American South

  • Dickson D. Bruce, Jr., Mississippi Quarterly (Spring 1977).
  • Kenneth S. Greenberg, Honor and Slavery: Lies, Duels, Noses, Masks, Dressing as a Woman, Gifts, Strangers, Humanitarianism, Death, Slave Rebellions, the Pro-Slavery Argument, Baseball, Hunting, and Gambling in the Old South (1996).
  • Steven Hahn, Radical History Review (1982).
  • Charles H. Hudson, Jr., in Indians, Animals, and the Fur Trade, ed., Shephard Krech III (1981).
  • Stuart A. Marks, Southern Hunting in Black and White: Nature, History, and Ritual in a Carolina Community (1991).
  • Ted Ownby, Subduing Satan: Religion, Recreation, and Manhood in the Rural South, 1865-1920 (1990).
  • Wiley C. Prewitt, “The Best of All Breathing: Hunting and Environmental Change in Mississippi, 1900-1980” M.A. thesis, (1991).
  • Nicolas W. Proctor, Bathed in Blood: Hunting and Mastery in the Old South (2002).
  • Jacob F. Rivers III, Cultural Values in the Southern Sporting Narrative (2002).
  • Timothy Silver, A New Face on the Countryside: Indians, Colonists, and Slaves in South Atlantic Forests, 1500-1800 (1990).
  • Richard C. Stedman and Thomas A. Heberlein, Rural Sociology (2001).
  • Nancy L. Struna, People of Prowess: Sport, Leisure, and Labor in Early Anglo-America (1996).

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Hunting - Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks (2315 words)
Hunters must have registered for the game damage hunt roster between June 15 - July 15 or they must have responded to a FWP solicitation in order to be eligible for these hunts.
Significant season changes for the 2008 and 2009 hunting season include the implementation of limited archery permits for either sex elk in seven hunting districts within the Missouri River Breaks and unlimited archery permits for either sex elk in 23 other hunting districts in Regions 4, 5 and 7.
Hunting preserves, lands that host a commercial hunting enterprise, and lands where hunting rights are leased or paid for are not eligible.
Facts: Hunting (1436 words)
Hunting is permitted on 60 percent of U.S. wildlife refuges and in many national forests and state parks.
Hunters and hunting organizations also promote the idea that hunting is necessary for "wildlife management" and "conservation." "Wildlife management" and "conservation" are euphemisms used to describe programs that ensure that there are always enough animals for hunters to hunt.
Powerful hunting lobbies in 35 states have persuaded lawmakers to enact "hunter harassment" laws that make it illegal for non-hunters to interfere in behalf of animals targeted by hunters, but these laws are being challenged on constitutional grounds.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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