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Encyclopedia > Huns
The Hunnic Empire stretched from the steppes of Central Asia into modern Germany, and from the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea
The Hunnic Empire stretched from the steppes of Central Asia into modern Germany, and from the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea

The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads,[1] with a Turkic core of aristocracy.[2][3][4][5][6] Some of these Eurasian tribes moved into Europe in the 4th and 5th centuries, most famously under Attila the Hun. Huns remaining in Asia are recorded by neighboring peoples to the south, east, and west as having occupied Central Asia roughly from the 4th century to the 6th century, with some surviving in the Caucasus until the early 8th century. Hun may refer to: The Huns, a confederation of Eurasian tribes. ... I, the creator of this image, hereby release it into the public domain. ... I, the creator of this image, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The Hunnic Empire stretched from the steppes of Central Asia into modern Germany, and from the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea Hunnic Empire, the empire of the Huns. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Eurasian nomads are a large group of peoples of the steppes of Central Asia, Mongolia and Eastern Europe (Pontic steppe). ... The Turkic people are any of various peoples whose members speak languages in the Turkic family of languages. ... Eurasian nomads are a large group of peoples of the steppes of Central Asia, Mongolia and Eastern Europe (Pontic steppe). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Attila redirects here. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ...

Contents

Origin and identity

Research and debate about the Asian ancestral origins of the Huns has been ongoing since the 18th century. For example philologists still debate to this day which ethnonym from Chinese or Persian sources is identical with the Latin Hunni or the Greek Chounnoi as evidence of the Huns' identity.[7] Philology, etymologically, is the love of words. It is most accurately defined as an affinity toward the learning of the backgrounds as well as the current usages of spoken or written methods of human communication. The commonality of studied languages is more important than their origin or age (that is... An ethnonym (Gk. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ...


Recent genetic research[7] shows that many of the great confederations of steppe warriors were not entirely of the same race, but rather tended to be ethnic mixtures of Eurasian clans. In addition, many clans may have claimed to be Huns simply based on the prestige and fame of the name, or it was attributed to them by outsiders describing their common characteristics, believed place of origin, or reputation.[7] Similarly, Greek or Latin chroniclers may have used "Huns" in a more general sense, to describe social or ethnic characteristics, believed place of origin, or reputation.[7] "All we can say safely", says Walter Pohl,"is that the name Huns, in late antiquity, described prestigious ruling groups of steppe warriors".[7] The older views come in the context of the ethnocentric and nationalistic scholarship of past generations, which often presumed that ethnic homogeneity must underlie a socially and culturally homogeneous people.[8] The modern research shows[7] that each of the large confederations of steppe warriors (such as the Scythians, Xiongnu, Huns, Avars, Khazars, Cumans, Mongols, etc.) were not ethnically homogeneous, but rather unions of multiple ethnicities such as Turkic, Yeniseian, Tungusic, Ugric, Iranic, Mongolic and many other peoples. Walter Pohl (b. ... Ethnocentrism (Greek ethnos nation + -centrism) is a set of beliefs or practices based on the view that ones own group is the center of everything. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... A confederation is an association of sovereign states or communities, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ... The Scythians (, also ) or Scyths ([1]; from Greek ), a nation of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who spoke an Iranian language[2], dominated the Pontic steppe throughout Classical Antiquity. ... A Xiongnu belt buckle. ... Late Avar period Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... Cuman, also called Polovtsy, Polovtsian, or the Anglicized Polovzian (Russian: , Ukrainian: , Turkish: , Bulgarian: , Romanian: , Hungarian: ), is a Western European exonym for the western Kipchaks. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire (1300~1405), the gray area is Timurid dynasty. ... The term Ethnicity redirects here. ... Look up Homogeneous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... The Yenisei-Ostyak language family is spoken in central Siberia. ... Approximate geographical distribution of areas where indigenous Finno-Ugric languages are spoken. ... Language(s) Persian, Kurdish, Pashto, Balouchi, Ossetian and various other Iranian languages. ... The Mongolic languages are a group of thirteen languages spoken in Central Asia. ...


Evidence from genetic and ethnogenesis research contrasts with traditional theories based on Chinese records, archaeology, linguistics and other indirect evidence. These theories contain various elements: that the name "Hun" first described a nomadic ruling group of warriors whose ethnic origins were in Central Asia, and was most likely in present day Mongolia; that possibly they were related to, or part of, the Xiongnu (匈奴) (first suggested by Joseph de Guignes in the 18th century); that the Xiongnu were defeated by the Chinese Han Empire; and that this is why they left Mongolia and moved west, eventually invading Europe 200 years later. Indirect evidence includes the transmission of grip laths for composite bows from Central Asia to the west. Ethnogenesis is the process by which a group of human beings comes to be understood or to understand themselves as ethnically distinct from the wider social landscape from which their grouping emerges. ... Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and Republic of China (Taiwan) For other meanings, see China (disambiguation). ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... A Xiongnu belt buckle. ... Joseph de Guignes (October 19, 1721 - 1800), French orientalist, was born at Pontoise. ... The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese characters: 漢朝, Simplified Chinese characters: 汉朝, pinyin Hàncháo 202 BC - AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A composite bow is a bow made from disparate materials laminated together, usually applied under tension. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...


This narrative is ingrained in western (and eastern) historiography, but the evidence is often indirect or ambiguous. The Huns left practically no written records. There is no record of what happened between the time they left China and arrived in Europe 150 years later. The last mention of the northern Xiongnu was their defeat by the Chinese in 151 at the lake of Barkol, after which they fled to the western steppe at Kangju (centered on the city of Turkistan in Kazakhstan). Chinese records between the 3rd and 4th century suggest that a small tribe called Yueban, remnants of northern Xiongnu, was distributed about the steppe of Kazakhstan. Events Mytilene and Smyrna are destroyed by an earthquake. ... Barkol Kazak Autonomous County (simplified Chinese: 巴里坤哈萨克自治县; pinyin: Bālǐkūn Hāsàkèzú Zìzhìxiàn) It is a part of Kumul Prefecture in Xinjiang in the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Mazar of Shaikh Ahmad Yasavi in the town of Turkestan. ... The Mazar of Shaikh Ahmad Yasavi in the town of Turkestan. ... // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ...


One recent line of reasoning favors a political and cultural link between the Huns and the Xiongnu. The Central Asian (Sogdian and Bactrian) sources of the 4th century translate "Huns" as "Xiongnu", and "Xiongnu" as "Huns"; also, Xiongnu and Hunnic cauldrons are virtually identical, and were buried on the same spots (river banks) in Hungary and in the Ordos.[9] The Sogdians were an ancient people of Central Asia, who inhabited the region known to the West as Sogdiana. ... Bactria (Bactriana) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus), with the capital Bactra (now Balkh). ... Three-legged iron pots being used to cater for a school-leavers party in Botswana. ... Ordos can refer to: the Ordos Desert in Inner Mongolia House Ordos, a fictional organisation appearing in Dune spin-offs This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Turkic hypothesis

Further information: Hunnic language

The Huns may be of Turkic (or pre-Proto-Turkic) origin. This school of thought emerged when Joseph de Guignes in the 18th century identified the Huns with the Xiongnu or (H)siung-nu.[10] It is supported by O. Maenchen-Helfen on the basis of his linguistic studies.[11][12] English scholar Peter Heather called the Huns "the first group of Turkic, as opposed to Iranian, nomads to have intruded into Europe".[13] Turkish researcher Kemal Cemal bolsters this assertion by showing similarities in words and names in Turkic and Hunnic languages, and similarities in systems of governance of Hunnic and Turkic tribes. Hungarian historian Gyula Nemeth also supports this view.[14] Uyghur historian Turghun Almas has suggested a link between the Huns and the Uyghurs, a Turkic speaking people who reside in Xinjiang, China. The Hunnic language is an extinct language of the Huns. ... This is the disambiguation page for the terms Turk, Turkey, Turkic, and Turkish. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Western China. ... Joseph de Guignes (October 19, 1721 - 1800), French orientalist, was born at Pontoise. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Broadly conceived, linguistics is the study of human language, and a linguist is someone who engages in this study. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Peter Heather is a teacher at Worcester College, University of Oxford who is considered a leading authority on the barbarians of the Roman era. ... The Hunnic language is an extinct language of the Huns. ... The Uyghur (Uyghur: ئۇيغۇر; Uighur Simplified Chinese: 维吾尔; Traditional Chinese: 維吾爾; Pinyin: Wéiwúěr; Turkish: Uygur) are a Turkic people, forming one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... Turghun Almas (30 October 1924 - 11 September 2001) was an Uyghur historian and poet born in Kashgar. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ...


This article will not discuss the "White Huns" and "Red Huns", since there is no definite evidence that they were related to the classical "Huns".[15][16] Furthermore, not much is known of their language.[17] The Hephthalite bowl, NFP Pakistan, 5-6th century CE. British Museum. ... The Hephthalite bowl, NFP Pakistan, 5-6th century CE. British Museum. ...


History

2nd-5th centuries

Dionysius Periegetes describes a people who may be Huns living near the Caspian Sea in the 2nd century. By AD 139, the European geographer Ptolemy writes that the "Khuni" are next to the Dnieper River and ruled by "Suni". He lists the century, although it is not known for certain if these people were the Huns. The 5th century Armenian historian Moses of Khorene, in his "History of Armenia," introduces the Hunni near the Sarmatians and describes their capture of the city of Balkh ("Kush" in Armenian) sometime between 194 and 214, which explains why the Greeks call that city Hunuk. Dionysius Periegetes, author of a description of the habitable world in Greek hexameter verse, written in a terse and elegant style. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Events Births Deaths Zhang Heng, Chinese mathematician Categories: 139 ... This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ... The Dnieper River (Russian: , Dnepr; Belarusian: , Dniapro; Ukrainian: , Dnipro) is a river which flows from Russia, through Belarus and Ukraine, ending its flow in the Black Sea. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Moses of Chorene was an Armenian scholar, who lived in the fifth century. ... Sarmatia Europea in Scythia map 1697 AD Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770 Great steppe in early spring. ... Today Balkh (Persian: بلخ) is a small town in the Province of Balkh, Afghanistan, about 20 kilometers northwest of the provincial capital, Mazari Sharif, and some 74 km (46 miles) south of the Amu Darya, the Oxus River of antiquity, of which a tributary formerly flowed past Balkh. ... Events Roman Empire Pescennius Niger, competitor of Septimius Severus for the Roman Empire, is defeated in three successive battles at Battle of Cyzicus, Battle of Nicaea and Battle of Issus, and killed outside Antioch by Severus troops. ... Events The kingdom of Osroene becomes a province of the Roman Empire. ...


Following the defeat of the Xiongnu by the Han, the Xiongnu history became unknown for a century; thereafter, the Liu family of southern Xiongnu Tiefu attempted to establish a state in western China (see Han Zhao). Chionites (OIONO/Xiyon) appear on the scene in Transoxiana in 320 immediately after Jin Zhun overthrew Liu Can, sending the Xiongnu into chaos. Later Kidara came along to lead the Chionites into pressing on the Kushans. A Xiongnu belt buckle. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (206 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–220 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication... The Tiefu (Simplified Chinese character: 铁弗, Traditional Chinese character: 鐵弗, pinyin: TiÄ›fú) was a pre-state Xiongnu tribe during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. ... The Han Zhao (Simplified Chinese script: 汉赵, Traditional Chinese script: 漢趙, pinyin: Hànzhào) (304-329) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms during the Chinese Jin Dynasty (265-420). ... The Kidarites (after their leader Kidara who established their dynasty) became noted around 320 CE when they began to encroach upon the frontiers of Iran and their Kushan state. ... Map showing modern Transoxiana. ... This article is about the year 320 AD. For the aircraft, see Airbus A320. ... Jin Zhun (靳準) (d. ... Liu Can (劉粲) (d. ... Coin of Kidara (reigned circa 360-380 CE), founder of the Kidarite Kingdom Obv: King Kidara standing. ... The Kidarites (after their leader Kidara who established their dynasty) became noted around 320 CE when they began to encroach upon the frontiers of Iran and their Kushan state. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ...


In the west, Ostrogoths came in contact with the Huns in AD 358. The Armenians mention Vund c.370: the first recorded Hunnic leader in the Caucasus region. The Romans invited the Huns east of Ukraine to settle Pannonia in 361, and in 372 they pushed west led by their king Balimir, and defeated the Alans. In the east, in the early 5th century, Tiefu Xia is the last southern Xiongnu dynasty in Western China and the Alchon / Huna appear in what is now Afghanistan and Pakistan. At this point deciphering Hunnic histories for the multi-linguist becomes easier with relatively well-documented events in Byzantine, Armenian, Persian, Indian, and Chinese sources. This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... Events Earthquake in Nicaea. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pannonia (disambiguation). ... Events Emperor Ai succeeds Emperor Mu as emperor of China. ... Events Emperor Fei is dethroned as emperor of China. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The Tiefu (Simplified Chinese character: 铁弗, Traditional Chinese character: 鐵弗, pinyin: Tiěfú) was a pre-state Xiongnu tribe during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. ... Alchon Huns refers to a tribe which minted coins in Bactria in the 5th & 6th centuries. ... The Hephthalite bowl, NFP Pakistan, 5-6th century CE. British Museum. ... Byzantine redirects here. ...


European Huns

A 14th century chivalric-romanticized painting of "the huns" laying siege to a city. Note anachronistic details in weapons, armor and city type. Hungarian Chronicon Pictum, 1360.
A 14th century chivalric-romanticized painting of "the huns" laying siege to a city. Note anachronistic details in weapons, armor and city type. Hungarian Chronicon Pictum, 1360.

The Huns appeared in Europe in the 4th century, apparently from Central Asia. They first appeared north of the Black Sea, forcing a large number of Goths to seek refuge in the Roman Empire; later, the Huns appeared west of the Carpathians in Pannonia, probably sometime between 400 and 410, perhaps triggering the massive migration of Germanic tribes westward across the Rhine in December 406. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1159x642, 175 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Huns Chronicon Pictum ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1159x642, 175 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Huns Chronicon Pictum ... Woman under the Safeguard of Knighthood, allegorical Scene. ... An anachronism (from Greek ana, back, and chronos, time) is an artifact that belongs to another time, a person who seems to be displaced in time (i. ... A miniature from the Chronicon Pictum. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Germanic tribes. ... Satellite image of the Carpathians. ... For other uses, see Pannonia (disambiguation). ... Events First invasion of Italy by Alaric (probable date). ... Events Alaric I deposes Priscus Attalus as Roman Emperor. ... The term Germanic tribes (or Teutonic tribes) applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ... For other uses, see Rhine (disambiguation). ... Events December 31 - Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gallia Roman legions in Britain mutiny against the Roman Emperor and select Marcus as new Roman Emperor. ...


The establishment of the 5th century Hunnic Empire marks a historically early instance of horseback migration. Under the leadership of Attila the Hun, the Huns achieved hegemony over several well-organized rivals by using superior weaponry such as the composite bow, their highly maneuverable hit-and-run tactics with their horsemanship, and a well-organized system of taxation. Supplementing their wealth by plundering wealthy Roman cities to the south, the Huns maintained the loyalties of a diverse number of tributary tribes. Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The Hunnic Empire stretched from the steppes of Central Asia into modern Germany, and from the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea Hunnic Empire, the empire of the Huns. ... A Horse people is a nomadic or semi-nomadic ethnicity, typically inhabiting the Eurasian steppes, with an emphasis on horse breeding and horse riding. ... Attila redirects here. ... A composite bow is a bow made from disparate materials laminated together, usually applied under tension. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


Attila's Huns incorporated groups of unrelated tributary peoples. In Europe, Alans, Gepids, Scirii, Rugians, Sarmatians, Slavs and Gothic tribes all united under the Hun by Ardaric's coalition at the Battle of Nedao in 454, at modern day Nedava. Russian prince Taking Tribute, by Nicholas Roerich, 1908 (Moscow). ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... The Gepids (Latin Gepidae, A-S Gifðas (Beowulf, Widsith) possibly from *Gibiðos, givers [1] or gepanta, see below) were an East Germanic Gothic tribe most famous in history for defeating the Huns after the death of Attila. ... The Scirii (also Skiri or Scirians) were a grouping of East Germanic peoples, attested in historical works between the 2nd century BC and 5th century AD. The etymology of their name is unclear, but may mean clean- or pure-bloods as opposed to the neighbouring tribe of Bastarnae mixed-bloods... The Rugians (Latin rugii) were an East Germanic tribe whose ultimate origins have been traced to Rogaland in Norway, whose population probably was the Rugii that Jordanes mentioned as a tribe that still remained in Scandza. ... Sarmatia Europea in Scythia map 1697 AD Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770 Great steppe in early spring. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... This article is about the Germanic tribes. ... Ardaric was the most renowned king of the Gepids. ... The Battle of Nedao, the Nedava, a tributary of the Sava, was a battle fought in Pannonia in 454. ... Events September 21 - Roman Emperor Valentinian III assassinates Aëtius in his own throne room. ...


Memory of the Hunnic conquest was transmitted orally among Germanic peoples and is an important component in the Old Norse Völsunga saga and Hervarar saga, and the Middle High German Nibelungenlied, all of which portray Migrations period events a millennium before their written recordings. In the Hervarar saga, the Goths make first contact with the bow-wielding Huns and meet them in an epic battle on the plains of the Danube. Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ... Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... The Ramsund carving depicting the Saga of the Völsungs The Volsunga saga is a late 13th century Icelandic prose rendition of the story of Sigurd and Brynhild, and the destruction of the Burgundians. ... Hervarar saga ok Heidhreks is a fornaldarsaga from the 13th century using material from an older saga. ... Middle High German (MHG, German Mittelhochdeutsch) is the term used for the period in the history of the German language between 1050 and 1350. ... The Nibelungenlied, translated as The Song of the Nibelungs, is an epic poem in Middle High German. ... The German term Völkerwanderung (lit. ... This article is about the Danube River. ...


In the Nibelungenlied, Kriemhild marries Attila (Etzel in German) after her first husband Siegfried was murdered by Hagen with the complicity of her brother, King Gunther. She then uses her power as Etzel's wife to take a bloody revenge in which not only Hagen and Gunther but all Burgundian knights find their death at festivities to which she and Etzel had invited them. After defending quite successfully for days against the Huns who outnumber them by an enormous ratio, the remaining tired Burgundians are finally defeated not by the Huns but by Rüdeger (Austrian), who dies in the fight too, and Dietrich von Bern (Helvetic), both being vassals to Etzel and actually very reluctant to fight against their Burgundian friends but caught in personal dilemmas forcing them to do so. The Nibelungenlied, translated as The Song of the Nibelungs, is an epic poem in Middle High German. ... Etzel is The common Israeli name for Irgun Tzvai-Leumi, or Irgun, a militant group operating in the British Mandate of Palestine from 1931 to 1948. ... Siegfried could refer to: The opera by Richard Wagner; see Siegfried (opera). ... For other uses, see Gunther (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Gunther (disambiguation). ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... A map of Gaul showing the northern Alpine position of the Helvetii. ...


In the Völsunga saga, Attila (Atli in Norse and Etzel in German) defeats the Frankish king Sigebert I (Sigurðr or Siegfried) and the Burgundian King Guntram (Gunnar or Gunther), but is later assassinated by Queen Fredegund (Gudrun or Kriemhild), the sister of the latter and wife of the former. Attila the Hun (405–453), also sometimes known with the nickname as Attila the Scourge of God (Flagellum Dei) or simply Attila was the most powerful king of the Huns. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Sigebert I (535-575) was a Frankish King, one of the sons of Clotaire I and Ingund. ... In Norse mythology, Sigurd (also Siegfried) was a legendary hero, as well as the central character in the Volsunga saga, Nibelungenlied and Richard Wagners opera, Siegfried, which see for more details. ... Guntram I(c. ... Gunnar is the most attractive and unreservedly admired of Icelandic saga heroes,a man of heroism, energy, virtue, and --- above all --- unswerving loyalty to the land of his birth and love for its overpowering physical beauty Tricked by his enemies into disobeying the warnings of his prescient friend Njáll... Queen Frédégonde, seated on her Throne, gives orders to two young Men of Térouanne to assassinate Sigebert, King of Austrasia. ... Gudrun and Sigurd In Norse mythology, Gudrun, who is called Kriemhild in the Nibelungenlied, was the sister of Gunnar. ...


Successor nations

Locations of Hun successor states in 500 AD.
Locations of Hun successor states in 500 AD.

Many nations have tried to assert themselves as ethnic or cultural successors to the Huns. For instance, the Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans may indicate that they believed themselves to have been descended from Attila. The Bulgars certainly were part of the Hun tribal alliance for some time, and some have hypothesized that the Chuvash language (which is believed to have descended from the Bulgar language) is the closest surviving relative of the Hunnic language.[18] The Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans (Bulgarian: ) is a short manuscript containing the names of some early Bulgarian rulers, their clans, the year of their ascending to the throne and the length of their rule, including the times of joint rule and civil war. ... Not to be confused with Bulgarians. ... Chuvash (Chuvash: Чӑвашла, Čăvašla, IPA: ; also known as Chăvash, Chuwash, Chovash, Chavash, Çuvaş or Çuaş) is a Turkic language spoken to the west of the Ural Mountains in central Russia. ... Bulgar (also Bolğar), also Proto-Bulgarian is the language of the Bulgars, now extinct, whose classification is unclear. ... The Hunnic language is an extinct language of the Huns. ...


The Magyars (Hungarians) also have laid claims to Hunnic heritage. Because the Huns who invaded Europe represented a loose coalition of various peoples, it is possible that Magyars were part of it. Until the early 20th century, many Hungarian historians believed that the Székely people (the Hungarians' "brother nation" who live in Transylvania) were the descendants of the Huns. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Székely or Szeklers (Hungarian: , Romanian: , German: ) ( sék-ei in pronunciation ) are a Hungarian ethnic group mostly living in Transylvania in Romania, with a significant population also living in Vojvodina, Serbia. ... This article is about the region in Romania. ...


The names "Hun" and "Hungarian" sound alike, but differ in etymology. The name "Hungarian" is derived from the Turkic "onogur" which likely meant "ten tribes" and possibly referred to a tribal covenant between the different Hungarian tribes that moved into the area of today's Hungary at the end of the 9th century. Etymologies redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Old Great Bulgaria be merged into this article or section. ...


In 2005, a group of about 2,500 Hungarians petitioned the government for recognition of minority status as direct descendants of Attila. The bid failed, but gained some publicity for the group, which formed in the early 1990s and appears to represent a special Hun(garian)-centric brand of mysticism. The self-proclaimed Huns are not known to possess any distinctly Hunnic culture or language beyond what would be available from historical and modern-mystical Hungarian sources.[19] Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


While it is clear that the Huns left descendants all over Eastern Europe, the disintegration of the Hun Empire meant they never regained their lost glory. One reason was that the Huns never fully established the mechanisms of a state, such as bureaucracy and taxes, unlike the Magyars or Golden Horde. Once disorganized, the Huns were absorbed by more organized polities. The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Tatar: ; Russian: ) is a Russian designation for the Mongol[1][2][3] — later Turkicized[4] — khanate established in the western part of the Mongol Empire after the Mongol invasion of Rus in the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus. ...


Historiography

Hunnic Cavalry, 1870s engraving after a drawing by Johann Nepomuk Geiger (1805-1880).
Hunnic Cavalry, 1870s engraving after a drawing by Johann Nepomuk Geiger (1805-1880).

The term "Hun" has been also used to describe peoples with no historical connection to what scholars consider to be "Huns". Image File history File links Hunnen. ... Image File history File links Hunnen. ... Johann Nepomuk Geiger was a Viennese artist. ...


On July 27, 1900, during the Boxer Rebellion in China, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany gave the order to 'make the name "Germany" remembered in China for a thousand years, so that no Chinese will ever again dare to even squint at a German'.[20] This speech, wherein Kaiser Wilhelm invoked the memory of the 5th-century Huns, coupled with the Pickelhaube or spiked helmet worn by German forces until 1916, that was reminiscent of ancient Hun (and Hungarian) helmets, gave rise to later English use of the term for the German enemy during World War I. However, another reason given for the English use of the term was the motto "Gott mitt Uns" (God with us) on German soldiers' belt buckles during the World War I. The 'uns' was mistaken for Huns, and entered slang that way. This usage was reinforced by Allied propaganda throughout the war, and many pilots of the RFC referred to their foe as "The Hun". The usage resurfaced during World War II. is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ğ: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Combatants Eight-Nation Alliance (ordered by contribution): Empire of Japan Russian Empire British Empire French Third Republic United States German Empire Kingdom of Italy Austro-Hungarian Empire Righteous Harmony Society Qing Dynasty (China) Commanders Edward Seymour Alfred Graf von Waldersee Ci Xi Strength 20,000 initially 49,000 total 50... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... German Emperor Wilhelm (born Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albrecht, Prince of Prussia 27 January 1859–4 June 1941), was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (de: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Otto von Bismarck wearing a cuirassier officers metal Pickelhaube Prussian police leather Pickelhaube The Pickelhaube (plural Pickelhauben; from the German Pickel = point or pickaxe, and Haube = bonnet, a general word for headgear) was a Prussian spiked helmet worn in the 19th century by the German military, firefighters, and police. ... A person wearing a helmet. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... The Royal Flying Corps (RFC) was the over-land air arm of the British military during most of World War I. // Formed by Royal Warrant on 13 May 1912, the RFC superseded the Air Battalion of the Royal Engineers. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


See also

The Hunnic Empire stretched from the steppes of Central Asia into modern Germany, and from the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea Hunnic Empire, the empire of the Huns. ... The Oghur languages (also known as Oghur, Oghuric, or Oghur-Turkic), are a separete branch of the Turkic language family. ... Uar, Chinese: ; pinyin: Huá (for Chinese etymology see Huá (滑)), was the self designation used by the dominant ethnicity in a confederation known to the Chinese as the Yanda (嚈噠) and to the west as the Hephthalites. ... The Eurasian Avars were a nomadic people of Eurasia who established a state in the Danube River area of Europe in the early 6th century. ... It has been suggested that Alchon be merged into this article or section. ... The Hephthalites, also known as White Huns, were a nomadic people who lived across northern China, Central Asia, and northern India in the fourth through sixth centuries. ... Coin of the Indo-Sassanid kushansha Varhran I (early 4th century). ... See also Northern Chanyu This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

References and notes

  1. ^ Walter Pohl has remarked "early medieval peoples were far less homogeneous than often thought. They themselves shared the fundamental belief to be of common origin; and modern historians, for a long time, found no reason to think otherwise" (Walter Pohl, "Conceptions of Ethnicity in Early Medieval Studies" "Debating the Middle Ages: Issues and Readings", ed. Lester K. Little and Barbara H. Rosenwein, (Blackwell), 1998, p.16). In reviewing Joachim Werner's Beiträge zur Archäologie des Attila-Reiches, (Munich 1956), in Speculum 33.1 (January 1958), p.159, Otto J. Maenchen-Helfen noted with relief that "the author is not concerned with the slightly infantile question, who the Huns were; he does not ask where the Huns ultimately came from".
  2. ^ Transylvania through the age of migrations
  3. ^ Calise, J.M.P. (2002). 'Pictish Sourcebook: Documents of Medieval Legend and Dark Age History'. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. p279, ISBN 0313322953
  4. ^ Peckham, D. Paulston, C. B. (1998). Linguistic Minorities in Central and Eastern Europe. Clevedon, UK : Multilingual Matters. p100, ISBN 1853594164
  5. ^ Canfield, R.L. (1991). Turko-Persia in Historical Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p49, ISBN 0521522919
  6. ^ Frazee, C.A. (2002). Two Thousand Years Ago: The World at the Time of Jesus. Wm. B. Eerdmans
  7. ^ a b c d e f Walter Pohl (1999), "Huns" in Late Antiquity, editor Peter Brown, p.501-502 .. further references to F.H Bauml and M. Birnbaum, eds., Atilla: The Man and His Image (1993). Peter Heather, "The Huns and the End of the Roman Empire in Western Europe," English Historical Review 90 (1995):4-41. Peter Heather, The Fall of the Roman Empire (2005). Otto Maenchen-Helfen, The World of the Huns (1973). E. de la Vaissière, Huns et Xiongnu "Central Asiatic Journal" 2005-1 pp. 3-26
  8. ^ Michael Kulikowski (2005). Rome's Gothic Wars. Cambridge University Press. Page 52-54
  9. ^ E. de la Vaissière, Huns et Xiongnu "Central Asiatic Journal" 2005-1 pp. 3-26
  10. ^ "Sir H. H. Howorth, History of the Mongols (1876-1880); 6th Congress of Orientalists, Leiden, 1883 (Actes, part iv. pp. 177-195); de Guignes, Histoire generale des Huns, des Turcs, des Mongoles, et des autres Tartares occidentaux (1756-1758)"
  11. ^ Otto J. Maenchen-Helfen. The World of the Huns: Studies in Their History and Culture. University of California Press, 1973
  12. ^ Otto Maenchen-Helfen, Language of Huns
  13. ^ Peter Heather, "The Huns and the End of Roman Empire in Western Europe", The English Historical Review, Vol. 110, No. 435, February 1995, p. 5.
  14. ^ "Europe: The Origins of the Huns", on The History Files, based on conversations with Kemal Cemal, Turkey, 2002
  15. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, "HUN", Online Academic Edition, 2007.
  16. ^ Columbia Encyclopedia
  17. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica
  18. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1997: Turkic languages.

    "Formerly, scholars considered Chuvash probably spoken by the Huns." Walter Pohl (b. ... Look up Homogeneous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Speculum is a quarterly journal published by the Medieval Academy of America. ... Walter Pohl (b. ... There have been several people named Peter Brown. ... Peter Heather is a teacher at Worcester College, University of Oxford who is considered a leading authority on the barbarians of the Roman era. ... Peter Heather is a teacher at Worcester College, University of Oxford who is considered a leading authority on the barbarians of the Roman era. ... Otto John Maenchen-Helfen (in German: Otto Mänchen-Helfen) (born July 26, 1894 in Vienna, Austria; died January 29, 1969 in Berkeley, California) was an American academic, sinologist, historian, author, and traveler. ... Michael Kulikowski is an American historian, tenured at the University of Tennessee, who is a specialist in the history of the western Mediterranean world of Late Antiquity. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... The Columbia Encyclopedia is a one-volume encyclopedia produced by Columbia University Press and sold by the Gale Group. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... The Chuvash are a bunch of pakis . ...

  19. ^ BBC News - "Hungary blocks Hun minority bid" - By Nick Thorpe, April 12, 2005
  20. ^ Weser-Zeitung, July 28, 1900, second morning edition, p. 1: 'Wie vor tausend Jahren die Hunnen unter ihrem König Etzel sich einen Namen gemacht, der sie noch jetzt in der Überlieferung gewaltig erscheinen läßt, so möge der Name Deutschland in China in einer solchen Weise bekannt werden, daß niemals wieder ein Chinese es wagt, etwa einen Deutschen auch nur schiel anzusehen'.

Further reading

Classics
  • Otto J. Mänchen-Helfen (ed. Max Knight): The World of the Huns: Studies in Their History and Culture (Berkeley, University of California Press, 1973) ISBN 0-520-01596-7
  • The Legend of the Origin of the Huns (published in Byzantion, vol. XVII, 1944-45, pp. 244-251)
  • E. A. Thompson: A History of Attila and the Huns (London, Oxford University Press, 1948)
Other
  • de la Vaissière, E. "Huns et Xiongnu", Central Asiatic Journal, 2005-1, p. 3-26.
  • Lindner, Rudi Paul. "Nomadism, Horses and Huns", Past and Present, No. 92. (Aug., 1981), pp. 3–19.
  • J. Webster: The Huns and Existentialist Thought (Loudonville, Siena College Press, 2006)
  • Coinage and History of the White Huns- Waleed Ziad- Articles from the 'Journal of the Oriental Numismatic Society', 2004-2006
  • The History Files Europe: The Origins of the Huns, based on conversations with Kemal Cemal, Turkey, 2002
Otto John Maenchen-Helfen (in German: Otto Mänchen-Helfen) (born July 26, 1894 in Vienna, Austria; died January 29, 1969 in Berkeley, California) was an American academic, sinologist, historian, author, and traveler. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Huns - LoveToKnow 1911 (1593 words)
The authentic history of the Huns in Europe practically begins about the year A.D. 372, when under a leader named Balamir (or, according to some MSS., Balamber) they began a westward movement from their settlements in the steppes lying to the north of the Caspian.
In some instances, in fact, the Huns lent their aid to the Romans against third parties; thus in 404-405 certain Hunnic tribes, under a chief or king named Uldin, assisted Honorius in the struggle with Radagaisus (Ratigar) and his Ostrogoths, and took a prominent part in the decisive battle fought in the neighbourhood of Florence.
The road to that eastern kingdom is not untrodden by the Huns; already they have marched fifteen days from a certain lake, and have ravaged Media." They also appear before the end of this interval to have pushed westward as far as to the Rhone, and to have come into conflict with the Burgundians.
Huns - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1657 words)
The Huns were a confederation of Eurasian tribes, most likely of diverse origin with a Turkic-speaking aristocracy, who appeared in Europe in the 4th century, the most famous being Attila the Hun.
Back west, the Romans invite the Huns east of the Ukraine to settle Pannonia in 361, and in 372, under the leadership of Balimir their king, the Huns push toward the west and defeat the Alans.
The establishment of the 5th century Hun Empire marks one of the first well-documented appearances of the culture of horseback migration in history.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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