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Encyclopedia > Hunger strike

A hunger strike is a method of non-violent resistance in which participants fast as an act of political protest, or to provoke feelings of guilt or to achieve a goal such as a policy change. Most will take liquids but not solid food. Hunger strikes have often been forcibly ended through the use of force-feeding. Nonviolent resistance (or nonviolent action) is the practice of applying power to achieve socio-political goals through symbolic protests, economic or political noncooperation, civil disobedience and other methods, without the use of physical violence. ... Fasting is primarily the act of willingly abstaining from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time. ... Demonstrators march in the street while protesting the World Bank and International Monetary Fund on April 16, 2005. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Force-feeding is the practice of feeding someone against his or her will. ...

Contents

Early history

Fasting was used as a method of protest and receiving justice in pre-Christian Ireland, where it was known as Troscad or Cealachan. It was detailed in the contemporary civic codes, and had specific rules by which it had to be used. The fast was often carried out on the doorstep of the home of the offender; scholars speculate this was due to the high importance the culture placed on hospitality. Allowing a person to die at one's home, for a wrong of which one was accused, was considered a great dishonor. Others say that the practice was to fast for one whole night; there is no evidence of people fasting to death in pre-Christian Ireland. The fasts' uses were primarily to recover debts or get justice for a perceived wrong. There are legends of St. Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland, using the hunger strike as well.[1]


In India, the practice of a hunger protest where the protestor fasts at the door of an offending party (typically a debtor) in a public call for justice, was abolished by the government in 1861 (although the term is still used in South Asia today); this indicates the prevalence of the practice prior to that date, or at least a public awareness of it.[2] Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ...


Medical view

In the first 3 days, the body is still using energy from glucose.[citation needed] After that, the liver starts processing body fat.[citation needed] After 3 weeks the body enters in "starvation mode".[citation needed] At this point the body "mines" the muscles and vital organs for energy.[citation needed] The estimated limit of resistance is 60 days.[citation needed] Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is the most important carbohydrate in biology. ... In biochemistry, fat is a generic term for a class of lipids. ... A female child during the Nigerian-Biafran war of the late 1960s, shown suffering the effects of severe hunger and malnutrition. ...


Recent instances

Gandhi

Mohandas Gandhi was imprisoned in 1922, 1930, 1933 and 1942. Because of Gandhi's stature around the world, it is widely viewed that British authorities did not wish to allow him to die in custody. It is likely Britain's reputation would have suffered as a result of such an event. However, many also claim that Gandhi would not martyr himself without good reason. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी), called Mahatma Gandhi, was the charismatic leader who brought the cause of Indias independence from British colonial rule to...


Gandhi engaged in several famous hunger strikes to protest British rule of India.


British and American suffragettes

In the early 20th century suffragettes frequently endured hunger strikes in British prisons. Marion Dunlop was the first in 1909. She was released as the authorities did not want her to become a martyr. Other suffragettes in prison also undertook hunger strikes. The prison authorities subjected them to force-feeding, which they categorised as a form of torture. Mary Clarke and several others died as a result of force-feeding. The term womens suffrage refers to an economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage — the right to vote — to women. ... Look up Martyr in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Force-feeding is the practice of feeding someone against his or her will. ... Torture is defined by the United Nations Convention Against Torture as any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he...


In 1913 the Prisoner's Temporary Discharge of Ill Health Act (nicknamed the "Cat and Mouse Act") changed policy. Hunger strikes were tolerated but prisoners were released when they became sick. When they had recovered, the suffragettes were taken back to prison to finish their sentences. The Cat and Mouse Act (officially, the Prisoners Temporary Discharge of Ill Health Act) was passed in Britain by Herbert Henry Asquiths Liberal government in 1913. ...


Like their British counterparts, American suffragettes also used this method of political protest. A few years prior to the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, a group of American suffragettes led by Alice Paul engaged in a hunger strike and endured forced feedings while incarcerated at the Occoquan Workhouse in Virginia. Amendment XIX in the National Archives Amendment XIX (the Nineteenth Amendment) allowed women the right to vote under official constitutional protection. ... Alice Paul, 1901. ...


Irish republicans

"This Mural Is Dedicated To The H Block & Armagh Prison Struggle And In Memory Of Bobby Sands, Kevin Lynch, Frank Hughes, Kieron Doherty, Raymond McCreesh, Tom McElwee, Patsy O'Hare, Michael Devine, Martin Hurson, Joe McDonnell."
"This Mural Is Dedicated To The H Block & Armagh Prison Struggle And In Memory Of Bobby Sands, Kevin Lynch, Frank Hughes, Kieron Doherty, Raymond McCreesh, Tom McElwee, Patsy O'Hare, Michael Devine, Martin Hurson, Joe McDonnell."

Hunger strikes have deep roots in Irish society and in the Irish psyche. Fasting in order to bring attention to an injustice which one felt under his lord, and thus embarrass him into a solution, was a common feature of society in Early Irish society and this tactic was fully incorporated into the Brehon legal system. The tradition is ultimately most likely part of the still older Indo-European tradition of which the Irish were part. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2448 × 3264 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2448 × 3264 pixel, file size: 1. ... A mural in Derrys Bogside, commemorating Irish hunger strikers. ... The Brehon Laws were statutes that governed everyday life and politics in Ireland until the Norman invasion of 1171 (the word Brehon is an Anglicisation of breitheamh (earlier brithem), the Irish word for a judge). ... The Brehon Laws were statutes that governed everyday life and politics in Ireland until the Norman invasion of 1171 (the word Brehon is an Anglicisation of breitheamh (earlier brithem), the Irish word for a judge). ...


The tactic was used by Irish republicans from 1917 and, subsequently, during the Anglo-Irish War, in the 1920s. Early use of hunger strikes by republicans had been countered by the British with force-feeding, which culminated in 1917 in the death of Thomas Ashe in Mountjoy Prison. An Irish War of Independence memorial in Dublin The Anglo-Irish War (also known as the Irish War of Independence) was a guerrilla campaign mounted against the British government in Ireland by the Irish Republican Army under the proclaimed legitimacy of the First Dáil, the extra-legal Irish parliament... Force-feeding is the practice of feeding someone against his or her will. ... Thomas Ashe Thomas Ashe (12 January 1885 – 25 September 1917) born in Lispole, County Kerry, Ireland, a teacher, was a member of the Gaelic League, the Irish Republican Brotherhood as well as a founding member of the Irish Volunteers. ... Mountjoy Prison is a closed medium security prison located in Dublin, Ireland. ...


In October 1920, the Lord Mayor of Cork Terence MacSwiney, died on hunger strike in Brixton prison. Two other Cork IRA men, Joseph Murphy and Michael Fitzgerald also died on hunger strike in this protest. The Guinness Book of Records lists the world record in hunger strike (without forced feeding) as 94 days, which was set from August 11 to November 12, 1920 by John and Peter Crowley, Thomas Donovan, Michael Burke, Michael O'Reilly, Christopher Upton, John Power, Joseph Kenny and Seán Hennessy at the prison of Cork. Arthur Griffith called off the strikes after the deaths of MacSwiney, Murphy and Fitzgerald. Councillor Patrick (Pat) John Stannard, Lord Mayor of Oxford (2004). ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Munster County: Area: 37. ... Terence MacSwiney Terence MacSwiney was born in Cork City, County Cork Ireland. ... Brixton is an area of South London, England, part of the London Borough of Lambeth. ... Joseph Murphy Ph. ... Michael Louis Fitzgerald (17 August 1937-) is a Roman Catholic archbishop. ... Suresh Joachim, minutes away from breaking the ironing world record at 55 hours and 5 minutes, at Shoppers World, Brampton. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


After the end of the Irish Civil War in October 1923, up to 8000 IRA prisoners went on hunger strike to protest at their continued detention by the Irish Free State (a total of over 12,000 republicans had been interned by May 1923). Two men, Denny Barry and Andrew O'Sullivan, died on the strike. The strike however, was called off before any more deaths occurred. The Free State subsequently released the women republican prisoners. Most of the male Republicans were not released until the following year. The Irish Civil War (June 28, 1922 – May 24, 1923) was a conflict between supporters and opponents of the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 6, 1921, which established the Irish Free State, precursor of todays Republic of Ireland. ... Territory of the Irish Free State Capital Dublin Language(s) Irish, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1922–1936 George V  - 1936–1936 George VI President of the Executive Council  - 1922–1932 W.T. Cosgrave  - 1932–1937 Eamon de Valera Legislature Oireachtas  - Upper house Seanad Éireann  - Lower house Dáil Éireann...


Under the deValera Fianna Fáil government three hunger strikers died in the Republic of Ireland in the 1940s. They were Sean McCaughey, Tony d'Arcy and Sean (Jack) McNeela. Hundreds of others carried out shorter hunger strikes during the deValera years with no sympathy from the Government. Seán McCaughey (Irish: Seán Mac Eachaidh) (born c. ...


The tactic was revived by the Provisional IRA and in the early 1970s when several republicans such as Martin McGuinness and Sean MacStiofain successfully used hunger strikes to get themselves released from custody without charge in the Republic of Ireland. Michael Gaughan died after being force fed in a British prison in 1974. Frank Stagg, an IRA member being held in a British jail, died after a 62-day hunger strike in 1976 which he began as a campaign to be repatriated to Ireland. The Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) is a paramilitary group which aimed, through the use of violence, to achieve three goals: (i) British withdrawal from Ireland, (ii) the political unification of Ireland through the merger of Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland , and (iii) the creation of an all... James Martin Pacelli McGuinness MP MLA (Irish: Máirtín Mag Aonghusa,[1] born in Derry 23 May 1950) is the Deputy First Minister of Northern Ireland. ... Seán Mac Stíofáin (17 February 1928- 18 May 2001) was an Irish republican and first chief of staff of the Provisional IRA. Sean MacStiofain // Childhood Although he used the Gaelicised version of his name in later life, Mac Stíofáin was born an only child as... Michael Gaughan (March 24, 1943 in Omaha, Nebraska) is a casino owner and operator in Las Vegas, Nevada. ... Frank Stagg (born 1948-February 12, 1976 in Hollymount, County Mayo, Ireland), was a Volunteer within the PIRA, who was convicted in 1973 in Britain of conspiracy to commit arson. ...


However, its major use came in the early 1980s. In 1980, Republican prisoners in the Maze Prison launched a mass hunger strike as a protest against the revocation by the British government of a prisoner-of-war-like Special Category Status for paramilitary prisoners in Northern Ireland. The strike, led by Brendan Hughes was called off before any deaths, when Britain seemed to offer to concede their demands, however the British then reneged on the details of the agreement. The prisoners then called another hunger strike the following year. This time instead of many prisoners striking at the same time, the hunger strikers started fasting one after the other in order to maximise the publicity over the fate of each one. Her Majestys Prison (HMP) Maze (known colloqually as The Maze) is a disused prison sited at the former RAF station at Long Kesh (it is still called Long Kesh by many Irish Republicans) near Lisburn, nine miles outside Belfast, in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. ... The United Kingdom is a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... In July 1972, Secretary of State for Northern Ireland William Whitelaw, granted Special Category Status to all prisoners convicted of scheduled terrorist crimes. ... A paramilitary organization is a group of civilians trained and organized in a military fashion. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: ) is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Brendan The Dark Hughes (b. ...


Bobby Sands was the first of ten Irish republican paramilitary prisoners to die during a hunger strike in 1981. There was widespread support for the hunger strikers from Irish republicans and the broader nationalist community on both sides of the Irish border. Some of the hunger strikers were elected to both the Irish and British parliaments by an electorate who wished to register their disgust at the intransigent attitude of the British government. The ten men survived without food for 46 to 73 days,[3] taking only water and salt. After the deaths of the men and following severe public disorder, the British government granted politically motivated prisoners Special Category Status. The hunger strikes gave a huge propaganda boost to a severely demoralised Provisional IRA. Robert Gerard Sands (Irish: [1][2]), commonly known as Bobby Sands, (9 March 1954 – 5 May 1981), was a Provisional Irish Republican Army volunteer who died on hunger strike whilst in HM Prison Maze (also known as Long Kesh) for the possession of firearms. ... Fianna Fáil - The Republican Party (Pronounced fee-na fall.) (English: Soldiers of Destiny) is the largest political party in the Republic of Ireland. ... A paramilitary organization is a group of civilians trained and organized in a military fashion. ... A mural in Derrys Bogside, commemorating Irish hunger strikers. ... Irish nationalism refers to political movements that desire greater autonomy or the independence of Ireland from Great Britain. ... The United Kingdom is a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ... The Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) is a paramilitary group which aimed, through the use of violence, to achieve three goals: (i) British withdrawal from Ireland, (ii) the political unification of Ireland through the merger of Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland , and (iii) the creation of an all...


Political prisoners in Turkey

Inspired by the Irish Republicans, Turkish political prisoners developed a tradition of hunger strikes, which continues to this day. After the suppression of rising civil socialist movements by a military coup in 1980, many militants as well as civil activists were imprisoned under highly inhumane conditions. In response to torture and mistreatment of political prisoners, the first hunger strike was launched in 1984, taking the lives of 4 Dev-Sol militants, Abdullah Meral, Haydar Başbağ, Fatih Öktülmüş and Hasan Telci. A political prisoner is anyone held in prison or otherwise detained, perhaps under house arrest, because their ideas or image either challenge or pose a real or potential threat to the state. ... Kenan Evren Kenan Evren (born 17 July 1917 in AlaÅŸehir, Manisa), is a former Turkish general, the leader of the coup detat on 12 September 1980 and the 7th president of Turkey. ... DHKP/C (Devrimci Halkŗn Kurtuluşu Partisi/Cephesi) (Revolutionary Peoples Liberation Party/Front) was originally formed in 1978 as Devrimci Sol(Dev Sol) (Revolutionary Right), a splinter faction of Dev Genç (Revolutionary Youth). ...


In the following years, socialist movements have been increasingly marginalized and moved underground. However, many militant Marxist/Leninist groups have survived. For this reason, the number of political prisoners has always been high. In 1996, when the nationalist minister of the Islamist/conservative government launched a policy on segregation of political prisoners from each other, another hunger strike broke down, with the participation of several leftist militant groups. The strike lasted 69 days, took 12 lives, and the indifferent attitude of the government provoked a strong public protest. As a result, with the initiative of intellectuals including Yaşar Kemal, Zülfü Livaneli, and Orhan Pamuk, a deal was achieved between the government and prisoners. The prisoners took most of their rights back, which they recall as a victory. Necmettin Erbakan (born October 29, 1926) is a Turkish engineer, academician, politician, political party leader and prime minister of Turkey between 1996 and 1997. ... Tansu Çiller Tansu Penbe Çiller (IPA: (born 9 October 1946) is an economist and politician in Turkey. ... YaÅŸar Kemal (born Kemal Sadık Gökçeli) is one of the best known writers in Turkey. ... Zulfü Livaneli Zülfü Livaneli is a popular Turkish folk musician who was politically involved for the last several decades of the 20th century for left-wing causes. ... Ferit Orhan Pamuk (born on June 7, 1952 in Istanbul) is a Nobel Prize-winning Turkish novelist. ...


The last wave of hunger strikes in Turkey, which has become chronical in recent years, was started against F-type prisons, which were designed for efficient segregation of political prisoners. The project was developed starting in 1997, and the strike was started on October 20, 2000, demanding F-type prisons not to be opened, by a large coalition of militant groups, this time including the Kurdish-separatist militants of PKK. The result was tragic, on December 19, 2000, the now democratic left-extreme nationalist coalition decided to break the strike using force, which was named "Back to life" operation. The operation was faced by a well-organized resistance of prisoners, resulting in the death of 28 prisoners and 2 soldiers. Since then, both F-type prisons and related hunger strikes has become an issue of daily life. According to the organization of prisoner relatives, 101 prisoners have died and above 400 have suffered from unrecoverable disease, particularly Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. The governments have been consistently denying claims about mistreatment of prisoners, and president Ahmet Necdet Sezer has been pardoning diseased prisoners, only to be criticized by extreme-right, since many of the released militants have been seen in different demonstrations against F-type prisons. The government maintains that 189 hunger strikers received presidential pardons since 2000. The Congress for Freedom and Democracy in Kurdistan (Kadek), formerly known as the Kurdistan Workers Party (Kurdish: Partiya Karkerên Kurdistan, PKK ) was one of several militant groups fighting for the creation of an independent Kurdish state in southern Turkey, northern Iraq, Northern Syria and western Iran. ... Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a combination of Korsakoffs syndrome, which is characterized by confusion, severe anterograde and retrograde amnesia and confabulation; and Wernickes encephalopathy, which is characterized by nystagmus, ophthalmoplegia, coma and, if untreated, death. ... Ahmet Necdet Sezer (born September 13, 1941 in Afyonkarahisar) is the tenth and current President of the Republic of Turkey. ...


Gwynfor Evans

In 1980, the Welsh nationalist politician Gwynfor Evans threatened to go on hunger strike in order to hold the newly-elected Conservative government to its election promise to set up a Welsh-language TV channel. The government capitulated and the channel was on air by the end of the year. Welsh nationalism is a popular political and cultural movement that emerged during the nineteenth-century. ... Richard Gwynfor Evans (1 September 1912 – April 21, 2005), was a Welsh politician and the first Member of Parliament to represent Plaid Cymru at Westminster (1966-1970; 1974-1979). ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... S4C (Sianel Pedwar Cymru, which is Welsh for Channel Four Wales) is a television channel in Wales. ...


Animal rights

British animal-rights activist, Barry Horne, died on November 5, 2001 after a series of four hunger strikes, the longest of which lasted 68 days from October 6 to December 13, 1998, leaving him partially blind with kidney damage. Barry Horne Barry Horne was a British animal rights activist who died of kidney failure in Ronkswood Hospital, Worcester on November 5, 2001, following a series of four hunger strikes while serving an 18-year sentence for planting incendiary devices. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... The kidneys are organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ...


Fathers Rights

American fathers' rights activist John Mutari engaged in an action throughout his jail sentence, which he described as "not a hunger strike", but which involved complete non-cooperation, including refusing to eat or drink. [1] Other fathers' rights activists in Canada and elsewhere have staged hunger strikes after being unable to see their children for extended periods of time. [citation needed]


Akbar Ganji

Akbar Ganji is an Iranian journalist imprisoned in Evin prison since April 22, 2000. Ganji was on a hunger strike between May 19, 2005 [2] and early August, 2005, except for a 12-day period of leave he was granted on May 30, 2005 ahead of the ninth presidential elections on June 17, 2005. He is represented by a group of lawyers, including the 2003 Nobel Peace Prize Laureate, Shirin Ebadi. While on hunger strike Ganji wrote two letters to the free people of the world: 1 2. On July 12, 2005 the White House press secretary Scott McClellan said in a statement that the US president, George W. Bush, called on Iran to release Ganji "immediately and unconditionally." "Mr. Ganji is sadly only one victim of a wave of repression and human rights violations engaged in by the Iranian regime", "His calls for freedom deserve to be heard. His valiant efforts should not go in vain. The president calls on all supporters of human rights and freedom, and the United Nations, to take up Ganji's case and the overall human rights situation in Iran." "Mr. Ganji, please know that as you stand for your own liberty, America stands with you", the statement said. Akbar Ganji, on the day of his release Akbar Ganji (Persian: اکبر گنجی , born 31 January 1960 in Qazvin) is an Iranian journalist and writer. ... Evin Prison (زندان اوین) is a prison in Iran, located in the north of Tehran. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Iranian presidential election of 2005, the ninth presidential election in Iranian history, took place in two rounds, first on June 17, 2005, and then as a run-off on June 24. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the Nobel Peace Prize Image:Nobel-medal. ... Image:Shirin Ebade Ngs Tunis. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Guantánamo Bay hunger strikes

During the middle of 2005, detainees held by the United States at the Guantánamo Bay Naval base, initiated two hunger strikes. Map of Cuba with location of Guantánamo Bay indicated. ...


The first hunger strike ended on July 28, 2005, when prison authorities agreed to make concessions. According to some accounts, half a dozen detainees were close to death at that point. According to some accounts[attribution needed] so many detainees were being forced to receive intravenous rehydration, the prison's well-equipped infirmary was overwhelmed and detainees had to be transferred to the Naval hospital. is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


According to human rights workers, the prison authorities had a waiver form they called upon detainees to sign if they wanted to refuse intravenous rehydration. The detainees had all been advised, by their lawyers, not to sign anything their lawyers hadn't reviewed.


One concession the American authorities acknowledge making was to supply the detainees with a bottle of clean water to drink with each meal.


The detainees reported, to their lawyers, that the prison authorities had agreed that they would begin to treat them in a manner consistent with the Geneva Conventions. A week later, when they said that the prison authorities were not abiding by their commitment, they initiated a second hunger strike in early August. Original document. ...


Many of the individuals captured in Afghanistan were taken to be held at Guantanamo Bay without trial. These individuals were termed as “enemy combatants.” Until July 7, 2006, these individuals had been treated outside of the Geneva Conventions by the United States administration. Removing someone of their status as POW, also removes them of their political agency within the system of governance. If one has been reduced to bare life (zoe), then they have also been removed of the agency to speak. “In United States criminal law, people accused of committing crimes cannot be compelled to incriminate themselves verbally, but can be compelled to incriminate themselves physically (Elaine Scarry).” In the state of exception this becomes an even greater heightened state. This addresses the distinction Agamben makes when turning to the theories of Arendtian’s on zoe, bare life, and bios, referring to actions in the “form of life,” and notably the bios politicos: “the life of great actions and noble words (Ranciere Ranciere, Who is the Subject of the Rights of Man, pg 299).” One who has been accused of committing a crime, within the legal system, loses the ability to use one’s voice and represent oneself, the individual has not only been removed of their citizenship, but also any form of agency over their own life. “Agamben identifies the state of exception with the power of decision over life ( Ranciere Ranciere, Who is the Subject of the Rights of Man, pg 300).” Within the state of exception the distinction between zoe and bios is made by those in power. For example, Agamben might argue that Guantánamo Bay operates within the state of exception in the United States following 9-11, under the power of the United States government. Detainees upon arrival at Camp X-Ray, January 2002 Guantánamo Bay detainment camp serves as a joint military prison and interrogation center under the leadership of Joint Task Force Guantanamo (JTF-GTMO), has occupied a portion of the United States Navys base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba since 2002. ... An enemy combatant has historically referred to members of the armed forces of the state with which another state is at war. ... Giorgio Agamben is an Italian philosopher who teaches at the University of Verona. ... Jacques Rancière is a French philosopher. ... Jacques Rancière is a French philosopher. ... Map of Cuba with location of Guantánamo Bay indicated. ...


One of the hunger strikers, eighteen year old Omar Khadr, has told his lawyer that other triggers for the hunger strike include the detainees ongoing concerns that the guards are showing disrespect for their religion, including turning on loud fans, playing loud music, and whistling, to disrupt the detainees' prayer meetings. Khadr reports that the prison authorities are not honoring their obligation by broadcasting the call to prayers four times a day rather than five. Khadr reports that many of the detainees resent that sometimes female GIs broadcast the call to prayer. Omar Ahmed Khadr born September 19, 1986 in Ottawa, is a Canadian who was captured by American forces in Afghanistan when he was 15 years of age. ...


American Department of Defense (DoD) spokesman Lieutenant Commander Flex Plexico said on July 21, 2005 that fifty detainees were involved in the first hunger strike, and spokesman Brad Blackner said on September 2, 2005 that seventy six detainees were participating in the second hunger strike. Human-rights workers estimate that both hunger strikes have between 150 and 200 participants. The United States Department of Defense (DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 2 is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On October 26, 2005, a federal judge ordered the Government to provide information about the condition of detainees to lawyers representing the hunger strikers. The Government has contested the detainees' claims of rough treatment during forced feeding. The court's decision reflects major changes from the early years of the camp's operation, when almost no information was obtainable by attorneys. The Government did not immediately announce whether it would appeal the judge's ruling. is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On November 4 U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld stated at a Pentagon news conference that he would not permit United Nations investigators to interview the striking detainees. He said the International Committee of the Red Cross would continue to have unlimited access to interview them. is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a U.S. politician and businessman, who was the 13th Secretary of Defense under President Gerald Ford from 1975 to 1977, and the 21st Secretary of Defense under President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2006. ... This article is about the United States military building. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a private humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland. ...


On December 30, 2005, the military reported that there are eighty-four strikers as of Christmas Day, forty-six having joined that day. is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Force-feeding

On 9 February 2006, the New York Times reported that hunger strikers in Guantánamo were being strapped into restraining chairs for hours a day for force-feeding and to prevent vomiting up the food as attempts at suicide. An officer said the number of strikers peaked at 131 around 11 September. Reportedly there was concern over the international impact if a striker were to die. Detainees' lawyers called the methods brutal and inhumane, and said other coercive methods were used, such as being placed in cold air-conditioned isolation cells. The assistant secretary of defense for health affairs said it was a moral question: allow suicide, or take steps to preserve life. On 21 February 2006, the military commander at Guantánamo conceded that the authorities were using restraining chairs as reported earlier. (NY Times 22 February) is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The September 28, 2006 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine contained an article examining the medical ethics of physician-supervised force-feeding of hunger-striking detainees. The article questioned the legal and ethical foundation for physician participation in the force-feeding, writing that "...military physicians cannot follow military orders to force-feed competent prisoners without violating basic precepts of medical ethics never to harm them by means of their medical knowledge."[4] is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New England Journal of Medicine (New Engl J Med or NEJM) is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society. ... Medical ethics is primarily a field of applied ethics, the study of moral values and judgments as they apply to medicine. ... Force-feeding is the practice of feeding someone against his or her will. ...


On April 9, 2007, the New York Times reported that according to military officials and detainees' lawyers a new hunger strike has broken out at Guantanamo with thirteen detainees being force fed daily.


Sami Al-Arian

On December 6, 2005, a federal jury acquitted Dr. Sami Al-Arian on 8 of 17 counts against him, while deadlocking 10-2 in favor of acquittal on the other 9.[5] Nevertheless, on March 2, 2006, Al-Arian pled guilty to 1 count of conspiracy and was later sentenced to the maximum 57 months in prison[3][6] The deal came after 11 years of FBI investigations, wiretaps and searches, 3 years of trial preparation by federal prosecutors and a 6-month trial, during which time Al-Arian had spent more than three years in jail, most of it in solitary confinement.[4] Amnesty International said Al-Arian's pre-trial detention conditions "appeared to be 'gratuitously punitive' " and stated "the restrictions imposed on Dr Al-Arian appeared to go beyond what were necessary on security grounds and were inconsistent with international standards for humane treatment."[7] December 6 is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sami Al-Arian. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the criminal law, a conspiracy is an agreement between natural persons to break the law at some time in the future, and, in some cases, with at least one overt act in furtherance of that agreement. ...


On January 22, 2007, Al-Arian began a hunger strike to "protest continued government harassment" after he was held in contempt of court for refusing to testify before a federal grand jury.[8][9] In a verbal agreement that appears in court transcripts, federal prosecutors agreed that Al-Arian would not have to testify before the grand jury but the agreement was disregarded by a federal judges.[10] As of March 20, 2007, Al-Arian, who is 6-feet tall, had lost 53 of the 202 pounds he weighed when he started his hunger strike.[10]


Legal situation

Article 5 of the 1975 World Medical Association Tokyo Declaration states that doctors must not undertake force-feeding under any circumstances: Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The World Medical Association (WMA), an international organization of physicians, was formally established on 17 September 1947, pursuant to deliberations and decisions taken in the First General Assembly of WMA held in Paris, France. ...

"Where a prisoner refuses nourishment and is considered by the physician as capable of forming an unimpaired and rational judgment concerning the consequences of such a voluntary refusal of nourishment, he or she shall not be fed artificially. The decision as to the capacity of the prisoner to form such a judgment should be confirmed by at least one other independent physician. The consequences of the refusal of nourishment shall be explained by the physician to the prisoner."

The World Medical Association recently revised and updated its Declaration of Malta on Hunger Strikers (see: http://www.wma.net/e/policy/h31.htm). Among many changes, it unambiguously states that force feeding is a form of inhuman and degrading treatment in its Article 21.


The American Medical Association is a member of the World Medical Association, but the AMA's members are not bound by the WMA's decisions, and neither organization has formal legal powers. The American Medical Association (AMA) is the largest association of medical doctors in the United States. ... The World Medical Association (WMA), an international organization of physicians, was formally established on 17 September 1947, pursuant to deliberations and decisions taken in the First General Assembly of WMA held in Paris, France. ...


Hunger Strike In Popular Culture

  • There is an episode of Strangers With Candy in which Jerri goes on a hunger strike so she can put a picture of her vagina in the halls of her school. She eventually gives in after being offered fudge.
  • In the episode "Please Don't Kill Me" of the comedy program "Mr. Show", a man on a hunger strike professes his lust for food and asks the government he is protesting against to change what actually constitutes a hunger strike.
  • In the Drew Carey Show episode, See Drew Run, Drew Carey demands that his company build a skywalk so people can get to the parking garage safely. Drew says he will go on a hunger strike, and he does for a week. However, he doesn't lose any weight and has to pretend he did in order to get the skywalk.

Simpsons redirects here. ... Hungry, Hungry Homer is the fifteenth episode of the twelfth season of The Simpsons. ... Homer Simpson reaching for a can of Duff Duff Beer is a fictional brand of beer in the animated series The Simpsons. ... Strangers With Candy was a cult television series produced by Comedy Central. ... Hunger Strike is Temple of the Dogs most popular song. ... Grunge (sometimes referred to as the Seattle Sound) is a subgenre of alternative rock that was created in the mid-1980s by bands from the American state of Washington, particularly in the Seattle area. ... Temple of the Dog is the only album from the grunge supergroup of the same name. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Heavens Chimney was the fifteenth episode of the HBO series Mr. ... Mr. ... The Drew Carey Show was an American sitcom starring Drew Carey, set in Cleveland, Ohio. ... See Drew Run is the 39th episode of the sitcom The Drew Carey Show. ... A skyway is a path that is traversed without touching the ground. ...

References

  1. ^ David Beresford. Ten Men Dead, (New York: Atlantic Press, 1987), 7. ISBN 0-87113-702-X
  2. ^ Ibid., 8.
  3. ^ The Starry Plough on 1981 Irish hunger strikes
  4. ^ Annas GJ (2006). "Hunger strikes at Guantanamo--medical ethics and human rights in a "legal black hole"". N. Engl. J. Med. 355 (13): 1377-82. DOI:10.1056/NEJMhle062316. PMID 17005959. 
  5. ^ Laughlin, Meg, Jennifer Liberto and Justin George. "8 times, Al-Arian hears 'Not guilty'", St. Petersburg Times, December 7, 2005. Retrieved on 2007-03-26. 
  6. ^ "Ex-professor gets over 4 years in Florida Jihad case", Reuters, May 1, 2006
  7. ^ Amnesty International raises concern about prison conditions of Dr Sami Al-Arian
  8. ^ Witness Is Silent in Terror Probe: Ex-Professor Says Grand Jury Testimony Would Endanger Him. Washington Post. November 14, 2006.
  9. ^ Family says inmate's hunger strike not near end. Wilmington Star (NC). February 17, 2007.
  10. ^ a b Gaunt Al-Arian shocks family by Meg Laughlin. St. Petersburg Times. March 20, 2007.

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A mural in Derrys Bogside, commemorating Irish hunger strikers. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Hunger strike - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2610 words)
A hunger strike is a method of non-violent resistance in which participants fast as an act of political protest, or to provoke feelings of guilt or to achieve a goal such as a policy change.
Ganji was on a hunger strike between May 19, 2005 [2] and early August, 2005, except for a 12-day period of leave he was granted on May 30, 2005 ahead of the ninth presidential elections on June 17, 2005.
One of the hunger strikers, eighteen year old Omar Khadr, has told his lawyer that other triggers for the hunger strike include the detainees ongoing concerns that the guards are showing disrespect for their religion, including turning on loud fans, playing loud music, and whistling, to disrupt the detainees' prayer meetings.
Strike action - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2325 words)
Such strikes may in some cases be a form of "partial strike" or "slowdown", which is "unprotected" in some circumstances under United States labor law, meaning that while the tactic itself is not unlawful, the employer may fire the employees who engage in it.
Strikes that involve all workers, or a number of large and important groups of workers, in a particular community or region are known as general strikes.
A sympathy strike is, in a way, a small scale version of a general strike in which one group of workers refuses to cross a picket line established by another as a means of supporting the striking workers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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