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Encyclopedia > Hunger

Hunger is a feeling experienced when the glycogen level of the liver falls below a threshold[citation needed], usually followed by a desire to eat. The usually unpleasant feeling originates in the hypothalamus and is released through receptors in the liver. Although an average nourished human can survive weeks without food intake [1] , the sensation of hunger typically begins after several hours without eating. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The liver is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ...


Hunger can also be applied metaphorically to cravings of other sorts, e.g. "hungry for victory."

Contents

Hunger pains

When hunger contractions occur in the stomach, the person sometimes experiences mild pain in the pit of the stomach, called hunger pangs. Hunger pangs usually do not begin until 12 to 24 hours after the last ingestion of food, in starvation. A single hunger contraction lasts about 30 seconds, and pangs continue for around 30-45 minutes, then hunger subdues for around 30-150 minutes.[2] Individual contractions are separated at first, but are almost continuous after a time.[2] Emotional states (anger, joy etc.) may inhibit hunger contractions.[2] Levels of hunger are increased by lower blood sugar levels, and are higher in diabetics.[2] They reach their greatest intensity in 3 to 4 days and may weaken in the succeeding days, though hunger never disappears.[3] Hunger contractions are most intense in young, healthy people who have high degrees of gastrointestinal tonus. Periods between contractions increase with old age.[2] In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... “Hurting” redirects here. ... A female child during the Nigerian-Biafran war of the late 1960s, shown suffering the effects of severe hunger and malnutrition. ... Emotional redirects here. ... In medicine, blood sugar is a term used to refer to levels of glucose in the blood. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... Tonus is the Latin equivalent of the English word tone. ...


Satiety

Satiety, or the feeling of fullness, is the disappearance of hunger after a meal. It is a process mediated by the ventromedial nucleus in the hypothalamus. It is therefore the "satiety center." The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ...


Various hormones, first of all cholecystokinin, have been implicated in conveying the feeling of satiety to the brain. Leptin increases on satiety, while ghrelin increases when the stomach is empty. Cholecystokinin (from Greek chole, bile; cysto, sac; kinin, move; hence, move the bile-sac (gall bladder)) is a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein. ... Leptin (from the Greek word leptos, meaning thin) is a 16 kDa protein hormone that plays a key role in regulating energy intake and energy expenditure, including the regulation (decrease) of appetite and (increase) of metabolism. ... Ghrelin is a hormone produced by P/D1 cells lining the acer of the human stomach that stimulate appetite. ...


Therefore, satiety refers to the psychological feeling of "fullness" or satisfaction rather than to the physical feeling of being engorged, i.e. the feeling of physical fullness after eating a very large meal.


Satiety directly influences feelings of appetite that are generated in the limbic system, and hunger that is controlled by neurohormones, especially serotonin in the lateral hypothalamus. The appetite is the desire to eat food, felt as hunger. ... The limbic system (Latin limbus: border or edge) includes the structures in the human brain involved in emotion, motivation, and emotional association with memory. ... Serotonin (pronounced ) (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract of animals including humans. ...


Behavioral response

Hunger appears to increase activity and movement in many animals - for example an experiment on spiders showed increased activity and predation in starved spiders, resulting in larger weight gain.[4] This pattern is seen in many animals, including humans while sleeping.[5] It even occurs in rats with their cerebral cortex or stomachs completely removed.[6] Increased activity on hamster wheels occurred when rats were deprived not only of food, but also water or B vitamins such as thiamine[7] This response may increase the animal's chance of finding food, though it has also been speculated the reaction relieves pressure on the home population.[5] Diversity 111 families, 40,000 species Suborders Mesothelae Mygalomorphae Araneomorphae  See table of families Wikispecies has information related to: Spiders Spiders are predatory invertebrate animals that have two body segments, eight legs, no chewing mouth parts and no wings. ... A juvenile Red-tailed Hawk eating a California Vole In ecology, predation describes a biological interaction where a predator organism feeds on another living organism or organisms known as prey. ... This article is about modern humans. ... Species 50 species; see text *Several subfamilies of Muroids include animals called rats. ... Location of the cerebral cortex Slice of the cerebral cortex, ca. ... Photo of a hamster wheel The related term squirrel cage may refer to: a squirrel cage rotor a squirrel cage fan or blower Hamster wheels are toys introduced into the habitats of usually rodent pets. ... The B vitamins are eight water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism. ... For the similarly spelled nucleic acid, see Thymine Thiamine or thiamin, also known as vitamin B1, is one of the B vitamins. ...


References

  1. ^ How long can someone survive without water?. Retrieved on 2007-05-14.
  2. ^ a b c d e A. J. Carlson (1931) Hunger The Scientific Monthly 33: 77-79.
  3. ^ A. J. Carlson; F. Hoelzel (1952) The Alleged Disappearance of Hunger during Starvation Science 115: 526-527.
  4. ^ Provencher, L.; Riechert, S.E. (1991) Short-Term Effects of Hunger Conditioning on Spider Behavior, Predation, and Gain of Weight Oikos 62:160-166
  5. ^ a b Wald, G.; Jackson, B. (1944) Activity and Nutritional Deprivation Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 30:255-263
  6. ^ George Wald: The Origin of Death. Retrieved on 2007-05-14.
  7. ^ Guerrant, N.B., Dutcher, R.A. (1940) Journal of Nutrition 20:589.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ... George Wald (November 18, 1906–April 12, 1997) was an American scientist who is best known for his work with pigments in the retina. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Intergovernmental Institution for the use of Micro-algae Spirulina Against Malnutrition (IIMSAM)
  • The Borgen Project
  • Fighting Hunger and poverty in Ethiopia (Peter Middlebrook)
  • Satiety enhancers in food Scientist Live

Dr. Peter J. Middlebrook (born in Lincoln, U.K., 15 November 1965) is a leading English political economist / Political Scientistspecialising in the reconstruction and development of Transitionand post conflict economies. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Hunger Facts: International (1068 words)
In essence, hunger is the most extreme form of poverty, where individuals or families cannot afford to meet their most basic need for food.
Most poor people who battle hunger deal with chronic undernourishment and vitamin or mineral deficiencies, which result in stunted growth, weakness and heightened susceptibility to illness.
Countries in which a large portion of the population battles hunger daily are usually poor and often lack the social safety nets we enjoy, such as soup kitchens, food stamps, and job training programs.
Hunger - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (604 words)
Extreme hunger is a symptom of diabetes [1].
In contrast to hunger, which is involuntary, fasting is the practice of voluntarily not eating for a period of time.
Hunger is mediated by several molecular signalling pathways in mammals.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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