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Encyclopedia > Hungary
Magyar Köztársaság
Republic of Hungary
Flag of Hungary Coat of arms of Hungary
Flag Coat of arms
Mottonone
Historically Regnum Mariae Patronae Hungariae (Latin)
AnthemHimnusz ("Isten, áldd meg a magyart")
"Hymn" ("God, bless the Hungarians")

Location of  Hungary  (orange)

– on the European continent  (camel & white)
– in the European Union  (camel)                 [ Legend] Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ... Flag ratio: 1:2, basic flag Flag ratio 1:2, Hungarian flag with current official Hungarian coat of arms. ... Coat of Arms of Hungary The Coat of Arms of Hungary was adopted in July 1990, after the end of the Socialist regime, although it has been used before, both with and without the crown, sometimes as part of a larger, more complex coat of arms, and many of its... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Original Sheet Music Himnusz — the song beginning with the words Isten, áldd meg a magyart   (God, bless the Hungarians) — is the official national anthem of Hungary. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 710 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hungary ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Capital
(and largest city)
Budapest
47°26′N, 19°15′E
Official languages Hungarian (Magyar)
Demonym Hungarian
Government Parliamentary republic
 -  President László Sólyom
 -  Prime minister Ferenc Gyurcsány
Foundation
 -  Foundation of Hungary 896 
 -  Recognized as Kingdom December 1000 
EU accession May 1, 2004
Area
 -  Total 93,030 km² (109th)
35,919 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0.74%
Population
 -  2008 February estimate 10,041,000[1] (79th)
 -  2001 census 10,198,315 
 -  Density 109/km² (94nd)
282/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $198.7 billion[2] (48th)
 -  Per capita $20,000[2] (39th)
Gini (2002) 24.96 (low) (3rd)
HDI (2007) 0.874 (high) (36th)
Currency Forint (HUF)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Internet TLD .hu1
Calling code +36
1 Also .eu as part of the European Union.

Hungary (Hungarian: Magyarország; IPA[mɒɟɒrorsaːg]; listen ), officially in English the Republic of Hungary (Magyar Köztársaság listen , literally Magyar (Hungarian) Republic), is a landlocked country in the Carpathian Basin of Central Europe, bordered by Austria, Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Croatia, and Slovenia. Its capital is Budapest. Hungary is a member of OECD, NATO, EU and a Schengen state. The official language is Hungarian (also known as Magyar), which forms part of the Finno-Ugric family. It is one of the four official languages of the European Union that is not of Indo-European origin. Not to be confused with capitol. ... Population change 1961-2003, as reported by FAO, 2005. ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Hungarian (magyar nyelv  ) is a Finno-Ugric language (more specifically an Ugric language) unrelated to most other languages in Europe. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Parliamentary republics around the world, shown in Orange (Parliamentary republics with a non-executive President) and Green (Parliamentary republics with an executive President linked to Parliament). ... This is a list of all rulers of Hungary since Árpád. ... László Sólyom, President of Hungary László Sólyom (pronounced ) born on January 3, 1942 is the President of Hungary, having overcome the Hungarian Socialist Party nominee Katalin Szili in the election on June 7, 2005. ... This is a list of Prime Ministers of Hungary: Prime Ministers of Hungary, 1848-1849 Count Lajos Batthyány: 17 March - 2 October 1848 Baron Ádám Récsey: 3 October - 26 November 1848 Lajos Kossuth: 26 November 1848 - 11 August 1849 Bertalan Szemere: 11 August - 13 August 1849 Prime Ministers of Hungary...   (pronounced []; born in Pápa, June 4, 1961) is the Prime Minister of Hungary. ... See also the history of Europe, the history of present-day nations and states, Hungary before the Magyars, and Hungary. ... Austria Poland Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech   Rep. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 10,000 km² and 100,000 km². ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... World map of the Gini coefficient This is a list of countries or dependencies by Income inequality metrics, sorted in ascending order according to their Gini coefficient. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... ISO 4217 Code HUF User(s) Hungary Inflation 8. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of the time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... UTC redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Summer Time (CEST) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .hu is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Hungary. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... In Hungary the standard lengths for area codes is one (Budapest only) to two digits and 8 or 9 (cell phone numbers beginning with 20, 30 and 70 and corporate network numbers starting with 71) for subscribers numbers in Hungary. ... Image File history File links Hu-Magyarország. ... Image File history File links Hu-Magyar Köztársaság. ... A landlocked country is one that has no coastline. ... The Pannonian plain is a large plain in central/south-eastern Europe that remained when the Pliocene Pannonian Sea (see below) dried out. ... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: European Union The European Union On-Line Official EU website, europa. ... For other uses, see Schengen. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... This article is about the Hungarian ethnic group. ... Finno-Ugric group with dark green on map of language families Finno-Ugric (IPA:[ËŒfɪnoʊˈjuːgɹɪk]) is a grouping of languages in the Uralic language family, comprising Hungarian, Finnish and Estonian, and related languages. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ...


Following a Celtic (after c. 450 BC) and a Roman (9 BC - c. 4th century) period, the foundation of Hungary was laid in the late Ninth Century by the Magyar chieftain Árpád, whose great grandson István ascended to the throne with a crown sent from Rome in 1000. The Kingdom of Hungary existed with minor interruptions for more than 900 years, and at various points was regarded as one of the cultural centers of the Western world. It was succeeded by a Communist era (1947-1989) during which Hungary gained widespread international attention regarding the Revolution of 1956 and the seminal move of opening its border with Austria in 1989, thus accelerating the collapse of the Eastern Bloc. The present form of government is a parliamentary republic (since 1989). Hungary's current goal is to become a developed country by IMF standards, having become already developed by most traditional measures, including GDP and HDI[3] (world ranking 36th and rising). The country's first ever term of EU presidency is due in 2011[4]. This article is about the European people. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... This article is about the Hungarian ethnic group. ... Árpád Árpád (c. ... Saint Stephen I (Hungarian: , Slovak: ) (967/969/975, Esztergom, Hungary – 15 August 1038, Esztergom, Hungary), Grand Prince of the Magyars (997-1000/1001) and the first King of Hungary (1000/1001-1038). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... Occident redirects here. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Combatants Soviet Union ÁVH Hungarian government, various nationalist militias Commanders Yuri Andropov Pál Maléter, Béla Király, Gergely Pongrátz, József Dudás Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks 100,000+ demonstrators (some later armed), unknown number of soldiers Casualties 720 killed according to official... The Eastern Bloc prior to the political upheavals of 1989. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ... Parliamentary republics around the world, shown in Orange (Parliamentary republics with a non-executive President) and Green (Parliamentary republics with an executive President linked to Parliament). ... World map indicating Human Development Index (as of 2004). ... The flag of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the international organization entrusted with overseeing the global financial system by monitoring foreign exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering technical and financial assistance when asked. ... GDP is an acronym which can stand for more than one thing: (in economics) an abbreviation for Gross Domestic Product. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ...


Hungary was one of the 15 most popular tourist destinations in the world in the past decade[5][6], with a capital regarded as one of the most beautiful in the world[7][8]. Despite its relatively small size, the country is home to numerous World Heritage Sites, UNESCO Biosphere reserves, the second largest thermal lake in the world (Lake Hévíz), the largest lake in Central Europe (Lake Balaton), and the largest natural grassland in Europe (Hortobágy). A tourist destination is a city, town or other area the economy of which is dependent to a significant extent on the revenues accruing from tourism. ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. ... Lake Hévíz is located in Hungary and is the largest thermal lake in the world. ... Lake Balaton, located in Hungary, is the largest lake in Central Europe. ... Hortobágy is a part of Alföld (Great Plain) in eastern Hungary, near Debrecen. ...

Contents

History

The land before the Magyars

Main articles: History of Hungary, Hungary before the Magyars, Hungarian prehistory, and Pannonia
The arrival of the Hungarians in the Carpathian Basin.
The arrival of the Hungarians in the Carpathian Basin.
Galgóci tarsolylemez, an ancient Hungarian pouch plate.
Galgóci tarsolylemez, an ancient Hungarian pouch plate.

In the time of the Roman Empire, the region west of the Danube river was known as Pannonia. After the Western Roman Empire collapsed under the stress of the migration of Germanic tribes and Carpian pressure, the Migration Period continued bringing many invaders to Europe. Among the first to arrive were the Huns, who built up a powerful empire under Attila. Attila the Hun is regarded as an ancestral ruler of the Hungarians. It is believed that the origin of the name "Hungary" does not come from the Central Asian nomadic invaders called the Huns, but rather originated from a later, 7th century Bulgar alliance called On-Ogour, which in Old Turkish meant "(the) Ten Arrows" [9]. After Hunnish rule faded, the Germanic Ostrogoths then the Lombards came to Pannonia, and the Gepids had a presence in the eastern part of the Carpathian Basin for about 100 years. In the 560s the Avars founded the Avar Khaganate ,[10] a state which maintained supremacy in the region for more than two centuries and had the military power to launch attacks against all its neighbours. The Avar Khagnate was weakened by constant wars and outside pressure. The Franks under Charlemagne managed to defeat the Avars ending their 250 year rule. Neither the Franks nor others were able to create a lasting state in the region until the freshly unified Hungarians led by Árpád settled in the Carpathian Basin starting in 896. [11]. See also the history of Europe, the history of present-day nations and states, Hungary before the Magyars, and Hungary. ... This article discusses the known pre-history and early history of the area corresponding to modern-day Hungary, and the peoples associated with this area. ... Explanatory note: This article was originally based on The Hungarian Old Country, written in Hungarian by professor István Kiszely, and translated into English by Csaba Hargita. ... For other uses, see Pannonia (disambiguation). ... Download high resolution version (870x597, 140 KB)Excerpt of Fesztys famous painting The Hungarian Conquest, exhibited at Ópusztaszer National Memorial Park, Hungary File links The following pages link to this file: Magyars Árpád Feszty ... Download high resolution version (870x597, 140 KB)Excerpt of Fesztys famous painting The Hungarian Conquest, exhibited at Ópusztaszer National Memorial Park, Hungary File links The following pages link to this file: Magyars Árpád Feszty ... The Pannonian plain is a large plain in central/south-eastern Europe that remained when the Pliocene Pannonian Sea (see below) dried out. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Length 2,888 km Elevation of the source 1,078 m Average discharge 30 km before Passau: 580 m³/s Vienna: 1,900 m³/s Budapest: 2,350 m³/s just before Delta: 6,500 m³/s Area watershed 817,000 km² Origin Black Forest (Schwarzwald-Baar, Baden- Württemberg, Germany... For other uses, see Pannonia (disambiguation). ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... The term Germanic tribes (or Teutonic tribes) applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ... Carpia was an Iberian city which is said to be the site of the ancient city Tartessos, or the refoundation of the sunken city. ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... Attila redirects here. ... Attila redirects here. ... Hungarian may refer to: Hungary or the Kingdom of Hungary. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Bulgarians. ... It has been suggested that Old Great Bulgaria be merged into this article or section. ... The Turkic language spoken by the Göktürks and used on the Orkhon inscriptions. ... This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... The Gepids (Latin Gepidae) were a Germanic tribe most famous in history for defeating the Huns after the death of Attila. ... The Pannonian plain is a large plain in central/south-eastern Europe that remained when the Pliocene Pannonian Sea (see below) dried out. ... Late Avar period Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... The word Avars can mean: The nomadic people that conquered the Hungarian Steppe in the early Middle Ages, the Eurasian Avars. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... For other uses, see Charlemagne (disambiguation). ... Hungarian may refer to: Hungary or the Kingdom of Hungary. ... Árpád Árpád (c. ... The Pannonian plain is a large plain in central/south-eastern Europe that remained when the Pliocene Pannonian Sea (see below) dried out. ...

The Holy Crown of Hungary
The Holy Crown of Hungary

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1765x2544, 716 KB) Summary The Holy Crown of Hungary, also known as the Crown of St. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1765x2544, 716 KB) Summary The Holy Crown of Hungary, also known as the Crown of St. ...

Medieval Hungary (896 – 1526)

Europe in 998 , Hungary in light blue
Europe in 998 , Hungary in light blue
A miniature of the king Stephan I from the Chronicon Hungariae Pictum
A miniature of the king Stephan I from the Chronicon Hungariae Pictum

Medieval Hungary controlled more territory than medieval France, and the population of medieval Hungary was the third largest of any country in Europe. Árpád was the Magyar leader whom sources name as the single leader who unified the Magyar tribes via the Covenant of Blood(Vérszerződés) forged one nation, thereafter known as the Hungarian nation[12] and led the new nation to the territory of the Carpathian Basin in the 9th century[12]. After an early Hungarian state was formed in this territory military power of the nation allowed the Hungarians to conduct fierce campaigns and raids as far as present-day Spain. A later defeat at the Battle of Lechfeld in 955 signaled an end to raids on foreign territories, and links between the tribes weakened. The ruling prince (fejedelem) Géza of the House of Árpád, who was the ruler of only some of the united territory, but the nominal overlord of all seven Magyar tribes, intended to integrate Hungary into Christian (Western) Europe, rebuilding the state according to the Western political and social model[13]. He established a dynasty by naming his son Vajk (later called Stephen) as his successor. This was contrary to the then dominant tradition of the succession of the eldest surviving member of the ruling family. This article deals with the history of the Kingdom of Hungary from the 10th century to c. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Arpads or Árpáds (Hungarian: Árpádok, Slovak: Arpádovci, Croatian: Arpadovići) was a dynasty ruling in historic Hungary from the late 9th century to 1301 (with some interruptions, e. ... This article is about the better-known Battle of Mohács of 1526. ... Map of the counties in the Kingdom of Hungary around 1880 A comitatus (less frequently, a comitat, or, inaccurately, a county; for the various names, their origin and use see here) is the name of an administrative unit in the Kingdom of Hungary from the 10th century to 1918. ... The Mongol invasions of Europe were centered in their destruction of the Ruthenian states, especially Kiev, under the leadership of Subutai. ... Islam in Hungary pre-dates Ottoman Empire. ... // At the end of the 13th century, in a chronicle called Gesta Hungarorum, the notary of Hungarian King Béla explained his beliefs about the conquest of Hungary about 280 years earlier. ... Combatants Kingdom of Hungary Mongol Empire Commanders King Béla IV Batu Khan, Subutai Strength 15,000-30,000+ Unknown (mostly cavalry) Casualties 10,000-30,000+ unknown The Battle of Mohi, or Battle of the Sajó River, (on April 11, 1241) was the main battle between the Mongols and... John Hunyadi, as imagined by a 17th century artist John Hunyadi (Medieval Latin: Ioannes Corvinus, German: Johann Hunyadi; Hungarian: Hunyadi János, Romanian: Iancu or Ioan de Hunedoara) (c. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1787x1238, 108 KB) Summary Map of Europe in 998, based on free map of europe Image:BlankMap-Europe. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1787x1238, 108 KB) Summary Map of Europe in 998, based on free map of europe Image:BlankMap-Europe. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Saint Stephen I (Hungarian: , Slovak: ) (967/969/975, Esztergom, Hungary – 15 August 1038, Esztergom, Hungary), Grand Prince of the Magyars (997-1000/1001) and the first King of Hungary (1000/1001-1038). ... A miniature from the Chronicon Pictum. ... Árpád Árpád (c. ... The Pannonian plain is a large plain in central/south-eastern Europe that remained when the Pliocene Pannonian Sea (see below) dried out. ... Belligerents East Francia Magyars Commanders Otto the Great harka Bulcsú; chieftains Lél and Súr Strength 10,000 heavy cavalry 50,000 light cavalry Casualties and losses about 3,500 about 30,000 fell in the battle about 5,000 killed by local farmers maybe 5,000 fleeing Magyars... Géza of Hungary (born around 940-945, died in 997) (possibly Gyécsa in Old Hungarian, Gejza in Slovak), was the fejedelem (ruling prince) of the Magyars from c. ... Saint Stephen I (Hungarian: , Slovak: ) (967/969/975, Esztergom, Hungary – 15 August 1038, Esztergom, Hungary), Grand Prince of the Magyars (997-1000/1001) and the first King of Hungary (1000/1001-1038). ...

Hungary in the 11th century
Hungary in the 11th century

Hungary was established as a Christian kingdom under Stephen I of Hungary, who was crowned in December 1000 AD in the capital, Esztergom. He was the son of Géza[14] and thus a descendant of Árpád. By 1006, Stephen had solidified his power, eliminating all rivals who either wanted to follow the old pagan traditions or wanted an alliance with the orthodox Christian Byzantine Empire. Then he started sweeping reforms to convert Hungary into a feudal state, complete with forced Christianisation[15]. What emerged was a strong kingdom[16] that withstood attacks from German kings and Emperors, and nomadic tribes following the Hungarians from the East, integrating some of the latter into the population (along with Germans invited to Transylvania and present-day Slovakia, especially after 1242), and subjugating Croatia in 1102[17]. Saint Stephen I (Hungarian: , Slovak: ) (967/969/975, Esztergom, Hungary – 15 August 1038, Esztergom, Hungary), Grand Prince of the Magyars (997-1000/1001) and the first King of Hungary (1000/1001-1038). ... Basilica in Esztergom. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... This article is about the region in Romania. ...


In 1241-1242, this kingdom received a major blow in the form of the Mongol invasion of Europe: after the defeat of the Hungarian army in the Battle of Muhi[18], King Béla IV fled, and a large part (though not as great as suspected by historians earlier) of the population died[19] (leading later to the invitation of settlers from neighbours in the West and South) in the ensuing destruction (Tatárjárás). Only strongly fortified cities and abbeys could withstand the assault. As a consequence, after the Mongols retreated, King Béla ordered the construction of stone castles, meant to be defence against a possible second Mongol invasion. Mongols returned to Hungary in 1285, but the new built stone-castle systems and new tactics (with large ratio of heavy calvary) stopped them. The invading Mongol force was defeated near Pest by the royal army of king Ladislaus IV. The Mongol Invasion of Russia was an invasion of the medieval state of Kievan Rus by a large army of nomadic Mongols, starting in 1223. ... The Battle of Muhi was fought on April 11, 1241 between Hungary and the Mongols. ... Béla IV c. ... Pest (pronounced pesht) is the eastern, mostly flat part of Budapest, comprising about two thirds of the capitals territory. ... Ladislaus IV the Cuman (Hungarian: , Croatian: , Slovak: ) (August 1262 – July 10, 1290, KÅ‘rösszeg, Hungary), also known as László IV, King of Hungary and Croatia (1272-1290). ...


These castles proved to be very important later in the long struggle with the Ottoman Empire in the following centuries (from the late 14th century onwards), but their cost indebted the King to the major feudal landlords again, so the royal power reclaimed by Béla IV after his father King András II weakened it (leading to the issue of the so called 'Arany Bulla' or Golden Bull, in 1222), was lost again. Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... The Golden Bull of 1222 was a golden bull, or edict, issued by King Andrew II of Hungary. ...

Mongol invasion of Hungary
Mongol invasion of Hungary

Árpád's direct descendants in the male line ruled the country until 1301. During the reigns of the Kings after the house of Árpád, the Kingdom of Hungary reached its greatest extent, yet royal power was weakened as the major landlords greatly increased their influence. Meanwhile, the Ottoman Turks confronted the country ever more often. The second Hungarian king in the 'Anjou' Angevin line also descendant of Árpád on the female line, Louis I the Great (I. or Nagy Lajos, king 1342-1382) extended his rule over territories from the Black Sea to the Adriatic Sea, and temporarily occupied the Kingdom of Naples (after his brother was murdered there by his wife, who was also his cousin). From 1370, the death of Casimir III the Great, he was also king of Poland. The alliance between Casimir and Charles I of Hungary, the father of Louis, was the start of a still lasting Polish-Hungarian friendship. Sigismund, a prince from the Luxembourg line succeeded to the throne by marrying Louis's daughter, Queen Mary. In 1433 he even became Holy Roman Emperor. The last strong king was the renaissance king Matthias Corvinus. Hungary was the first non-Italian country, where the renaissance appeared in Europe. Andras Hess set up a printing press in Buda in 1472. Matthias was the son of the feudal landlord and warlord John Hunyadi, who led the Hungarian troops in the 1456 Siege of Nándorfehérvár. Building on his fathers' vision, the aim of taking on the Ottoman Empire with a strong enough background, Matthias set out to build a great empire, expanding southward and northwest, while he also implemented internal reforms. His army called the 'Fekete Sereg' (Black Army of Hungary) accomplished a series of victories also capturing the city of Vienna in 1485. In 1514, the weakened King Ladislaus II faced a major peasant rebellion led by György Dózsa, which was crushed barbarously by the nobles mainly by János Szapolyai. As central rule degenerated, the stage was set for a defeat at the hands of the Ottoman Empire. In 1521, the strongest Hungarian fortress in the South Nándorfehérvár (modern Belgrade) fell to the Turks, and in 1526, the Hungarian army was destroyed in the Battle of Mohács. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 497 pixelsFull resolution (1145 × 711 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 497 pixelsFull resolution (1145 × 711 pixel, file size: 1. ... Angevin (IPA: ) is the name applied to the residents of Anjou, a former province of the Kingdom of France, as well as to the residents of Angers. ... Louis the Great. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... Capital Naples Government Monarchy King  - 1285-1309 Charles II  - 1815-1816 Ferdinand I History  - Established 1285  - Union with Sicily 1816 The Kingdom of Naples was an informal name of the polity officially known as the Kingdom of Sicily which existed on the mainland of southern Italy after of the secession... Noble Family or Dynasty Piast dynasty Coat of Arms Piast Eagle Parents WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw I the Elbow-high, Jadwiga Kaliszka, of Gniezno and Greater Poland Consorts Aldona Ona, Adelheid of Hesse, Christina, Jadwiga of Glogow and Sagan Children 5 daughters Date of Birth 1310 Place of Birth Kowal Date... Charles I of Hungary Charles I of Hungary (Anjou France 1288 or 1291–Visegrád, Hungary July 16, 1342), also called Charles Robert, Carobert and Charles I Robert, was the king of Hungary from August 27, 1310. ... Polish, Hungarian, two good friends is the short form of the popular bilingual proverbial rhyme about the historical friendship of the Polish and the Hungarian people. ... Sigismund, aged approximately 50, depicted by unknown artist in the 1420s — the only contemporary portrait. ... Matthias Corvinus as depicted in Chronica Hungarorum by Carl van Vechten Matthias Corvinus (Matthias the Just) (February 23, 1443 (?) – April 6, 1490) was King of Hungary, ruling between 1458 and 1490. ... John Hunyadi, as imagined by a 17th century artist John Hunyadi (Medieval Latin: Ioannes Corvinus, German: Johann Hunyadi; Hungarian: Hunyadi János, Romanian: Iancu or Ioan de Hunedoara) (c. ... After the fall of Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman sultan Mehmed II was rallying his resources in order to subjugate Hungary. ... The Black Army (Black Legion or Host) - named after their black armor panoply - is in historigraphy the common name given to the excellent quality of diverse and polyglot military forces serving under the reign of under King Matthias Corvinus of Hungary. ... János Szapolyai or János Zápolya (Croatian: ) (2 February 1487 – July 22, 1540) was King of Hungary, he had a dispute with Archduke Ferdinand I, who also claimed the title King of Hungary between 1526 and 1540. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... This article is about the better-known Battle of Mohács of 1526. ...


Through the centuries the Kingdom of Hungary kept its old "constitution", which granted special "freedoms" or rights to the nobility and groups like the Saxons resident in Hungary or the Jassic people, and to free royal towns such as Buda, Kassa (Košice), Pozsony (Bratislava), Kolozsvár (Cluj-Napoca). This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Saxon (disambiguation). ... The main church in the center of Jászberény Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok county within Hungary The Jassic people or Jász people are an ethnic group of Hungarians that mostly live in Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok county of Hungary. ... In the Holy Roman Empire, an Imperial Free City (in German: Freie Reichsstadt) was a city formally responsible to the Emperor only — as opposed to the majority of cities in the Empire, which belonged to a territory and were thus governed by one of the many princes and dukes of... Buda (German: Ofen, Croatian: Budim, Slovak: Budín, Serbian: Будим or Budim, Turkish: Budin) is the western part of the Hungarian capital Budapest on the right bank of the Danube. ... Location of KoÅ¡ice in Slovakia Coordinates: , Country Slovakia Region KoÅ¡ice Region Districts KoÅ¡ice I-IV City parts First mentioned 1230 Government  - Type City Council  - Mayor FrantiÅ¡ek Knapík Area  - City 243. ... , Nickname: Beauty on the Danube, City of peace Country  Slovakia Region Districts 5  - Bratislava I  - Bratislava II  - Bratislava III  - Bratislava IV  - Bratislava V Rivers Elevation 134 m (440 ft) Coordinates , Highest point Devínska Kobyla  - elevation 514 m (1,686 ft) Lowest point Danube River  - elevation 126 m (413 ft... Map of Romania showing Cluj_Napoca Cluj_Napoca (Hungarian: Kolozsvár, German: Klausenburg, Latin: Claudiopolis), the seat of Cluj county, is one of the most important academic, cultural and industrial centers in Romania. ...


Ottoman Rule 1526-1699

Main articles: Ottoman Hungary, Wesselényi conspiracy, Kuruc, House of Esterházy, Battle of Saint Gotthard (1664), and Knightly Order of Vitéz
Dózsa's peasant war
Dózsa's peasant war
Hungary around 1550
Hungary around 1550

After some 150 years of wars with the Hungarians and other states, the Turks conquered parts of Hungary, and continued their expansion until 1556. The Ottomans gained their first decisive victory over the Hungarian army at the Battle of Mohács in 1526. The next decades were characterised by political chaos; the divided Hungarian nobility elected two kings simultaneously, 'Szapolyai János' (1526-1540) and Ferdinand Habsburg (1527-1540), whose armed conflicts weakened the country further. With the conquest of Buda in 1541 by the Turks, Hungary fell into three parts. The north-western part see map) termed as Royal Hungary remained under the Habsburgs who ruled as Kings of Hungary. The eastern part of the kingdom (Partium and Transylvania), in turn, became independent as the Principality of Transylvania,often under Turkish influence. The remaining central area (mostly present-day Hungary), including the capital of Buda was known as Ottoman Hungary. A large part of the area became devastated by permanent warfare. Most smaller settlements disappeared. The Turks were indifferent to the type of Christian religion of their subjects and the Habsburg counter-reformation measures could not reach this area. As a result, the majority of the population of the area became Protestant (Calvinist). In 1686, Austria-led Christian forces reconquered Buda, and in the next few years, all of the country except areas near Temesvár (Timişoara). In the 1699 Treaty of Karlowitz these changes were officially recognized, and in 1718 the entire Kingdom of Hungary was restored from the Ottomans. Ottoman Hungary or Muslim Hungary refers to the Turkish-Ottoman age of todays Hungary (1526 - 1699). ... The kuruc (Hungarian: kuruczok/kurucok [sg. ... The House of Esterházy was a noble family in the Kingdom of Hungary since the Middle Ages. ... // Combatants Austria, Holy Roman Empire, League of the Rhine, France Ottoman Empire Commanders Raimondo Montecuccoli, Leopold Wilhelm of Baden-Baden, Count Coligny Ahmed Köprülü Strength ~ 40,000 including Imperial and French troops [1] ~ 60,000 Casualties Minimal 10,000 The Battle of Saint Gotthard (Hungarian: ) was fought on... The Knightly Order of Vitéz (Vitézi Rend in Hungarian), is a Hungarian Order initially founded in 1678 by Imre Thököly, (1657-1705), a Hungarian nobleman, who was leading a rebellion against Leopold I of Austria, who suspended the Constitution and placed Hungary under a Directorate headed... Gheorghe Doja redirects here. ... The wars of the Ottoman Empire in Europe are also sometimes referred to as the Ottoman Wars or as Turkish Wars, particularly in older, European texts. ... This article is about the better-known Battle of Mohács of 1526. ... John I Zápolya (Hungarian: ; Croatian: ) or John Szapolyai (Hungarian: ) (2 February 1487 – July 22, 1540) was a voivode of Transylvania and, along with Archduke Ferdinand I, a claimant to the throne of the Kingdom of Hungary between 1526 and 1540. ... See: Habsburg Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Consequences of the Battle of Mohács, and the conquest of Buda in 1541 by the Ottomans: the Kingdom is partitioned. ... This is a list of all rulers of the Kingdom of Hungary since Árpád. ... Principality of Transylvania Partium (Hungarian: Partium or Részek) is a historical region in the present-day territory of Romania that roughly corresponds to the contemporary CriÅŸana region. ... This article is about the region in Romania. ... Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or Transilvania; Hungarian: ; German: ; Serbian: or Erdelj / Ердељ) is a historical region in the center of Romania. ... Ottoman Hungary or Muslim Hungary refers to the Turkish-Ottoman age of todays Hungary (1526 - 1699). ... Buda (German: Ofen, Croatian: Budim, Slovak: Budín, Serbian: Будим or Budim, Turkish: Budin) is the western part of the Hungarian capital Budapest on the right bank of the Danube. ... For other uses of TimiÅŸ, see TimiÅŸ (disambiguation). ... The Treaty of Karlowitz was signed in 1699 in Sremski Karlovci (a city in modern-day Serbia and Montenegro) (German: Karlowitz, Turkish:Karlofça), concluding the Austro-Ottoman War of 1683–1697 in which the Ottoman side was defeated. ...

Pozsony (Bratislava) became the new capital (1536-1784), coronation town (1563-1830) and seat of the Diet (1536-1848) of Hungary. Nagyszombat(Trnava) in turn, became the religious center in 1541. Parallelly, between 1604 and 1711, there was a series of anti-Habsburg (i.e. anti-Austrian) and anti-Catholic (requiring equal rights and freedom for all Christian religions) uprisings, which – with the exception of the last one – took place in Royal Hungary. The uprisings were usually organized from Transylvania. The last one was an uprising led by 'II. Rákóczi Ferenc', who after the dethronement of the Habsburgs in 1707 at the Diet of Ónód took power as the "Ruling Prince" of Hungary. When Austrians defeated the uprising in 1711, Rákóczi was in Poland. He later fled to France, finally Turkey, and lived to the end of his life (1735) in nearby Rodosto. Afterwards, to make further armed resistance impossible, the Austrians blew up some castles (most of the castles on the border between the now-reclaimed territories occupied earlier by the Ottomans and Royal Hungary), and allowed peasants to use the stones from most of the others as building material (the végvárs among them). Image File history File links Ferenc_rakoczi_ii. ... Image File history File links Ferenc_rakoczi_ii. ... Francis II Rákóczi (painted by Ádám Mányoki) Ferenc (Francis) II Rákóczi (Borsi, March 27, 1676 - Rodosto, Ottoman Empire, April 8, 1735) was the leader of the Hungarian uprising against the Habsburgs in 1703-11 as the prince (fejedelem) of the Estates Confederated for Liberty... , Nickname: Beauty on the Danube, City of peace Country  Slovakia Region Districts 5  - Bratislava I  - Bratislava II  - Bratislava III  - Bratislava IV  - Bratislava V Rivers Elevation 134 m (440 ft) Coordinates , Highest point Devínska Kobyla  - elevation 514 m (1,686 ft) Lowest point Danube River  - elevation 126 m (413 ft... Trnava (Hungarian: Nagyszombat, German: Tyrnau) is a town in western Slovakia, 45 kilometers to the north-east of Bratislava, on the Trnávka river, and at the main Bratislava-Žilina railway and Bratislava-Žilina limited-access highway. ... Francis II Rákóczi (painted by Ádám Mányoki) Ferenc (Francis) II Rákóczi (Borsi, March 27, 1676 - Rodosto, Ottoman Empire, April 8, 1735) was the leader of the Hungarian uprising against the Habsburgs in 1703-11 as the prince (fejedelem) of the Estates Confederated for Liberty... Tekirdag or Tekir Dagh, referred to historically as Rodosto (Greek name: Redestos or Rhaedestos), is a city of European Turkey (Eastern Thrace), which during the period of the Ottoman Empire (before the treaty of Sevres in 1920) belonged in the vilayet of Adrianople. ...


History of Hungary 1700-1918

Main articles: History of Hungary 1700-1919, István Széchenyi, Austria-Hungary, Lajos Kossuth, and Hungarian Revolution of 1848

During the Napoleonic Wars and afterwards, the Hungarian Diet had not convened for decades. In the 1820s, the Emperor was forced to convene the Diet, and thus a Reform Period began. Nevertheless, its progress was slow, because the nobles insisted on retaining their privileges (no taxation, exclusive voting rights, etc.). Therefore the achievements were mostly of national character (e.g. introduction of Hungarian as the official language of the country, instead of the former Latin). This article describes the History of Hungary between the 18th century and the early 20th century (1699 - 1919). ... Count István Széchenyi, in Hungarian: Gróf Széchenyi István, born in Vienna, 21 September 1791 and died in Döbling, 8 April 1860. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Lajos Kossuth Lajos Louis Kossuth [] (Monok, September 19, 1802–Turin, March 20, 1894) was a Hungarian lawyer, politician and Regent-President of the Kingdom of Hungary in 1849. ... The Hungarian Revolution of 1848 was one of many revolutions that year and closely linked to other revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas. ... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack...

Artist Mihály Zichy's rendition of Sándor Petőfi reciting the Nemzeti dal to a crowd on March 15, 1848
Artist Mihály Zichy's rendition of Sándor Petőfi reciting the Nemzeti dal to a crowd on March 15, 1848

On March 15, 1848, mass demonstrations in Pest and Buda enabled Hungarian reformists to push through a list of 12 demands. Faced with revolution both at home and in Vienna, Austria first had to accept Hungarian demands. Later, under governor Lajos Kossuth and the first Prime minister, Lajos Batthyány, the House of Habsburg was dethroned and the form of government was changed to create the first Republic of Hungary. After the Austrian revolution was suppressed, Franz Joseph replaced his mentally retarded uncle Ferdinand I as Emperor. The Habsburg Ruler and his advisors skillfully manipulated the Croatian, Serbian and Romanian peasantry, led by priests and officers firmly loyal to the Habsburgs, and induced them to rebel against the Hungarian government. The Hungarians were supported by the vast majority of the Slovak, German and Rusyn nationalities and by all the Jews of the kingdom, as well as by a large number of Polish, Austrian and Italian volunteers. [20] Some members of the nationalities gained coveted positions within the Hungarian Army, like General János Damjanich, an ethnic Serb who became a Hungarian national hero through his command of the 3rd Hungarian Army Corps. Initially, the Hungarian forces (Honvédség) defeated Austrian armies. To counter the successes of the Hungarian revolutionary army, Franz Joseph asked for help from the "Gendarme of Europe," Czar Nicholas I, whose Russian armies invaded Hungary. The huge army of the Russian Empire and the remnants of the Austrian forces proved too powerful for the Hungarian army, and General Artúr Görgey surrendered in August 1849. Julius Freiherr von Haynau, the leader of the Austrian army, then became governor of Hungary for a few months and on October 6, ordered the execution of 13 leaders of the Hungarian army as well as Prime Minister Batthyány. Lajos Kossuth escaped into exile. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Sándor PetÅ‘fi The native form of this personal name is PetÅ‘fi Sándor. ... Sándor PetÅ‘fi reading the Nemzeti dal The Nemzeti dal, or National Song, written by PetÅ‘fi Sándor, was the poem that inspired the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The original 12 points of 1848 The 12 points (Hungarian: 12 pont) were a list of demands written by the leaders of the 1848 Hungarian Revolution. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Lajos Kossuth Lajos Louis Kossuth [] (Monok, September 19, 1802–Turin, March 20, 1894) was a Hungarian lawyer, politician and Regent-President of the Kingdom of Hungary in 1849. ... Lajos Batthyány (Count of Batthyány) (February 14, 1806 - October 6, 1849) was from a long line of counts and a descendant of The Capet Kings of France. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Franz Joseph I Franz Joseph I (in English also Francis Joseph) ( August 18, 1830 – November 21, 1916) of the Habsburg Dynasty was Emperor of Austria and King of Bohemia from 1848 until 1916 and King of Hungary from 1867 until 1916. ... Half-wit redirects here. ... His Imperial Majesty Ferdinand I Karl Leopold Joseph Franz Marchlin Emperor of Austria King of Hungary and Bohemia (April 19, 1793 - June 29, 1875) succeeded his father (Franz II Holy Roman Emperor/Franz I of Austria) as Emperor and King in 1835 and was forced to abdicate in 1848. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolaj I Pavlovič), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796 – March 2 (18 February Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855, known as one of the most reactionary of the Russian monarchs. ... Artúr Görgey (January 30, 1818 - May 21, 1916), was a Hungarian military leader. ... Julius Jacob von Haynau (1786 - March 14, 1853), Austrian general, was the natural son of the landgrave--afterwards elector of Hesse-Cassel, William IX of Hesse-Cassel. ... The 13 Martyrs of Arad were the thirteen Hungarian rebel honvéd generals who were executed on October 6, 1849 in the city of Arad, in Transylvania (presently in Romania), after the Hungarian Revolution (1848-1849) was ended by troops of the Austrian Empire and Imperial Russia, who reestablished Habsburg...

Map of the counties in the Kingdom of Hungary around 1880
Map of the counties in the Kingdom of Hungary around 1880

Following the war of 1848-49, the whole country was in "passive resistance". Archduke Albrecht von Habsburg was appointed governor of the Kingdom of Hungary, and this time was remembered for Germanization pursued with the help of Czech officers. Image File history File links Kingdom_of_Hungary_counties. ... Image File history File links Kingdom_of_Hungary_counties. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Heroes Square – overview Heroes Square has statues representing the founders of the Magyar nation 1100 years ago Palace of Art Heroes Square (Hősök tere in Hungarian) is a large plaza in Budapest, Hungary. ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Germanization (also spelled Germanisation) is either the spread of the German language and culture either by force or assimilation, or the adaptation of a foreign word to the German language in linguistics, much like the Romanization of many languages which do not use the Latin alphabet. ...


Due to external and internal problems, reforms seemed inevitable to secure the integrity of the Habsburg Empire. Major military defeats, like the Battle of Königgrätz (1866), forced the Emperor to concede internal reforms. To appease Hungarian separatism, the Emperor made a deal with Hungary, negotiated by Ferenc Deák, called the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, by which the dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary came into existence. The two countries were governed separately with a common ruler and common foreign and military policies. The first prime minister of the Hungary after the Compromise was Count Gyula Andrássy. The Hungarian Constitution was restored, and Franz Joseph was crowned as King of Hungary. The era witnessed an impressive economic development. The formerly backward Hungarian economy become a relatively modern and industrialized by the turn of the century, although agriculture remained fairly dominant. Many of the state institutions and the administrative system of Hungary were established during this period. However, Magyars represented a minority of the population: according to the 1787 data, the population of the Kingdom of Hungary numbered 2,322,000 Hungarians (29%) and 5,681,000 non-Hungarians (71%). In 1809, the population numbered 3,000,000 Hungarians (30%) and 7,000,000 non-Hungarians (70%). As an increasingly intense Magyarization policy was implemented after 1867, the census in 1910 (excluding Croatia), recorded the following distribution of population Hungarian 54.5%, Romanian 16.1%, Slovak 10.7%, and German 10.4%.The largest religious denomination was the Roman Catholic (49.3%), followed by the Calvinist (14.3%), Greek Orthodox (12.8%), Greek Catholic (11.0%), Lutheran (7.1%), and Jewish (5.0%) religions. In 1910, 6.37% of the population were eligible to vote in elections due to census. [21] Combatants Prussia Austria Commanders Wilhelm I Helmuth von Moltke Ludwig von Benedek Strength 140,000troops in 3 Prussian Armies 90,000 Austrians and 25,000 Saxons Casualties 10,000 45,000 including 20,000 prisoners {{{notes}}} In the Battle of Königgrätz or Battle of Sadowa of July 3... Deák Ferenc, (October 17, 1803, Söjtör - January 28, 1876, Budapest), was a Hungarian statesman, known as The Wise Man of the Nation. He first went into politics in 1833 when he attended the assembly of Pressburg (than called Pozsony by Hungarians, now Bratislava)(instead of his older... The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 (German: , Hungarian: ) established the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary. ... Gyula Andrássy (by Gyula Benczúr, 1884) Gyula, Count Andrássy de Csíkszentkirály et Krasznahorka (csíkszentkirályi és krasznahorkai gróf Andrássy Gyula in Hungarian) (born Kassa, Kingdom of Hungary (now KoÅ¡ice, Slovakia), March 3, 1823 – died Volosca, February 18, 1890) was a Hungarian... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ...


In First World War Austria-Hungary was fighting on the side of Germany, Bulgaria and Turkey. With great difficulty, the Central Powers, as they were called, conquered Serbia and Romania but could not make significant progress against Italy. By 1918, the economic situation had deteriorated, uprisings in the army had become commonplace, and Entente troops had landed in Greece. In October 1918, the personal union with Austria was dissolved. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...


Between the two world wars (1918-1941)

Main articles: Hungarian Soviet Republic and Hungarian Communist Party, Béla Kun, Hungarian Revolutionary War, Conflict between Charles IV of Hungary and Miklós Horthy, Hungary between the two world wars, Hungarian interwar economy, First Vienna Award, and Second Vienna Award
Difference between the borders of the Kingdom of Hungary before and after the Treaty of Trianon.
Difference between the borders of the Kingdom of Hungary before and after the Treaty of Trianon.
Ethnic map of Hungary (without Croatia)

In 1918, as a result of defeat in World War I, the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy collapsed. On October 31, 1918, the success of the Aster Revolution in Budapest brought the liberal count Mihály Károlyi to power as Prime-Minister. By February 1919 the government had lost all popular support, having failed on domestic and military fronts. On March 21, after the Entente military representative demanded more territorial concessions from Hungary, Károlyi resigned. The Communist Party of Hungary, led by Béla Kun, came to power and proclaimed the Hungarian Soviet Republic. The Communists – "The Reds" – came to power largely thanks to being the only group with an organized fighting force, and they promised that Hungary would defend its territory (possibly with the help of the Soviet Red Army). The Communists also promised equality and social justice. Initially, Kun's regime achieved some impressive military successes: the Hungarian Red Army, under the lead of the genius strategist, Colonel Aurél Stromfeld, ousted Czech troops from the north and planned to march against the Romanian army in the east. In terms of domestic policy, the Communist government nationalized industrial and commercial enterprises, socialized housing, transport, banking, medicine, cultural institutions, and all landholdings of more than 400,000 square metres. Still, the popular support of the Communists proved to be short lived. In the aftermath of a coup attempt, the government took a series of actions called the Red Terror, murdering several hundred people, which alienated much of the population. The Soviet Red Army was never able to aid the new Hungarian republic. Although it did not lose any battles, the Hungarian Red Army gave up land under pressure from the Entente. In the face of domestic backlash and an advancing Romanian force, Béla Kun and most of his comrades fled to Austria, while Budapest was occupied on August 6. All these events, and in particular the final military defeat, led to a deep feeling of dislike among the general population against the Soviet Union (which had not kept its promise to offer military assistance) and the Jews (since many members of Kun's government were Jewish, making it easy to blame the Jews for the government's mistakes). The new fighting force in Hungary were the Conservative counter-revolutionaries – the "Whites". These, who had been organizing in Vienna and established a counter-government in Szeged, assumed power, led by István Bethlen, a Transylvanian aristocrat, and Miklós Horthy, the former commander in chief of the Austro-Hungarian Navy. Starting in Western Hungary and spreading throughout the country, a White Terror began by other half-regular and half-militarist detachments (as the police power crashed, there were no serious national regular forces and authorities), and many Communists and other leftists were executed without trial. Radical Whites launched pogroms against the Jews, displayed as the cause of all the difficulties of Hungary. The leaving Romanian army pillaged the country: livestock, machinery and agricultural products were carried to Romania in hundreds of freight cars. [22][23] The estimated property damage of their activity was so much that the international peace conference in 1919 did not require Hungary to pay war redemption to Romania.[citation needed] On November 16, with the consent of Romanian forces, Horthy's army marched into Budapest. His government gradually restored security, stopped terror, and set up authorities, but thousands of sympathizers of the Károlyi and Kun regimes were imprisoned. Radical political movements were suppressed. In March, the parliament restored the Hungarian monarchy but postponed electing a king until civil disorder had subsided. Instead, Miklos Horthy was elected Regent and was empowered, among other things, to appoint Hungary's Prime Minister, veto legislation, convene or dissolve the parliament, and command the armed forces. Flag Capital Budapest Language(s) Hungarian Government Socialist republic History  - Established March 21, 1919  - Downfall August 6, 1919 The Hungarian Soviet Republic (Hungarian: Magyarországi Tanácsköztársaság) was a Communist regime established in Hungary from March 21 until August 6, 1919, under the leadership of Béla... MKP symbol The Hungarian Communist Party (in Hungarian: Magyar Kommunista Párt or Kommunisták Magyarországi Pártja) was founded on November 24, 1918, and was in power in Hungary briefly from March to August 1919 under Béla Kun and the Hungarian Soviet Republic. ... Béla Kun Béla Kun (born Béla Kohn) (February 20, 1886, in Szilágycseh, today Cehu Silvaniei, Transylvania, Romania, died August 29, 1938 in the Soviet Union) was a Hungarian Communist politician, who ruled Hungary for a brief period in 1919. ... This article deals with the history of Hungary from March 1919 to May 1945. ... // Following the Treaty of Trianon on June 4, 1920, Hungary, one of the defeated powers, was reduced to nearly 32. ... The First Vienna Award was the result of the First Vienna Arbitration (November 2, 1938), which took place at Viennas Belvedere Palace on the eve of World War II. By the award, arbiters from Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy sought a non-violent way to enforce the revanchist territorial... The Second Vienna Award was the second of two Vienna Awards. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1568x970, 903 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1568x970, 903 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Count Mihály Adam Georg Nikolaus Károlyi von Nagykárolyi (March 4, 1875-March 20, 1955) was briefly Hungarys leader in 1918-19 during an ill-fated spell of democracy. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Béla Kun Béla Kun (born Béla Kohn) (February 20, 1886, in Szilágycseh, today Cehu Silvaniei, Transylvania, Romania, died August 29, 1938 in the Soviet Union) was a Hungarian Communist politician, who ruled Hungary for a brief period in 1919. ... Flag Capital Budapest Language(s) Hungarian Government Socialist republic History  - Established March 21, 1919  - Downfall August 6, 1919 The Hungarian Soviet Republic (Hungarian: Magyarországi Tanácsköztársaság) was a Communist regime established in Hungary from March 21 until August 6, 1919, under the leadership of Béla... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Red Terror (disambiguation). ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A counterrevolutionary is anyone who opposes a revolution, particularly those who act after a revolution to try to overturn or reverse it, in full or in part. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Szeged and the Tisza river. ... Count István Bethlen Count István Bethlen de Bethlen (October 8, 1874 - October 5, 1946?), was a Hungarian aristocrat and statesman and served as Prime Minister from 1921 to 1931. ... Horthy redirects here. ... It has been suggested that The White Terror (France) be merged into this article or section. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ...


Hungary's signing of the Treaty of Trianon on June 4, 1920, ratified the country's dismemberment. The territorial provisions of the treaty, which ensured continued discord between Hungary and its neighbors, required Hungary to surrender more than two-thirds of its pre-war lands, along ethnic lines (see picture above). However, nearly one-third of the 10 million ethnic Hungarians found themselves outside the diminished homeland. The country's ethnic composition was left almost homogeneous, Hungarians constituting about 90% of the population, Germans made up about 6%, and Slovaks, Croats, Romanians, Jews and Gypsies accounted for the remainder.[citation needed] New international borders separated Hungary's industrial base from its sources of raw materials and its former markets for agricultural and industrial products. Hungary lost 84% of its timber resources, 43% of its arable land, and 83% of its iron ore.[citation needed] Because most of the country's pre-war industry was concentrated near Budapest, Hungary retained about 51% of its industrial population, 56% of its industry, 82% of its heavy industry, and 70% of its banks.[citation needed] Horthy appointed Count Pál Teleki as Prime Minister in July 1920. His right-wing government issued a numerus clausus law, limiting admission of "political insecure elements" (these were often Jews) to universities and, in order to quiet rural discontent, took initial steps toward fulfilling a promise of major land reform by dividing about 3,850 km² from the largest estates into smallholdings. Teleki's government resigned, however, after, Charles IV, unsuccessfully attempted to retake Hungary's throne in March 1921. King Charles's return produced split parties between conservatives who favored a Habsburg restoration and nationalist right-wing radicals who supported election of a Hungarian king. Count István Bethlen, a non-affiliated right-wing member of the parliament, took advantage of this rift forming a new Party of Unity under his leadership. Horthy then appointed Bethlen prime minister. Charles IV died soon after he failed a second time to reclaim the throne in October 1921. (For more detail on Charles's attempts to retake the throne, see Charles IV of Hungary's conflict with Miklós Horthy.) The negotiations on June 4, 1920. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pál Count Teleki de Szék (November 1, 1879 – April 3, 1941) was prime minister of Hungary from 1920 till 1921 and from 1939 till 1941. ... Numerus Clausus (closed number in Latin) is one of many methods used to limit the number of students who may study at a university. ... Emperor Charles I of Austria The Blessed Charles I (Karl Franz Josef Ludwig Hubert Georg Maria von Habsburg-Lothringen) (17 August 1887 – 1 April 1922) (Hungarian: IV. Károly (Károly Ferenc József)) was (among other titles) the last Emperor of Austria, the last King of Hungary and Bohemia... After Miklós Horthy had been chosen Regent of Hungary on 1 March 1920, Charles IV of Hungary (Charles I of Austria) returned to Hungary twice, each time trying unsuccessfully to retake his throne. ...

Miklós Horthy de Nagybánya, Regent of Hungary
Miklós Horthy de Nagybánya, Regent of Hungary

As prime minister, Bethlen dominated Hungarian politics between 1921 and 1931. He fashioned a political machine by amending the electoral law, providing jobs in the expanding bureaucracy to his supporters, and manipulating elections in rural areas. Bethlen restored order to the country by giving the radical counterrevolutionaries payoffs and government jobs in exchange for ceasing their campaign of terror against Jews and leftists. In 1921, he made a deal with the Social Democrats and trade unions (called Bethlen-Peyer Pact), agreeing, among other things, to legalize their activities and free political prisoners in return for their pledge to refrain from spreading anti-Hungarian propaganda, calling political strikes, and organizing the peasantry. Bethlen brought Hungary into the League of Nations in 1922 and out of international isolation by signing a treaty of friendship with Italy in 1927. The revision of the Treaty of Trianon rose to the top of Hungary's political agenda and the strategy employed by Bethlen consisted by strengthening the economy and building relations with stronger nations. Revision of the treaty had such a broad backing in Hungary that Bethlen used it, at least in part, to deflect criticism of his economic, social, and political policies. The Great Depression induced a drop in the standard of living and the political mood of the country shifted further toward the right. In 1932 Horthy appointed a new prime-minister, Gyula Gömbös, that changed the course of Hungarian policy towards closer cooperation with Germany and started an effort to magyarize the few remaining ethnic minorities in Hungary. Gömbös signed a trade agreement with Germany that drew Hungary's economy out of depression but made Hungary dependent on the German economy for both raw materials and markets. Adolf Hitler used promises of returning lost territories, and threats of military intervention and economic pressure to compel Hungarians into supporting Nazi policies, including those related to Jews. Imrédy’s attempts to improve Hungary’s diplomatic relations with the United Kingdom initially made him very unpopular with Germany and Italy. Undoubtedly aware of Germany's Anschluss with Austria in March, he realized that he could not afford to alienate Germany and Italy on a long term basis; in the autumn of 1938 his foreign policy became very much pro-German and pro-Italian. [24] Intent on amassing a base of power in Hungarian right wing politics, Imrédy began to suppress political rivals, so the increasingly influential Arrow Cross Party was harassed, and eventually banned by Imrédy’s administration. As Imrédy drifted further to the right, he proposed that the government be reorganized along totalitarian lines and drafted a harsher Second Jewish Law. The Parliament under the new government of Pál Teleki approved the Second Jewish Law, which greatly restricted Jewish employment and defined Jews by race instead of religion. This definition altered the status of those who had formerly converted from Judaism to Christianity. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (465x678, 18 KB) Summary The use of this image is free for everyone. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (465x678, 18 KB) Summary The use of this image is free for everyone. ... Horthy redirects here. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Gyula Gömbös Gyula Gömbös (December 26, 1886-October 6, 1936) was a right wing extemist who served as Prime Minister of Hungary from 1932 to 1936. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Hitler redirects here. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... German troops march into Austria on 12 March 1938. ... The concept of Totalitarianism is a typology or ideal-type used by some political scientists to encapsulate the characteristics of a number of twentieth century regimes that mobilized entire populations in support of the state or an ideology. ... Pál Count Teleki de Szék (November 1, 1879 – April 3, 1941) was prime minister of Hungary from 1920 till 1921 and from 1939 till 1941. ...


Hungary in World War II (1941-1945)

A Turan I tank of the Hungarian 2nd Armoured Division in action near Debrecen, 1944.

After being awarded by the Germans and Italians part of southern Czechoslovakia and Subcarpathia in the First Vienna Award of 1938, and then northern Transylvania in the Second Vienna Award of 1940, in 1941 Hungary participated in their first military maneuvers on the side of the Axis. Thus, Hungary was part in the invasion of Yugoslavia, gaining some more territory but effectively joining the Axis powers in the process (showing his non-agreement, prime minister Pál Teleki committed suicide). On 22 June 1941, Germany invaded the Soviet Union using the code name Operation Barbarossa. Hungary joined the German effort and declared war on the Soviet Union on 26 June, and entered World War II on the side of the Axis. In late 1941, the Hungarian troops on the Eastern Front experienced success at the Battle of Uman. By 1943, after the Hungarian Second Army suffered extremely heavy losses at the river Don, the Hungarian government sought to negotiate a surrender with the Allies. On 19 March 1944, as a result of this duplicity, German troops quietly occupied Hungary in what was known as Operation Margarethe. But, by now it was clear that the Hungarians were Germany's "unwilling satellite". On 15 October 1944, Horthy made a token effort to disengage Hungary from the war. This time the Germans launched Operation Panzerfaust and Horthy was replaced by a puppet government under the pro-German Prime Minister Ferenc Szálasi. Szálasi and his pro-Nazi Arrow Cross Party remained loyal to the Germans until the end of the war. In late 1944, Hungarian troops on the Eastern Front again experienced success at the Battle of Debrecen. But this was followed immediately by the Soviet invasion of Hungary and the Battle of Budapest. During the German occupation in May-June 1944, the Arrow Cross Party and Hungarian police deported nearly 440,000 Jews, mostly to Auschwitz.[25] Over 400,000 Hungarian Jews were murdered during the Holocaust, as well as tens of thousands of Romani people. Hundreds of Hungarian people were also executed by the Arrow Cross Party for sheltering Jews. The war left Hungary devastated destroying over 60% of the economy and causing huge loss of life. On 13 February 1945, the Hungarian capital city surrendered unconditionally. On 8 May 1945, World War II in Europe officially ended. // In Hungary, the Great Depression induced a drop in the standard of living and the political mood of the country shifted further toward the right. ... The Hungarian First Army was a Hungarian field army of World War II. Under Regent, Admiral Miklós Horthy, Hungary was an Axis state at the beginning of the European conflict. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Flag of the Arrow Cross Party The Arrow Cross Party (Hungarian: Nyilaskeresztes Párt – Hungarista Mozgalom, literally Arrow Cross Party-Hungarist Movement) was a pro-German anti-Semitic national socialist party led by Ferenc Szálasi which ruled Hungary from October 15, 1944 to January 1945. ... The Hungarian Gold Train was the case of a Nazi-operated train during World War II that carried stolen valuables, mostly Hungarian Jewish persons property, from Hungary towards Berlin in 1944. ... Combatants Germany Hungary Soviet Union Commanders Johannes Friessner (Heeresgruppe Süd), Maximilian Fretter-Pico (6. ... // At the end of the 19th century the Finno-Ugric linguistic affinity became widely accepted after extensive public debate. ... Map showing occupation zones in Vojvodina from 1941 to 1944 The Occupation of Vojvodina (a region in modern Serbia) from 1941 to 1944 was carried out by Nazi Germany, Horthys Hungary and Independent State of Croatia. ... Raoul Gustav Wallenberg (August 4, 1912 – July 16, 1947?)[1][2][3] was a Swedish humanitarian sent to Budapest, Hungary under diplomatic cover to rescue Jews from the Holocaust. ... Image File history File links A Turan I tank of the 2. ... Image File history File links A Turan I tank of the 2. ... General characteristics Length 5. ... Debrecen , (approximate pronunciation, Deb-ret-sen), (Romanian: , German: ; Croatian: Debr(e)cin) is the second largest city in Hungary after Budapest. ... The First Vienna Award was the result of the First Vienna Arbitration (November 2, 1938), which took place at Viennas Belvedere Palace on the eve of World War II. By the award, arbiters from Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy sought a non-violent way to enforce the revanchist territorial... The Second Vienna Award was the second of two Vienna Awards. ... “April War” redirects here. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Axis powers. ... Pál Count Teleki de Szék (November 1, 1879 – April 3, 1941) was prime minister of Hungary from 1920 till 1921 and from 1939 till 1941. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Belligerents Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Franz Halder Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Ernst Busch Erich Hoepner Alfred Keller Georg von Küchler Günther von Kluge Heinz Guderian Hermann Hoth Albrecht Kesselring Adolf Strauss Carl-Heinrich von... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The eastern front at the time of the Battle of Uman. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... During World War II, the Germans planned two Operations Margarethe. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Operation Panzerfaust, also known as Operation Eisenfaust in Germany, was a military operation in October 1944 by the German military. ... Ferenc Szálasi Ferenc Szálasi (January 6, 1897-March 12, 1946) was a Fascist and the Prime Minister of Hungary during the final days of Hungarys participation in World War II. Born the son of a soldier in Kassa, Szálasi followed in his fathers footsteps and... Flag of the Arrow Cross Party The Arrow Cross Party (Hungarian: Nyilaskeresztes Párt – Hungarista Mozgalom, literally Arrow Cross Party-Hungarist Movement) was a pro-German anti-Semitic national socialist party led by Ferenc Szálasi which ruled Hungary from October 15, 1944 to January 1945. ... Combatants Germany Hungary Soviet Union Commanders Johannes Friessner (Heeresgruppe Süd), Maximilian Fretter-Pico (6. ... Combatants  Germany Hungary  Soviet Union Romania Commanders Pfeffer-Wildenbruch Iván Hindy Rodion Malinovsky Fyodor Tolbukhin Strength 180,000 (90,000 for city defense) 500,000+ (170,000 for city assault) Casualties 99,000-150,000 dead and captured, 40,000 civilian dead 70,000-160,000 dead 240,056... Flag of the Arrow Cross Party The Arrow Cross Party (Hungarian: Nyilaskeresztes Párt – Hungarista Mozgalom, literally Arrow Cross Party-Hungarist Movement) was a pro-German anti-Semitic national socialist party led by Ferenc Szálasi which ruled Hungary from October 15, 1944 to January 1945. ... Auschwitz (Konzentrationslager Auschwitz) was the largest of the Nazi German concentration camps. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Romani people (as a noun, singular Rom, plural Roma; sometimes Rrom, Rroma) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... Flag of the Arrow Cross Party The Arrow Cross Party (Hungarian: Nyilaskeresztes Párt – Hungarista Mozgalom, literally Arrow Cross Party-Hungarist Movement) was a pro-German anti-Semitic national socialist party led by Ferenc Szálasi which ruled Hungary from October 15, 1944 to January 1945. ... Chart showing World War II deaths by country in millions as well as by percentage of population, and piechart with percentage of military and civilian deaths for the Allies and the Axis Powers. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Communist era (1947-1989)

Following the fall of Nazi Germany, Soviet troops occupied all of the country and through their influence Hungary gradually became a communist satellite state of the Soviet Union. After 1948, Communist leader Mátyás Rákosi established Stalinist rule in the country complete with forced collectivization and planned economy. The rule of the Rákosi government was nearly unbearable for Hungary's war-torn citizens. This led to the 1956 Hungarian Revolution and Hungary's temporary withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact. The Soviets retaliated massively with military force, sending in over 150,000 troops and 2,500 tanks[26]. Nearly a quarter of a million people left the country during the brief time that the borders were open in 1956. From the 1960s through the late 1980s, Hungary was often satirically referred to as "the happiest barrack" within the Eastern bloc. This was under the autocratic rule of its controversial communist leader, János Kádár. The last Soviet soldier left the country in 1991 thus ending Soviet military presence in Hungary. With the Soviet Union gone the transition to a market economy began. The State Protection Authority (Hungarian: or ÁVH) was the secret police force of Hungary from some time in 1944 or 1945 until 1956. ... Combatants Soviet Union; ÁVH (Hungarian State Security Police) Ad hoc local Hungarian militias Commanders Ivan Konev Various independent militia leaders Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks Unknown number of militia and rebelling soldiers Casualties 722 killed, 1,251 wounded[1] 2,500 killed 13,000 wounded[2] The Hungarian... Imre Nagy. ... The Peoples Republic of Hungary was the name used by Hungary from 1949 to 1989 during its Communist period. ... Germans of Hungary (German: Ungarndeutsche) are any German-speaking minority group in Hungary who would be counted among the Danube Swabians (German: Donauschwaben). ... Goulash Communism (Hungarian: gulyáskommunizmus) is a term sometimes used to denote the variety of socialism as practised in the Hungarian Peoples Republic between 1962-63 and 1989. ... Cardinal József Mindszenty (pronounced yor-zhef meend-sen-tee) (March 29, 1892 – May 6, 1975) was a Hungarian Cardinal and steadfast opponent of the Hungarian communist regime. ... The Golden Team is one of several names used to describe the legendary Hungary national football team of the 1950s. ... Image File history File links Budapest_Statue_park. ... Image File history File links Budapest_Statue_park. ... Statue of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Image File history File links Time_Man_of_the_year_1957Hunagarianfreedom_fighter. ... Image File history File links Time_Man_of_the_year_1957Hunagarianfreedom_fighter. ... Combatants Soviet Union; ÁVH (Hungarian State Security Police) Ad hoc local Hungarian militias Commanders Ivan Konev Various independent militia leaders Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks Unknown number of militia and rebelling soldiers Casualties 722 killed, 1,251 wounded[1] 2,500 killed 13,000 wounded[2] The Hungarian... Portrait of Mátyás Rákosi Mátyás Rákosi (born March 14, 1892 as Mátyás Rosenfeld –February 5, 1971) was a Hungarian politician and the leader of Hungary from 1945 to 1956 through his post as General Secretary of the Hungarian Communist Party. ... This article refers to an economy controlled by the state. ... Combatants Soviet Union ÁVH Hungarian government, various nationalist militias Commanders Yuri Andropov Pál Maléter, Béla Király, Gergely Pongrátz, József Dudás Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks 100,000+ demonstrators (some later armed), unknown number of soldiers Casualties 720 killed according to official... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... The happiest barrack in the camp is a ironic term referring to Hungary and its relationship with the Eastern bloc from the early 1960s to 1989. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ... János Kádár, né Giovanni Csermanek (his Italian first name was due to the laws of Fiume, his father denied paternity and refused to support his mother Borbála[1]) (May 26, 1912–July 6, 1989), was the communist leader of Hungary from 1956 to 1988, and twice... Hungarian National Bank After the fall of communism in Eastern Europe, the former Soviet satellites had to transition from a one party, centrally planned economy to a market economy with a multi party political system. ...


Hungarian Republic (1989-)

In June 1987 Károly Grósz took over as premier. In January 1988 all restrictions were lifted on foreign travel. In March demonstrations for democracy and civil rights brought 15,000 onto the streets. In May, after Kádár’s forced retirement, Grósz was named party secretary general. Under Grósz, Hungary began moving towards full democracy, change accelerated under the impetus of other party reformers such as Imre Pozsgay and Rezső Nyers. Also in June 1988, 30,000 demonstrated against Romania’s plans to demolish Transsylvanian villages. Károly Grósz (August 1, 1930 - January 7, 1996) was a Hungarian communist politician. ...


In February, 1989 the Communist Party’s Central Committee, responding to ’public dissatisfaction’, announced it would permit a multi-party system in Hungary and hold free elections. In March, for the first time in decades, the government declared the anniversary of the 1848 Revolution a national holiday. Opposition demonstrations filled the streets of Budapest with more than 75,000 marchers. Grósz met Mikhail Gorbachev in Moscow, who condoned Hungary’s moves toward a multi-party system and promised that the USSR would not interfere in Hungary’s internal affairs. In May, Hungary began taking down its barbed wire fence along the Austrian border – the first tear in the Iron Curtain. June brought the reburial of Prime Minister Nagy, executed after the 1956 Revolution, drawing a crowd of 250,000 at the Heroes’ Square. The last speaker, 26-year-old Viktor Orbán publicly called for Soviet troops to leave Hungary. In July U.S. President George Bush visited Hungary. In September Foreign Minister Gyula Horn announced that East German refugees in Hungary would not be repatriated but would instead be allowed to go to the West. The resulting exodus shook East Germany and hastened the fall of the Berlin Wall. On October 23, Mátyás Szűrös declares Hungary a republic. Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ... Heroes Square – overview Heroes Square has statues representing the founders of the Magyar nation 1100 years ago Palace of Art Heroes Square (HÅ‘sök tere in Hungarian) is a large plaza in Budapest, Hungary. ... Viktor Orbán in the Hungarian Parliament,1997   (b. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... For the historical eastern German provinces, see Historical Eastern Germany East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR), German Deutsche Demokratische Republik (DDR), was a Communist Party-led state that existed from 1949 to 1990 in the former Soviet occupation zone of Germany. ... What is Refugees? Refugees is a simple internet community that was created as a homeland and haven for the members of the message board MegaMassMedia. ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mátyás Szűrös (born September 11, 1933 in Püspökladány) is a Hungarian politican. ...


At a party congress in October 1989 the Communists agreed to give up their monopoly on power, paving the way for free elections in March 1990. The party’s name was changed from the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party to simply the Hungarian Socialist Party (MSZP) and a new programme advocating social democracy and a free-market economy was adopted. This was not enough to shake off the stigma of four decades of autocratic rule, however, and the 1990 election was won by the centrist Hungarian Democratic Forum (MDF), which advocated a gradual transition towards capitalism. The social-democratic Alliance of Free Democrats (SZDSZ), which had called for much faster change, came second and the Socialist Party trailed far behind. As Gorbachev looked on, Hungary changed political systems with scarcely a murmur and the last Soviet troops left Hungary in June 1991. The Hungarian Socialist Party (Hungarian: Magyar Szocialista Párt) is a socialist party in Hungary. ... MDF may stand for: main distribution frame (in telephony) medium-density fibreboard, a type of particle board made of wood chips market development funds, the real-estate cost of preferred retail shelf space, paid by the vendor Hungarian Democratic Forum (Magyar Demokrata Fórum in Hungarian), a political party . ... Party logo The Alliance of Free Democrats (Hungarian: Szabad Demokraták Szövetsége, or SZDSZ) is a liberal party in Hungary, led by Gábor Kuncze. ...


In coalition with two smaller parties, the MDF provided Hungary with sound government during its hard transition to a full market economy. Antall died in December 1993 and was replaced by Interior Minister Péter Boross. Péter Boross (born August 27, 1928) was Prime Minister of Hungary from December 1993 to July 1994. ...


The economic changes of the past few years have resulted in declining living standards for most people in Hungary. In 1991 most state subsidies were removed, leading to a severe recession exacerbated by the fiscal austerity necessary to reduce inflation and stimulate investment. This made life difficult for many Hungarians, and in the May 1994 elections the Hungarian Socialist Party led by former Communists won an absolute majority in parliament. This in no way implied a return to the past, and party leader Gyula Horn was quick to point out that it was his party that had initiated the whole reform process in the first place (as foreign minister in 1989 Horn played a key role in opening Hungary's border with Austria). All three main political parties advocate economic liberalisation and closer ties with the West. In March 1996, Horn was re-elected as Socialist Party leader and confirmed that he would push ahead with the party’s economic stabilisation programme. Gyula Horn (born in July 5, 1932, Budapest) is a Hungarian politician, having been Prime Minister of Hungary 1994-1998 leading the socialist-liberal coalition. ...


In 1997 in a national referendum 85% voted in favour of Hungary joining the NATO. A year later the European Union began negotiations with Hungary on full membership. In 1999 Hungary joined NATO. Hungary voted in favour of joining the EU, and joined in 2004. This article is about the military alliance. ...


Politics

Main article: Politics of Hungary

The President of the Republic, elected by the Parliament every five years, has a largely ceremonial role, choosing the dates of elections. Hungarian Parliament The Parliament from above Grand Stairwell Conference Hall The Hungarian Parliament Building (Hungarian: ) is the seat of the National Assembly of Hungary, one of the Europes oldest legislative buildings, a notable landmark of Hungary and a popular tourist destination of Budapest. ... The Republic of Hungary is an independent, democratic and constitutional state. ... This is a list of all rulers of Hungary since Árpád. ... The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra. ...


The Prime Minister is elected by Parliament and can only be removed by a constructive vote of no confidence. The prime minister selects Cabinet ministers and has the exclusive right to dismiss them. Each Cabinet nominee appears before one or more parliamentary committees in open hearings and must be formally approved by the President. The Constructive Vote of No Confidence (in German: konstruktives Misstrauensvotum) is a specialty of the 1949 German constitution, the Grundgesetz (Basic Law). ... Alternate meanings in cabinet (disambiguation) A Cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ... In law, an exclusive right is the power or right to perform an action in relation to an object or other thing which others cannnot perform. ...


A unicameral, 386-member National Assembly (the Országgyűlés) is the highest organ of state authority and initiates and approves legislation sponsored by the Prime Minister. National Parliamentary elections are held every four years; the next are due to be held in 2010. Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... The National Assembly of Hungary (Országgyűlés) is the national parliament of Hungary. ...


An 11-member Constitutional Court has power to challenge legislation on grounds of unconstitutionality. This article is about courts of law. ...


Regions, counties, and subregions

Counties of Hungary
Counties of Hungary
Main articles: Counties of Hungary, Regions of Hungary, and Subregions of Hungary
See also List of historic counties of Hungary

Administratively, Hungary is divided into 19 counties. In addition, the capital city (főváros), Budapest, is independent of any county government. The counties and the capital are the 20 NUTS third-level units of Hungary. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 525 pixel Image in higher resolution (2440 × 1600 pixel, file size: 200 KB, MIME type: image/png) Hungary: 19 counties and Budapest capital city, NUTS 3 level units. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 525 pixel Image in higher resolution (2440 × 1600 pixel, file size: 200 KB, MIME type: image/png) Hungary: 19 counties and Budapest capital city, NUTS 3 level units. ... Counties of Hungary Hungary is subdivided administratively into 43 regions. ... The seven statistical regions of Hungary were created in 1999 with the Law 1999/XCII which is the amendment of modification Law 1996/XXI. The regional division is expected to replace the former administrational divisions, the 19 counties. ... The counties and the capital city of Hungary are subdivided into 167 subregions (kistérségek, sing. ... The following lists show the administrative divisions of the lands belonging to the Hungarian crown (1000 _1918) at selected points of time. ... Counties of Hungary Hungary is subdivided administratively into 43 regions. ... During the history of Hungary, the country has had more capitals. ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) is a geocode standard for referencing the administrative division of countries for statistical purposes. ...


The counties are further subdivided into 173 subregions (kistérségek), and Budapest is comprised of its own subregion. Since 1996, the counties and City of Budapest have been grouped into 7 regions for statistical and development purposes. These seven regions constitute NUTS' second-level units of Hungary. The counties and the capital city of Hungary are subdivided into 167 subregions (kistérségek, sing. ... The seven statistical regions of Hungary were created in 1999 with the Law 1999/XCII which is the amendment of modification Law 1996/XXI. The regional division is expected to replace the former administrational divisions, the 19 counties. ...


There are also 23 towns with county rights (singular megyei jogú város), sometimes known as "urban counties" in English (although there is no such term in Hungarian). The local authorities of these towns have extended powers, but these towns belong to the territory of the respective county instead of being independent territorial units.

Places Images
Counties (County Capital)
Regions

Economy

Main article: Economy of Hungary

Hungary held its first multi-party elections in 1990, following four decades of Communist rule, and has succeeded in transforming its centrally planned economy into a market economy. Both foreign ownership of and foreign investment in Hungarian firms are widespread. The governing coalition, comprising the Hungarian Socialist Party and the liberal Alliance of Free Democrats, prevailed in the April 2006 general election. Hungary needs to reduce government spending and further reform its economy in order to meet the 2012-13 target date for accession to the euro zone. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... The Hungarian National Bank (in Hungarian: Magyar Nemzeti Bank) is the central bank of Hungary. ... The Hungarian economy prior to WWII was primarily oriented toward agriculture and small-scale manufacturing. ... A multi-party system is a type of party system. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... A planned economy is an economic system in which economic decisions are made by centralized planners, who determine what sorts of goods and services to produce, and how they are to be priced and allocated. ... A market economy (also called a free market economy or a free enterprise economy) is an economic system in which the production and distribution of goods and services take place through the mechanism of free markets (though completley useless to some dumbasses) guided by a free price system. ... Investment is a term with several closely-related meanings in finance and economics. ... The Hungarian Socialist Party (Hungarian: Magyar Szocialista Párt, MSZP) is a socialist party in Hungary. ... Stylized party logo Simple party logo The Alliance of Free Democrats - the Hungarian Liberal Party (Hungarian: Szabad-Demokraták szövetsége - a Magyar Liberális Párt, abbreviation SZDSZ) is a liberal party in Hungary, led by Gábor Kuncze. ... The Eurozone (also called Euro-area or Euroland) is the subset of European Union member states which have adopted the Euro (€) currency, creating a currency union. ...

Planned general government net lending 2005-2010.
Planned general government net lending 2005-2010.

. Hungary continues to demonstrate economic growth as one of the newest member countries of the European Union (since 2004). The private sector accounts for over 80% of GDP. Hungary gets nearly one third of all foreign direct investment flowing into Central Europe, with cumulative foreign direct investment totalling more than US$23 billion since 1989. It enjoys strong trade, fiscal, monetary, investment, business, and labor freedoms. The top income tax rate is fairly high, but corporate taxes are low. Inflation is low, it was on the rise in the past few years, but it is now starting to regulate. Investment in Hungary is easy, although it is subject to government licensing in security-sensitive areas. Foreign capital enjoys virtually the same protections and privileges as domestic capital. The rule of law is strong, a professional judiciary protects property rights, and the level of corruption is low. Total government spending is high, and many state-owned enterprises have not been privatized. Business licensing is also a problem, as regulations are not applied consistently.[27] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 496 pixelsFull resolution (970 × 601 pixel, file size: 18 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 496 pixelsFull resolution (970 × 601 pixel, file size: 18 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... World GDP/capita changed very little for most of human history before the industrial revolution. ... GDP redirects here. ... This article is about economics. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        An income tax is a tax levied on the financial income... Corporate tax refers to a direct tax levied by various jurisdictions on the profits made by companies or associations. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The rule of law, in its most basic form, is the principle that no one is above the law. ... Government spending or government expenditure consists of government purchases, which can be financed by seigniorage (the creation of money for government funding, at a heavy price of high inflation and other possibly devastating consequences), taxes, or government borrowing. ... Public ownership (also called government ownership or state ownership) is government ownership of any asset, industry, or corporation at any level, national, regional or local (municipal). ...

Hungarian Forint (obverse)
Hungarian Forint (obverse)

According to the conservative think tank Heritage Foundation, Hungary's economy was 67.2 percent "free" in 2008[27], which makes it the world's 43rd-freest economy. Its overall score is 1 percent lower than last year, partially reflecting new methodological detail. Hungary is ranked 25th out of 41 countries in the European region, and its overall score is slightly lower than the regional average.[27] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... ISO 4217 Code HUF User(s) Hungary Inflation 8. ... The Heritage Foundation is one of the most prominent conservative think tanks in the United States. ...


The Hungarian sovereign debt's credit rating is BBB+ as of July 2006, making Hungary the only other country in the EU apart from Poland not to enjoy an A grade score. Foreign investors' trust in the Hungarian economy has declined, as they deem that the stringency measures planned in the second half of 2006 are not satisfactory, their focus being mainly on increasing the income side rather than curbing government spendings. Economic reform measures such as health care reform, tax reform, and local government financing are being addressed by the present government. A credit rating assesses the credit worthiness of an individual, corporation, or even a country. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... (This article is about political movements affecting the delivery of health care and health care systems. ... Tax reform is the process of changing the way taxes are collected or managed by the government. ... Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a state or province. ...


Geography

Main article: Geography of Hungary
See also: List of national parks of Hungary
Topographic map of Hungary
Topographic map of Hungary

Map of Hungary Satellite image of Hungary in December 2002 Map of Lake Balaton With a land area of 92,103 square kilometers, Hungary is a country in Central Europe roughly the size of Portugal or the U.S. state of Indiana. ... List of national parks of Hungary Hortobágy National Park (established in 1972) - 805. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (912x626, 75 KB) From a pd map collection. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (912x626, 75 KB) From a pd map collection. ...

Landscape

Kékes Peak in Mátra Mountains
Kékes Peak in Mátra Mountains

Slightly more than one half of Hungary's landscape consists of flat to rolling plains of the Carpathian Basin: the most important plain regions include the Little Hungarian Plain in the west, and the Great Hungarian Plain in the southeast. The highest elevation above sea level on the latter is only 183 metres. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 661 KB) hu: Kékes: saját készítés 2004 Source Date Before 25. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 661 KB) hu: Kékes: saját készítés 2004 Source Date Before 25. ... Kékes is Hungarys highest mountain, in the Mátra range of Heves county. ... Kékestető (1014 m) Mátra is a mountain range in northern Hungary, between to the towns Gyöngyös and Eger. ... The Pannonian plain is a large plain in central/south-eastern Europe that remained when the Pliocene Pannonian Sea (see below) dried out. ... The Little Alföld or Little Hungarian Plain (Hungarian: Kisalföld, Slovak: Malá dunajská kotlina, German: Kleine Ungarische Tiefebene) is a plain (tectonic basin) of appr. ... The Pannonian plain is a large plain in central/south-eastern Europe that remained when the Pliocene Pannonian Sea (see below) dried out. ...


Transdanubia is a primarily hilly region with a terrain varied by low mountains. These include the very eastern stretch of the Alps, Alpokalja, in the west of the country, the Transdanubian Medium Mountains, in the central region of Transdanubia, and the Mecsek Mountains and Villány Mountains in the south. The highest point of the area is the Írott-kő in the Alps, at 882 metres. This article is about Transdanubia, the region in Hungary. ... Alp redirects here. ... Alpokalja (English foothills of the Alps) is a geographic region in Western Hungary, which is part of the Alps. ... The Transdanubian Medium Mountains (Hungarian: Dunántúli-középhegység) are a mountain range in Hungary covering about 7000 km². Its highest peak is the Pilis, with a height of 757 metres. ... Mecsek (IPA: ; Serbian and Croatian: Meček or Мечек; German Metscheck) is a mountain range in southern Hungary. ... The view of the Szársomlyó from Baranya Hills. ...


The highest mountains of the country are located in the Carpathians: these lie in the northern parts, in a wide band along the Slovakian border (highest point: the Kékes at 1,014 m (3327 ft)). Satellite image of the Carpathians. ... The Northern Medium Mountains or Northern Hills (in Hungarian Északi-középhegység) or Mátra-Slanec Area (in Slovak Matransko-slanská oblasÅ¥) is the northern, mountainous part of Hungary and the adjacent part of Slovakia. ... Anthem: Nad Tatrou sa blýska Lightning over the Tatras Slovakia() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital (and largest city) Bratislava Official languages Slovak Demonym Slovak Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Ivan GaÅ¡parovič  -  Prime Minister Robert Fico Independence due to dissolution of Czechoslovakia   -  Date January 1, 19931... Kékes is Hungarys highest mountain, in the Mátra range of Heves county. ...


Hungary is divided in two by its main waterway, the Danube (Duna); other large rivers include the Tisza and Dráva, while Transdanubia contains Lake Balaton, a major body of water. The largest thermal lake in the world, Lake Hévíz (Hévíz Spa), is located in Hungary. The second largest lake in the Carpathian Basin is the artificial Lake Tisza (Tisza-tó). This article is about the Danube River. ... The Tisza or Tisa is one of the major rivers of Central Europe. ... Drave (German: Drau, Slovenian and Croatian: Drava, Hungarian: Dráva) is a river in southern Central Europe, flowing East from South Tyrol, Italy through Carinthia, Austria, and Slovenia (145 km) then southeast, forming most of the Croatian-Hungarian border before joining the Danube near Osijek. ... Lake Balaton, located in Hungary, is the largest lake in Central Europe. ... Lake Hévíz is located in Hungary and is the largest thermal lake in the world. ... Hévíz Spa and the Szent András Hospital, Hévíz (St. ... The Pannonian plain is a large plain in central/south-eastern Europe that remained when the Pliocene Pannonian Sea (see below) dried out. ... Lake Theiss (Hungarian: Tisza-tó), also known as Kisköre Reservoir (Hungarian: Kiskörei víztározó), is the largest artificial lake in Hungary. ...


Climate

Hungary has a Continental Climate [28], with hot summers with low overall humidity levels but frequent rainshowers and frigid to cold snowy winters. Average annual temperature is 9.7 °C (49.5 °F). Temperature extremes are about 42 °C (110 °F) in the summer and −29 °C (−20 °F) in the winter. Average temperature in the summer is 27 to 35 °C (81 to 95 °F), and in the winter it is 0 to −15 °C (32 to 5 °F). The average yearly rainfall is approximately 600 millimeters (24 in). A small, southern region of the country near Pécs enjoys a reputation for a Mediterranean climate, but in reality it is only slightly warmer than the rest of the country and still receives snow during the winter. For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Pécs   (Latin: Quinque Ecclesiae, Croatian: Pečuh, German: Fünfkirchen, Serbian: Pečuj or Печуј, Slovak: Päťkostolie, Turkish: Peçuy, Italian: Cinquechiese) is the fourth largest city of Hungary, located in the south-west of the country. ...  Areas with Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate is one that resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, which includes over half of the area with this climate type world-wide. ...

Military

Main article: Military of Hungary

It has been suggested that Honvédség be merged into this article or section. ...

Demographics

Population change 1961-2003, as reported by FAO, 2005. ...

Hungary's population by ethnicity

Ethnic composition of Hungary
Hungarian
 
94.4%
Roma
 
2.02%
German
 
1.18%
Slovak
 
0.38%
Other
 
2.02%

For 95% of the population, the mother language is Hungarian, a Finno-Ugric language unrelated to any neighbouring language and distantly related to Finnish and Estonian. The main Minority group are the Roma (2.1%). Other groups include: Germans (1.2%), Slovaks (0.4%), Croats (0.2%), Romanians (0.1%), Ukrainians (0.1%), and Serbs (0.1%).[29] Finno-Ugric group with dark green on map of language families Finno-Ugric (IPA:[ˌfɪnoʊˈjuːgɹɪk]) is a grouping of languages in the Uralic language family, comprising Hungarian, Finnish and Estonian, and related languages. ... “Minority” redirects here. ... The Roma people (pronounced rahma, singular Rom, sometimes Rroma, and Rrom) along with the closely related Sinti people are commonly known as Gypsies in English, and as Tsigany in most of Europe. ... Ethnic Germans – often simply called Germans – are those who are considered, by themselves or others, to be ethnically German but do not live within the present-day Federal Republic of Germany, nor necessarily hold its citizenship. ... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in...

The Roma minority
Main article: Romani people

The real number of Roma people, referred to as "Gypsies" or "Gipsies" in the English-speaking world, in Hungary is a disputed question. In the 2001 census, only 190,000 people declared themselves Roma, but experts and Roma organisations estimate that there are between 450,000 and 600,000 Roma living in Hungary.[30] Since World War II, the size of the Roma population has increased rapidly. Today every fifth or sixth newborn Hungarian child belongs to the Roma minority. Estimates based on demographic trends claim that in 2050 15-20 percent of the population (1.2 million people) will be Roma.[31] Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Romani people (as a noun, singular Rom, plural Roma; sometimes Rrom, Rroma) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... Language(s) Romani, languages of native region Religion(s) Romanipen, combined with assimilations from local religions Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) This article is about the Indo-Aryan ethnic group. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Counties with the highest concentration of Roma minority are Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén and Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg (officially 45,525 and 25,612 people in 2001)[32], but there are other regions with a traditionally high Roma population like parts of Baranya and the middle reaches of the Tisza valley. Although they were traditionally living in the countryside, under general urbanization trends from the second half of the 20th century many of them moved into the cities. There is a sizeable Roma minority living in Budapest (12,273 people in 2001, officially). Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén (IPA: ) is the name of an administrative county (comitatus or megye) in north-eastern Hungary (commonly called Northern Hungary), on the border with Slovakia. ... Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg is the name of an administrative county (comitatus or megye) in north-eastern Hungary, on the border with Slovakia, Ukraine and Romania. ... Baranya (Hungarian, in Croatian and Serbian: Baranja) is the name of an administrative county (comitatus or megye) in present Hungary, and also in the former Kingdom of Hungary. ... The Tisza or Tisa is one of the major rivers of Central Europe. ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ...


Romas (called cigányok or romák in Hungarian) suffer particular problems in Hungary. Rampant poverty and a subsequent lack of education are the main origin of the bad position of the Romas. Racial prejudice compounds the issue. The traditional lifestyle of the Romas is often an obstacle to integration into society and it is a source of conflicts, especially in the villages. As a result, school segregation is especially acute, with many Roma children sent to classes for pupils with learning disabilities. Slightly more than 80% of Roma children complete primary education, but only one third continue studies into the intermediate (secondary) level. This is far lower than the more than 90% proportion of children of non-Roma families who continue studies at an intermediate level. The situation is made still worse by the fact that a large proportion of young Roma are qualified in subjects that provide them only limited chances for employment. Less than 1% of Roma hold higher educational certificates. Their low status on the job market and higher unemployment rates cause poverty, widespread social problems and crime.[33]


Ethnic Hungarians in neighbouring countries

For historical reasons (see Treaty of Trianon), significant Hungarian minority populations can be found in the surrounding countries, notably in Romania (in Transylvania), Slovakia, Serbia (in Vojvodina), Ukraine (in Transcarpathia), Croatia (mainly Slavonia) and Austria (in Burgenland); Slovenia is also host to a number of ethnic Hungarians, where Hungarian language has an official status. See also: The negotiations on June 4, 1920. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the region in Romania. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ... // Carpathian Ruthenia, aka Transcarpathian Ruthenia, Subcarpathian Rus, Subcarpathia (Ukrainian: Karpats’ka Rus’; Slovak and Czech: Podkarpatská Rus; Hungarian: Kárpátalja; Romanian: Transcarpatia) is a small region of Central Europe, now mostly in western Ukraines Zakarpattia Oblast (Ukrainian: Zakarpats’ka oblast’) and easternmost Slovakia (largely in PreÅ¡ov kraj... Coat of arms Slavonia (Croatian: Slavonija) is a geographical and historical region in eastern Croatia. ... Burgenland (Hungarian Várvidék, Őrvidék or FelsÅ‘Å‘rvidék, Croatian Gradišće, Slovenian Gradiščansko) is the easternmost and least populous state or Land of Austria. ...

Hungarians in Transylvania The Hungarian minority of Romania is the largest ethnic minority in Romania, consisting of 1,431,807 people and making up 6. ... Hungarians in Vojvodina according to the 2002 census Hungarians or Magyars are a second largest ethnic group in the Vojvodina province, Serbia and Montenegro. ... Approximate area in south Slovakia inhabited by ethnic Hungarians Hungarians or Magyars are the largest ethnic minority of Slovakia, numbering 520,528 people or 9. ...

Religion in Hungary

;

Religious affiliation in Hungary (2001)
Denominations Population  % of total
Christianity 7,584,115 74.4
Catholicism 5,558,901 54.5
Roman Catholics 5,289,521 51.9
Greek Catholics 268,935 2.6
Protestantism 1,985,576 19.5
Calvinists 1,622,796 15.9
Lutherans 304,705 3.0
Baptists 17,705 0.2
Unitarians 6,541 0.1
Other Protestants 33,829 0.3
Orthodoxism 15,298 0.1
Other Christians 24,340 0.2
Judaism 12,871 0.1
Other religions 13,567 0.1
Total religions 7,610,553 74.6
No religion 1,483,369 14.5
Did not wish to answer 1,034,767 10.1
Unknown 69,566 0.7
total 10,198,315 100.00

Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... As a Christian ecclesiastical term, Catholic—from the Greek adjective , meaning general or universal[1]—is described in the Oxford English Dictionary as follows: ~Church, (originally) whole body of Christians; ~, belonging to or in accord with (a) this, (b) the church before separation into Greek or Eastern and Latin or... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Greek Catholic Church is a Catholic Church of the Eastern Rite. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... Baptist churches are part of a Christian movement often regarded as an Evangelical, Protestant denomination. ... Historic Unitarianism believed in the oneness of God as opposed to traditional Christian belief in the Trinity (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit). ... List of Christian denominations (or Denominations self-identified as Christian) ordered by historical and doctrinal relationships. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself as the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus and the Twelve Apostles, preserving the traditions of the early church unchanged, accepting the canonicity of the first seven ecumenical councils held between the 4th and the... List of Christian denominations (or Denominations self-identified as Christian) ordered by historical and doctrinal relationships. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Religious history

Matthias Church in Budapest
Matthias Church in Budapest

The majority of Hungarian people became Christian in the 10th century. Hungary's first king, Saint Stephen I, took up Western Christianity, although his mother, Sarolt, was baptized in the eastern rite. Hungary remained predominantly Catholic until the 16th century, when the Reformation took place and, as a result, first Lutheranism, then soon afterwards Calvinism became the religion of almost the entire population. In the second half of the 16th century, however, Jesuits led a successful campaign of counterreformation among the Hungarians. The Jesuits founded educational institutions, including Péter Pázmány, the oldest university that still exists in Hungary, but organized so-called missions too in order to promote popular piety. By the 17th century, Hungary had once again become predominantly Catholic. The eastern parts of the country, however, especially around Debrecen ("the Calvinist Vatican") and Transylvania (except the majority of the Székelys), remained predominantly Protestant. Orthodox Christianity in Hungary has been the religion mainly of some national minorities in the country, notably, Romanians, Rusyns and Ukrainians, Serbs. The Esztergom Basilica is an ecclesiastic basilica in Esztergom, Hungary, the main church of the Archdiocese of Esztergom-Budapest, and the seat of the Catholic Church in Hungary. ... Basilica in Esztergom. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Matthias Church Matthias Church or Mátyás-templom located in Budapest, Hungary at the heart of Budas Castle District. ... Saint Stephen I (Hungarian: , Slovak: ) (967/969/975, Esztergom, Hungary – 15 August 1038, Esztergom, Hungary), Grand Prince of the Magyars (997-1000/1001) and the first King of Hungary (1000/1001-1038). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Western Christianity... Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions and churches which developed in Greece, Russia, Armenia, the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, northeastern Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Peter Pazmany. ... Debrecen , (approximate pronunciation, Deb-ret-sen), (Romanian: , German: ; Croatian: Debr(e)cin) is the second largest city in Hungary after Budapest. ... This article is about the region in Romania. ... The Székely or Szeklers (Hungarian: , Romanian: , German: ) are a Hungarian ethnic group, mostly living in Transylvania in Romania with a significant population living across the border in Vojvodina, Serbia and Montenegro . ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The term Cucumber may refer to: The Eastern Orthodox Church: the Eastern Christian churches of Byzantine tradition that adhere to the seven Ecumenical Councils. ... Rusyns, also called Ruthenians, Ruthenes, Rusins, Carpatho-Rusins, and Russniaks, are a modern group of ethnic groups that speak the Rusyn language and are descended from the minority of Ruthenians who did not adopt a Ukrainian national identity and become Ukrainians in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in...


Hungary has been the home of a sizable Armenian community as well. They still worship according to the Armenian rite, but they have reunited with the Church of Rome (Armenian Catholics) under the primacy of the Pope. According to the same pattern, a significant number of Byzantine Rite Christians became re-united with the rest of the Catholic world (Greek Catholics). Catholic Church redirects here. ... After the Armenian Apostolic Church, along with the rest of Oriental Orthodoxy, formally broke off communion from the Chalcedonian churches, numerous Armenian bishops made attempts to restore communion with the Catholic Church (Rome). ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... The Byzantine Rite, sometimes called Constantinopolitan, is the liturgical rite used (in various languages) by all the Eastern Orthodox Churches and by several Eastern Catholic Churches. ... The Greek Catholic Church is a Catholic Church of the Eastern Rite. ...


Jewish Hungarians

Hungary has been the home of a significant number of Jews, especially since the 19th century when many Jews, persecuted in Russia, found refuge in the Kingdom of Hungary. The largest synagogue in Europe is located in Budapest. Some Hungarian Jews were able to escape the Holocaust during World War II, although many were either deported to concentration camps or simply executed. History of the Jews in Hungary concerns the Jews of Hungary and of Hungarian origins. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... The synagogue Scolanova Trani in Italy. ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... History of the Jews in Hungary concerns the Jews of Hungary and of Hungarian origins. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Today

The 2001 Hungarian Census[34] showed religious adherency to be the following: Catholics 54.5%, Calvinist 15.9%, No Religion 14.5%, refused to answer 10.1%, Lutheran 3% and other 2%. The Roman Catholic Church is the largest religious denomination of Christianity with over one billion members. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism... This section does not cite its references or sources. ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ...


According to the most recent Eurobarometer Poll 2005,[35] Eurobarometer is a series of surveys regularly performed on behalf of the European Commission since 1973. ...

  • 44% of Hungarian citizens responded that "they believe there is a God".
  • 31% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force".
  • 19% answered that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, God, or life force".

Culture

Main article: Culture of Hungary

The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ...

Architecture

Romanesque Church in village Ócsa
Romanesque Church in village Ócsa

Hungary is home to the largest synagogue in Europe (Great Synagogue), the largest medicinal bath in Europe (Széchenyi Medicinal Bath), the third largest church in Europe (Esztergom Basilica), the second largest territorial abbey in the world (Pannonhalma Archabbey), the second largest Baroque castle in the world (Gödöllő), and the largest Early Christian Necropolis outside Italy (Pécs). ... Exterior The Széchenyi Medicinal Bath in Budapest (Széchenyi-gyógyfürdÅ‘) is the largest medicinal bath in Europe. ... The Esztergom Basilica is an ecclesiastic basilica in Esztergom, Hungary, the main church of the Archdiocese of Esztergom-Budapest, and the seat of the Catholic Church in Hungary. ... Pannonhalma Archabbey It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Archabbey of Pannonhalma. ... Front view of the palace of GödöllÅ‘ GödöllÅ‘ is a small town situated in Pest county, Hungary, about 30 km northeast from the outskirts of Budapest. ... Pécs   (Latin: Quinque Ecclesiae, Croatian: Pečuh, German: Fünfkirchen, Serbian: Pečuj or Печуј, Slovak: Päťkostolie, Turkish: Peçuy, Italian: Cinquechiese) is the fourth largest city of Hungary, located in the south-west of the country. ...


Music

The music of Hungary consists mainly of traditional Hungarian folk music and music by prominent composers such as Liszt, Dohnányi, Bartók, Kodály, and Rózsa. Hungarian traditional music tends to have a strong dactylic rhythm, as the language is invariably stressed on the first syllable of each word. Hungary also has a number of internationally renowned composers of contemporary classical music, György Ligeti, György Kurtág, Péter Eötvös and Zoltán Jeney among them. History: (Timeline and Samples) Genres Classical - Folk - Hardcore - Hip hop - Opera - Operett - Pop - Reggae - Rock - Wedding pop - Wedding rock Organisations Mahasz Awards Golden Giraffe Charts MAHASZ TOP 40 album, MAHASZ Kislemez TOP 10, Dance TOP 40 Festivals Sziget, Mayday, Táncháztalálkozó, Miskolc Opera Festival Media Radio PetÅ‘fi... Hungarian folk music includes a broad array of styles, including the recruitment dance verbunkos, the csardas and nota. ... Franz Liszt (October 22, 1811 – July 31, 1886) was a virtuoso pianist and composer. ... ErnÅ‘ Dohnányi, also known as Ernst von Dohnányi or Dohnányi ErnÅ‘ (July 27, 1877 – February 9, 1960) was a Hungarian conductor, composer, and pianist. ... Béla Viktor János Bartók (March 25, 1881 – September 26, 1945) was a composer, pianist and collector of East European folk music. ... Zoltán Kodály (IPA: ), (approximate pronunciation, Zol-tan Koddah-ee) (December 16, 1882 – March 6, 1967) was a Hungarian composer, ethnomusicologist, educator, linguist and philosopher. ... Miklós Rózsa (IPA: ) or Miklos Rozsa (April 18, 1907 - July 27, 1995) was a Hungarian-born composer, best known for his film scores, most notably the score to the 1959 epic Ben-Hur. ... A dactyl (Gr. ... For other uses, see Rhythm (disambiguation). ... “Ligeti” redirects here. ... György Kurtág (born February 19, 1926) is a Hungarian composer of contemporary music. ... Peter Eötvös (born 1944) is a composer and conductor. ... Zoltán Jeney (b. ...


Literature

Ferenc Kölcsey, author of the lyrics of the Hungarian national anthem.
Ferenc Kölcsey, author of the lyrics of the Hungarian national anthem.
Regions in Europe where the Hungarian language is spoken.
Regions in Europe where the Hungarian language is spoken.
The oldest survivng Hungarian poem, Old Hungarian Laments of Mary
The oldest survivng Hungarian poem, Old Hungarian Laments of Mary

In the earliest times Hungarian language was written in a runic-like script (although it was not used for literature purposes in the modern interpretation). The country switched to the Latin alphabet after being Christianized under the reign of Stephen I (1000–1038). There are no existing documents from the pre-11th century era. The oldest written record in Hungarian is a fragment in the founding document of the Abbey of Tihany (1055) which contains several Hungarian terms, among them the words feheruuaru rea meneh hodu utu rea, "up the military road to Fehérvár" The rest of the document was written in Latin. The oldest complete text is the Funeral Sermon and Prayer (Halotti beszéd és könyörgés) (1192–1195), a translation of a Latin sermon. The oldest poem is the Old Hungarian Laments of Mary (Ómagyar Mária-siralom), also a (not very strict) translation from Latin, from the 13th century. It is also the oldest surviving Finno-Ugric poem. Among the first chronicles about Hungarian history were Gesta Hungarorum ("Deeds of the Hungarians") by the unknown author usually called Anonymus, and Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum ("Deeds of the Huns and the Hungarians") by Simon Kézai. Both are in Latin. These chronicles mix history with legends, so historically they are not always authentic. Another chronicle is the Képes krónika (Illustrated Chronicle), which was written for Louis the Great. Image File history File links Ferenc_kolcsey. ... Image File history File links Ferenc_kolcsey. ... Kölcsey Ferencz (Szödemeter 1790 - Cseke 1838) was a Hungarian poet, critic and orator born in Transylvania, in what was then the Austrian Empire on August 8, 1790. ... Original Sheet Music Himnusz — the song beginning with the words Isten, áldd meg a magyart   (God, bless the Hungarians) — is the official national anthem of Hungary. ... Image File history File links Dist_of_hu_lang_europe. ... Image File history File links Dist_of_hu_lang_europe. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (697x908, 336 KB) Digitalized By Széchenyi National Library. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (697x908, 336 KB) Digitalized By Széchenyi National Library. ... Introduction The Old Hungarian Lamentations of Mary (OHLM) is the oldest extant Hungarian poem, copied in about 1300 into a Latin codex, similarly the first coherent written Hungarian text, which was written down between 1192 and 1195. ... A miniature from the Chronicon Pictum. ... Hungarian Runes (Hungarian: , ( ) or simply ) is a type of runic writing system used by the Magyars (mainly by Székely Magyars) prior to AD 1000. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... Saint Stephen I (Hungarian: , Slovak: ) (967/969/975, Esztergom, Hungary – 15 August 1038, Esztergom, Hungary), Grand Prince of the Magyars (997-1000/1001) and the first King of Hungary (1000/1001-1038). ... Tihany is a village on the northern shore of Lake Balaton on the Tihany Peninsula. ... Székesfehérvár (German: Stuhlweißenburg, Latin: Alba Regia, colloquial Hungarian: Fehérvár, Croatian: Stolni Biograd) is a city in central Hungary, located around 65 km southwest of Budapest. ... Original manuscript The Funeral Sermon and Prayer (Hungarian: Halotti beszéd és könyörgés) is an old handwritten Hungarian text dating to 1192-1195. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A sermon is an oration by... Introduction The Old Hungarian Lamentations of Mary (OHLM) is the oldest extant Hungarian poem, copied in about 1300 into a Latin codex, similarly the first coherent written Hungarian text, which was written down between 1192 and 1195. ... Finno-Ugric group with dark green on map of language families Finno-Ugric (IPA:[ËŒfɪnoʊˈjuːgɹɪk]) is a grouping of languages in the Uralic language family, comprising Hungarian, Finnish and Estonian, and related languages. ... There are two works with the name Gesta Hungarorum. ... The Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum (Deeds of the Huns and Hungarians) or just Gesta Hungarorum (II) (Deeds of the Hungarians) written mainly by Simon of Kéza is one of the sources of early Hungarian history. ... Louis the Great. ...


Renaissance literature flourished under the reign of King Matthias (1458–1490). Janus Pannonius, although wrote in Latin, counts as one of the most important persons in Hungarian literature, being the only significant Hungarian Humanist poet of the period. The first printing house was also founded during Matthias' reign, by András Hess, in Buda. The first book printed in Hungary was the Chronica Hungarorum. The most important poets of the period was Bálint Balassi (1554–1594) and Miklós Zrínyi (1620–1664). Balassi's poetry shows Mediaeval influences, his poems can be divided into three sections: love poems, war poems and religious poems. Zrínyi's most significant work, the epic Szigeti veszedelem ("Peril of Sziget", written in 1648/49) is written in a fashion similar to The Iliad, and recounts the heroic Battle of Szigetvár, where his great-grandfather died while defending the castle of Szigetvár. Among the religious literary works the most important is the Bible translation by Gáspár Károli, the Protestant pastor of Gönc, in 1590. The translation is called the Bible of Vizsoly, after the town where it was first published. (See Hungarian Bible translations for more details.) This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Matthias Corvinus as depicted in Chronica Hungarorum by Carl van Vechten Matthias Corvinus (Matthias the Just) (February 23, 1443 (?) – April 6, 1490) was King of Hungary, ruling between 1458 and 1490. ... Janus Pannonius (Latin: Janus Pannonius, Hungarian: János Csezmicei or Kesencei, Croatian: Ivan ÄŒesmički), was a Hungarian-Croatian humanist, poet (all in latin), diplomat and Bishop of Pécs. ... Balassi Bálint statue at the Kodály körönd Bálint Balassi, baron of KékkÅ‘ and Gyarmat, (20 October 1554, Zvolen (Hung. ... Nicholas Zrinski (1620-1664) Nikola Zrinski or Miklós Zrínyi (Croatian: Nikola Zrinski, Hungarian: Zrínyi Miklós; January 5, 1620–November 18, 1664) was a Croatian and Hungarian warrior, statesman and poet, member of the Zrinski noble family. ... Miklós Zrinyi, the author. ... Miklós Zrinyi, the author. ... The Iliad is, with The Odyssey, one of the two major Greek epic poems traditionally attributed to Homer, a blind Ionian poet. ... The Battle of Szigetvár (also Battle of Siget) was a siege of the small fort located in Szigetvár, Hungary between 6 August and 8 September 1566, fought between the defending forces of the Habsburg Monarchy under the leadership of the Hungarian Zrínyi Miklós croatian ban and... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... The Bible of Vizsoly Gáspár Károli (1529 (?), Nagykároly — 1591, Gönc) was a Hungarian Calvinists pastor. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Gönc is a small town in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county, Northern Hungary, 70 kilometers from county capital Miskolc. ... The Bible has been translated into many languages. ...


The Hungarian enlightenment delayed about fifty years compared to the Western European enlightenment. The new thoughts arrived to Hungary across Vienna. The first enlightened writers were Maria Theresia's bodyguards (György Bessenyei, János Batsányi and so on). The greatest poets of the time was Mihály Csokonai Vitéz and Dániel Berzsenyi. The greatest figure of the language reform was Ferenc Kazinczy. The Hungarian language became feasible for scientific explanations this time, farther a lot of new words were coined for describing new inventions. For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... This page is about Maria Theresa of Austria (often only known as Empress Maria Theresa), ruler of the Habsburg Empire from 1740-1780. ... János Batsányi by Friedrich Heinrich Füger, 1808 (Hungarian National Museum, Budapes) Batsányi János (May 11, 1763 - May 12, 1845) was a Hungarian poet, born in Tapolca. ... Mihály Csokonai Vitéz (1773 - 1805), Hungarian poet, was born in Debrecen. ... Dániel Berzsenyi (May 7, 1776 in Hetye (now: Egyházashetye) - February 24, 1836 in Nikla) was a Hungarian poet. ... Ferenc Kazinczy (October 27, 1759 - August 22, 1831) was a Hungarian author, the most indefatigable agent in the regeneration of the Magyar language and literature at the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century. ... Hungarian (magyar nyelv  ) is a Finno-Ugric language (more specifically an Ugric language) unrelated to most other languages in Europe. ...


Hungarian literature has recently gained some renown outside the borders of Hungary (mostly through translations into German, French and English). Some modern Hungarian authors became increasingly popular in Germany and Italy especially Sándor Márai, Péter Esterházy, Péter Nádas and Imre Kertész. The latter is a contemporary Jewish writer who survived the Holocaust and won the Nobel Prize for literature in 2002. The older classics of Hungarian literature and Hungarian poetry remained almost totally unknown outside Hungary. János Arany, a famous nineteenth century Hungarian poet is still much loved in Hungary (especially his collection of Ballads), among several other "true classics" like Sándor Petőfi, the poet of the Revolution of 1848, Endre Ady, Mihály Babits, Dezső Kosztolányi, Attila József and János Pilinszky. Other well-known Hungarian authors are Ferenc Mora,Geza Gardonyi,Zsigmond Móricz, Gyula Illyés, Albert Wass, and Magda Szabó. Ignác Acsády (1845–1904) Tamás Aczél (1921–1994) Endre Ady (1877–1919) Anonymus (2nd half of the XIII century) Zoltán Ambrus (1861–1932) Lajos Áprily (1897–1973) János Arany (1817–1882) László Arany (1844–1898) Mihály Babits (1883–1941) József Bakucz (1929–1990) Bálint Balassi (1554–1594) Béla Balázs (1884... Sándor Márai (detail of his statue in KoÅ¡ice, Slovakia) Sándor Márai (originally Sándor Károly Henrik Grosschmied de Mára) (April 11, 1900 – February 22, 1989) was a Hungarian writer and journalist. ... Count Péter Esterházy de Galántha (occasionally written Eszterházy) is one of the most widely known contemporary Hungarian writers. ... Péter Nádas (born 1942 in Budapest) is a Hungarian writer. ... Imre Kertész (born November 9, 1929) is a Jewish-Hungarian author, Holocaust concentration camp survivor, and winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2002 for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history. Kertész best-known work, Fatelessness (Sorstalanság... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... The poet Arany. ... A ballad is a story in song, usually a narrative song or poem. ... Sándor PetÅ‘fi The native form of this personal name is PetÅ‘fi Sándor. ... Endre Ady Endre Ady (November 22, 1877 – January 27, 1919) was a Hungarian poet, one of the most important poets not only in the 20th century but in Hungarian literature in general. ... Mihály Babits (November 26, 1883 in Szekszárd - August 4, 1941 in Budapest) was a Hungarian poet and translator. ... DezsÅ‘ Kosztolányi (March 29, 1885 – November 3, 1936) was a famous Hungarian poet and prose-writer. ... Attila József The native form of this personal name is József Attila. ... János Pilinszky Well known within the Hungarian borders for his vast influence on postwar Hungarian poetry, János Pilinszky’s style includes a juxtaposition of catholic faith and intellectual disenchantment. ... Ferenc Móra (Kiskunfélegyháza, 19 July 1879 – Szeged, 8 February 1934) was a Hungarian novelist, journalist, and museologist. ... Géza Gárdonyi (August 3, 1863 – October 30, 1922) was a Hungarian author. ... Zsigmond Móricz (1879–1942) was a Hungarian novelist and social realist. ... Gyula Illyés (November 2, 1902 - April 15, 1983) was a Hungarian poet and novelist. ... Albert Wass Count Albert Wass de Szentegyed et Czege (Hungarian gróf szentegyedi és czegei Wass Albert; Válaszút, Kingdom of Hungary (now Răscruci, Cluj County, Romania), 1908 – Astor, Florida, February 17, 1998) was a Hungarian noble, forest engineer, writer and poet from Transylvania, member of the Wass... Magda Szabó (b. ...


Comics

Main article: Hungarian comics

Cuisine

Main article: Cuisine of Hungary
A nicely prepared Hortobágyi palacsinta served in Sopron
A nicely prepared Hortobágyi palacsinta served in Sopron
A slice of Dobos Cake
A slice of Dobos Cake

Hungarian cuisine is also a prominent feature of Hungarian culture, with traditional dishes such as the world famous goulash (gulyás or gulyásleves) a main feature of the Hungarian diet. Dishes are often flavoured with paprika (pure powdered pepper), a Magyar innovation [36]. Goulash is, contrary to popular belief, not a stew but an artistically prepared thick soup. Sour cream is often used to soften flavour. Fisherman’s soup (halászlé) is a rich mixture of several kinds of poached fish, tomatoes, green peppers and paprika. It is a meal in itself. Lake Balaton pike-perch (fogas) is generally served breaded and fried or grilled. Other distinctive dishes include, chicken paprika, homemade pörkölt (stew), "vadas" which is a cooked wild meat in carrot sauce and special dumplings, and trout with almond. Goose liver (libamáj) is also very popular, either fried or grilled, cold or hot. Desserts include the iconic Dobos Cake, strudels (rétes in Hungarian, they are layered pastries filled with apple, cherry, poppyseed, curd or cheese), Gundel pancakes (palacsinta), plum in pasta dumplings (szilvás gombóc), somlói dumplings and gesztenyepüré (cooked chestnuts mashed, topped with whipped cream). Specialities include salty and sweet pastas, of which túrós csusza (pasta with curd and sour cream) is the most famous[37]. Hungarian or Magyar cuisine is the cuisine characteristic to Hungary and the Magyars . ... For the historical county in the Kingdom of Hungary named Sopron / Ödenburg, Sopron (county). ... For a style of play of contract bridge, see Goulash (bridge). ... In nutrition, the diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. ... Capsicum fruit which comes in various shapes and colours can be used to make paprika. ... Sour cream is a dairy product rich in fats obtained by fermenting a regular cream by certain kinds of lactic acid bacteria. ... ... Lake Balaton, located in Hungary, is the largest lake in Central Europe. ... Species (see text) Sander (formerly known as Stizostedion) is a genus of fish in the Percidae (Perch) family. ... For other uses, see Trout (disambiguation). ... Dobos Cake Dobos Cake is a special Hungarian cake, invented by and named after a famous confectioner, Jozsef C. Dobos in 1884. ... Apfelstrudel A strudel is a type of pastry that originated in Germany and Austria and is most often associated with Austrian and German cuisine. ... A sweet crêpe opened up, with whipped cream and strawberry sauce on it A sweet crêpe rolled up, ready to be eaten A crêpe is a thin pancake, a meal made of wheat popular throughout Europe and elsewhere. ... A dumpling may be any of a wide variety of dishes, both sweet and savoury, in several different cuisines. ... This article is about the chestnut plant in the genus Castanea. ...


Healthy brown bread is made from four to six different grains and is sprinkled with sesame seeds, sunflower seeds and rolled oats. Kifli is a wildly popular crescent roll made from reform dough. An assortment of grains The word grain has a great many meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ... Binomial name Sesamum indicum Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is a crop grown primarily for its oil-rich seeds. ... The sunflower seed is the seed of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus). ... A tablespoon of rolled oats Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Kifli Vanilla kifli Kifli (pronounced KEE-flee) is a traditional Hungarian pastry made by cutting sheets of soft flour dough into triangular wedges, and wrapping those wedges to create a crescent-shaped morsel, which is then baked (permitting the dough to puff). ...


The csárda is the most distinctive type of Hungarian inns, an old-style tavern offering traditional cuisine, wine and pálinka. Borozó usually denotes a cozy old-fashioned wine bar, pince is a beer or wine cellar and a söröző is a pub offering draught beer (csapolt sör) and sometimes meals. The bisztró is an inexpensive restaurant that is often self-service (önkiszolgáló). The büfé is the cheapest place, although one may have to eat standing at a counter. Pastries, cakes and coffee are served at a cukrászda, while an eszpresszó is a cafeteria.

Drinks
Main articles: Hungarian wine and Hungarian beer
A cold bottle of Unicum
A cold bottle of Unicum
Tokaji, "Wine of Kings, King of Wines" ("Vinum Regum, Rex Vinorum"). - said Louis XIV of France
Tokaji, "Wine of Kings, King of Wines" ("Vinum Regum, Rex Vinorum"). - said Louis XIV of France

Pálinka: This alcoholic drink is distilled from fruit grown in the orchards situated on the Great Hungarian Plain. It is a spirit native to Hungary and comes in a variety of flavours including apricot (barack) and cherry (cseresznye). However plum (szilva) is considered the best of all. Hungarian wine has a history dating back to at least Roman times, and that history reflects the countrys position between the Slavs and the Germanic peoples. ... Although Hungary is better known as a wine-producing country, beer has been made there for around a thousand years and the country has a significant history of commercial beer production. ... Unicum is a Hungarian herbal bitter liqueur, drunk as a digestif and apéritif. ... Tokaj cellar Tokaji, meaning of Tokaj in Hungarian, is used to label wines from the wine region of Tokaj-Hegyalja in Hungary. ... Louis XIV redirects here. ... Pálinka is a traditional type of brandy that is produced in Hungary and Transylvania (region of Romania). ... The Pannonian plain is a large plain in central/south-eastern Europe that remained when the Pliocene Pannonian Sea (see below) dried out. ... A bottle of Barack brandy Barack is a Hungarian brandy (Palinka) flavored with apricots. ...


Beer: Beer goes well with many traditional Hungarian dishes and many Hungarians chose to drink is with their lunch. The four main Hungarian breweries are: Soproni, Arany Ászok, Kõbányai, and Dreher. For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... Axel Dreher (born September 17, 1972) is a German economist. ...


Wine: As Hugh Johnson says in its book, The History of Wine: the territory of Hungary is ideal for wine-making. Since the fall of communism we have seen the renaissance of Hungarian wine-making. The choice of good wine is widening from year to year. The country can be divided to six wine regions: North-Transdanubia, Lake Balaton, South-Pannónia, Duna-region or Alföld, Upper-Hungary and Tokaj-Hegyalja. The Hungarian wine regions offer a great variety of style: the main products of the country are elegant and full-bodied dry whites with good acidity, although complex sweet whites (Tokaj), elegant (Eger) and full-bodied robust reds (Villány and Szekszárd). The main varieties are: Olaszrizling, Hárslevelű, Furmint, Pinot gris or Szürkebarát, Chardonnay (whites), Kékfrankos (or Blaufrankisch in German), Kadarka, Portugieser, Zweigelt, Cabernet sauvignon, Cabernet franc and Merlot. The most famous wines from Hungary are Tokaji Aszú and Egri Bikavér. For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... Hugh S. Johnson on the cover of Time Hugh Samuel Johnson (1882 - 1942) was an American soldier and public administrator. ... Lake Balaton, located in Hungary, is the largest lake in Central Europe. ... Tokaj is a historic wine region located in present-day Northeastern Hungary and Southeastern Slovakia (see Tokaj). ... Eger - Dobó square and the castle. ... Villány (German: Wieland, Serbian and Croatian: Vilanj / Вилањ) is a town in Baranya county, Hungary. ... Szekszárd is a city in Hungary and the capital of Tolna county. ... Welschriesling is an ancient variety of white wine grape that is unrelated to the Rhine Riesling. ... Hárslevelű in Hungarian (Lipovina in Slovak, Lindenblättriger in German, Feuille de Tilleul in French) is a variety of grape from the Pontian Balcanica branch of Vitis vinifera. ... Furmint is a variety of wine grape from the Pontian Balcanica branch of Vitis vinifera, used for white wines. ... Pinot Gris (or Tokay Pinot Gris) is a white wine grape of species Vitis vinifera related to Pinot noir which goes by a lot of other names: Pinot Grigio (Italy) Pinot Beurot (Loire Valley, France) Ruländer (Austria and Germany, Romania, sweet) Grauburgunder or Grauer burgunder (Austria and Germany, dry... Oak-aged Chardonnay is particularly popular in the United States. ... Blaufränkisch is the official name for the variety of wine grape that is used to produce dry, red wines which are typically low in tannin and may exhibit a pronounced spicy character. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Portugieser is a red wine grape variety found largely in Germany and Austria. ... Zweigelt is a red wine grape variety developed in 1922, at the Federal Institute for Viticulture and Pomology at Klosterneuburg, Austria, by Fritz Zweigelt (who was later to become the director of this institute). ... Cabernet Sauvignon is one of the worlds most widely recognized red wine grape varieties. ... Cabernet Franc is a red wine grape variety similar to and a parent of Cabernet Sauvignon. ... Merlot grapes on the vine. ... Egri Bikavér (Bulls Blood) is one of the most reputed and traditional Hungarian wines besides the Tokaji wines. ...


Tokaji: Tokaji, meaning "of Tokaj", or "from Tokaj" in Hungarian, is used to label wines from the wine region of Tokaj-Hegyalja in Hungary.Tokaji wine has received accolades from numerous great writers and composers including Beethoven, Liszt, Schubert and Goethe; Joseph Haydn's favorite wine was a Tokaji.Louis XV and Frederick the Great tried to outdo one another in the excellence of the vintages they stocked when they treated guests like Voltaire to some Tokaji.Napoleon III, the last Emperor of the French, ordered 30–40 barrels of Tokaji for the Court every year. Gustav III, King of Sweden, never had any other wine to drink.In Russia, customers included Peter the Great and Empress Elizabeth of Russia. Tokaj cellar Tokaji, meaning of Tokaj in Hungarian, is used to label wines from the wine region of Tokaj-Hegyalja in Hungary. ... Tokaj is a historic wine region located in present-day Northeastern Hungary and Southeastern Slovakia (see Tokaj). ... Ludwig van Beethoven Ludwig van Beethoven (baptized December 17, 1770 – March 26, 1827) was a German composer of Classical music, the predominant musical figure in the transitional period between the Classical and Romantic eras. ... Franz Liszt (October 22, 1811 – July 31, 1886) was a virtuoso pianist and composer. ... For the crater on the moon, see Schubert (crater) Franz Schubert Franz Peter Schubert (January 31, 1797 – November 19, 1828), was an Austrian composer. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (pronounced [gø tə]) (August 28, 1749–March 22, 1832) was a German writer, politician, humanist, scientist, and philosopher. ... Haydn redirects here. ... Louis XV (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), called the Well-Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé), was King of France from 1715 to 1774. ... Frederick the Great Frederick II of Prussia (Friedrich der Große, Frederick the Great, January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was the Hohenzollern king of Prussia 1740–86. ... For other uses, see Voltaire (disambiguation). ... Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ... Gustav III (13 January 1746 (O.S.) (24 January 1746 (N.S.))–March 29, 1792) was the King of Sweden from February 12, 1771 until his death. ... Peter I Emperor and Autocrat of All Russia Peter I (Pyotr Alekseyvich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death. ...


Zwack Unicum: For over 150 years, a blend of 40 Hungarian herbs has been used to create Unicum. This is a bitter, dark-coloured liqueur that can be drunk as an apéritif or after a meal, thus helping digestion. The recipe is held in secrecy by the Zwack family[37]. Unicum is a Hungarian herbal bitter liqueur, drunk as a digestif and apéritif. ...


Science

Hungary is famous for its excellent mathematics education which has trained numerous outstanding scientists. Famous Hungarian mathematicians include Paul Erdős, famed for publishing in over forty languages and whose Erdős numbers are still tracked; János (John) Bolyai, designer of non-Euclidean (or "absolute") geometry in 1831;[38] and John von Neumann, a pioneer of digital computing. Many Hungarian Jewish scientists, including Erdős, von Neumann, Edward Teller, and Eugene Wigner, fled rising anti-Semitism in Europe and made their most famous contributions in the United States. Variations of Rubiks Cubes (from left to right: Rubiks Revenge, the original design of Rubiks Cube, Professors Cube, & Pocket Cube, also known as Mini-Cube). Rubiks Cube is a mechanical puzzle invented in 1974[1] by Hungarian sculptor and professor of architecture ErnÅ‘ Rubik. ... Mathematics education is a term that refers both to the practice of teaching and learning mathematics, as well as to a field of scholarly research on this practice. ... Paul ErdÅ‘s (Hungarian: ErdÅ‘s Pál, in English occasionally Paul Erdos or Paul Erdös, March 26, 1913 – September 20, 1996), was an immensely prolific (and famously eccentric) Hungarian-born mathematician. ... The ErdÅ‘s number, honouring the late Hungarian mathematician Paul ErdÅ‘s, one of the most prolific writers of mathematical papers, is a way of describing the collaborative distance, in regard to mathematical papers, between an author and ErdÅ‘s. ... János Bolyai (December 15, 1802–January 27, 1860) was a Hungarian mathematician. ... The term non-Euclidean geometry (also spelled: non-Euclidian geometry) describes both hyperbolic and elliptic geometry, which are contrasted with Euclidean geometry. ... For other uses, see Geometry (disambiguation). ... For other persons named John Neumann, see John Neumann (disambiguation). ... For the IEEE magazine see Computer (magazine). ... Edward Teller (original Hungarian name Teller Ede) (January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Hungarian-born American theoretical physicist, known colloquially as the father of the hydrogen bomb, even though he did not care for the title. ... Eugene Wigner Eugene Paul Wigner (Hungarian Wigner Pál JenÅ‘) (November 17, 1902 – January 1, 1995) was a Hungarian physicist and mathematician who received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1963 for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ...


Hungarian inventions include the noiseless match (János Irinyi), Rubik's cube (Ernő Rubik), and the krypton electric bulb (Imre Bródy). Several other inventions were made by Hungarians who fled the country prior to World War II, including holography (Dennis Gabor), the ballpoint pen (László Bíró), the theory of the hydrogen bomb (Edward Teller), and the BASIC programming language (John Kemeny, with Thomas E. Kurtz).[38] For other uses, see Match (disambiguation). ... External links János Irinyi ... Variations of Rubiks Cubes (from left to right: Rubiks Revenge, the original design of Rubiks Cube, Professors Cube, & Pocket Cube, also known as Mini-Cube). Rubiks Cube is a mechanical puzzle invented in 1974[1] by Hungarian sculptor and professor of architecture ErnÅ‘ Rubik. ... ErnÅ‘ Rubik ErnÅ‘ Rubik (born July 13, 1944) is a Hungarian inventor, sculptor and professor of architecture. ... For other uses, see Krypton (disambiguation). ... Imre Bródy (1891-1944), a Hungarian physicist, (the nephew of writer Sándor Bródy) who invented in 1930 the krypton-filled fluorescent lamps, with fellow-Hungarian inventors Emil Theisz, Ferenc Körösy and Tivadar Millner. ... This article is about the photographic technique. ... Dennis Gabor (Gábor Dénes) (June 5, 1900, Budapest – February 9, 1979, London) was a Hungarian physicist and inventor who is most notable for inventing holography. ... Ballpoint pen, disassembled (top) and complete (bottom) A ballpoint pen (also eponymously known in British English as a biro and pronounced bye-row in Britain but sometimes bee-row elsewhere), is a modern writing instrument. ... Bírós invention Birome László József Bíró (Hungarian: Bíró László József; Spanish:Ladislao Biro[1]) (September 29, 1899 – November 24, 1985) is the inventor of the modern ballpoint pen. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ... Edward Teller (original Hungarian name Teller Ede) (January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Hungarian-born American theoretical physicist, known colloquially as the father of the hydrogen bomb, even though he did not care for the title. ... BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a family of high-level programming languages. ... A programming language is an artificial language that can be used to control the behavior of a machine, particularly a computer. ... John George Kemeny (Kemény János) (May 31, 1926–December 26, 1992), U.S. computer scientist and educator best known for co-developing the BASIC programming language in 1964 with Thomas Eugene Kurtz. ... Thomas Eugene Kurtz (born 1928), U.S. computer scientist; co-developed the BASIC programming language in 1963/64, together with John George Kemeny Categories: Stub | 1928 births | Computer pioneers | Computer scientists ...


Sport

Gábor Talmácsi (British GP)
Gábor Talmácsi (British GP)

One of the most famous Hungarians is the footballer Ferenc Puskás (1927 – 2006). He scored 84 goals in 85 internationals for Hungary, and 511 goals in 533 matches in the Hungarian and Spanish leagues. Puskás played the 1954 World Cup final against West Germany. In 1958, after the Hungarian Revolution, he emigrated to Spain where he played in the legendary Real Madrid team that also included Alfredo Di Stéfano, and Francisco Gento. The native form of this personal name is Talmácsi Gábor. ... Ferenc Puskás (April 2, 1927–November 17, 2006) (Hungarian: Puskás Ferenc, nickname Puskás Öcsi, Spanish: Ferenc Puskas Biro), was a legendary Hungarian football forward and coach. ... The NB1 (currently called the Borsodi Liga) is the highest level of professional football in Hungary since its inception in 1901. ... The 1954 Football World Cup Final was the final match of the 1954 World Cup. ... Combatants Soviet Union; ÁVH (Hungarian State Security Police) Ad hoc local Hungarian militias Commanders Ivan Konev Various independent militia leaders Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks Unknown number of militia and rebelling soldiers Casualties 722 killed, 1,251 wounded[1] 2,500 killed 13,000 wounded[2] The Hungarian... Real Madrid redirects here. ... Alfredo Di Stéfano (born July 4, 1926 in Barracas, Buenos Aires) is an Argentine-born former footballer and coach. ... Francisco Gento López (born October 21, 1933 in Guarnizo, Santander) was a Spanish football player. ...


Hungarians are also known for their prowess at water sports, mainly swimming, water polo (in which they have defeated the Soviet team in 1956) and canoeing (they have won multiple medals); this can be said to be surprising at first, due to Hungary being landlocked. On the other hand, the presence of two major rivers (the Duna and the Tisza) and a major lake (Balaton) give excellent opportunities to practice these sports. Some of the world's best sabre fencing athletes have historically hailed from Hungary. The Hungarian national ice hockey team have also qualified for their first IIHF World Championship in more than seventy years. A water sport is a form of recreation where water (other than drinking water) is an essential aspect of the activity. ... Swimmer redirects here. ... Water polo is a team water sport. ... Canoeing is the recreational or sporting activity of paddling a canoe or kayak. ... A landlocked country is one that has no coastline. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... The Tisza or Tisa is one of the major rivers of Central Europe. ... Lake Balaton, located in Hungary, is the largest lake in Central Europe. ... French naval officers sabre of the 19th Century From left to right: two bayonets, a short curved infantry or artillery briquet, a straight infantry officers sabre, and a carbine. ... This article is about the sport, which is distinguished from stage fencing and academic fencing (mensur). ... The Ice Hockey World Championships are an annual event put together by the IIHF, the International Ice Hockey Federation, since 1930. ...


Spa Culture

Rudas Baths is a thermal and medicinal bath that was first built in 1550
Rudas Baths is a thermal and medicinal bath that was first built in 1550

Hungary is a land of thermal water. A passion for spa culture and Hungarian history have been connected from the very beginning. It has been shown that Hungarian spa culture is multicultural. The basis of this claim is architecture. Hungarian spas feature Roman, Greek, Turkish, and northern country architectural elements. Due to an advantageous geographical location thermal water can be found with good quality and in great quantities on over 80% of Hungary’s territory. The Romans heralded the first age of spa in Hungary, the remains of their bath complexes are still to be seen in Óbuda, to this day. The spa culture was revived during the Turkish Invasion who used the thermal springs of Buda for the construction of a number of bathhouses, some of which are still functioning (Király Baths, Rudas Baths). In the 19th century the advancement in deep drilling and medical science provided the springboard for a further leap in bathing culture. Grand spas such as Gellért Baths, Lukács Baths, Margaret Island, and Széchenyi Medicinal Bath are a reflection of this resurgence in popularity. Approximately 1,500 thermal springs can be found in Hungary. About the half of these are used for bathing. The spa culture has a nearly 2,000 year history in Budapest. Budapest has the richest supply of thermal water among the capitals of the world. The amount of thermal water used in Budapest is roughly equal to two million bath tubs per day. There are approximately 450 public baths in Hungary. Nowadays the trend shows that bath operators are modernizing their facilities and expanding the services offered. A total of 50 of the 160 public baths are qualified as spas throughout the country. Services are offered for healing purposes. These spas provide every type of balneal and physical therapy. Throughout history bathing and spa tourism has always played an important role in Hungary. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Rudas Bath or Rudas fürdÅ‘ is a thermal and medicinal bath that was first built during the Turkish occupation of Hungary in 1550. ... Example of a thermal column between the ground and a cumulus This article is about the atmospheric phenomenon. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Greek architecture is an important part of the culture of Greece, playing a part in defining the natural landscape and collective identity of the people throughout the ages. ... See these examples of Ottoman Architecture: The Topkapi Palace The Dolmabahçe Palace The Sultan Ahmed Mosque (Sultanahmet Camii; also known as the Blue Mosque) The Suleiman Mosque (Süleymaniyye Camii) The Ottoman residential buildings, Yalıs See also: Islamic architecture Mosques. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Óbuda (sometimes written in English as Obuda) was a historical city in Hungary. ... In 1974, a coup detat by Greek Army officers stationed on the Mediterranian island of Cyprus, tried to overthrow the then-President Makarios. ... Buda (German: Ofen, Croatian: Budim, Slovak: Budín, Serbian: Будим or Budim, Turkish: Budin) is the western part of the Hungarian capital Budapest on the right bank of the Danube. ... Kiraly Bath or Kiraly fürdÅ‘ is a thermal bath that was first built in the second half of the sixteenth century, during the time of the Turkish occupation of Hungary. ... Rudas Bath or Rudas fürdÅ‘ is a thermal and medicinal bath that was first built during the Turkish occupation of Hungary in 1550. ... The effervescent swimming pool in Gellért Baths Gellért Thermal Baths and Swimming Pool, also called Gellért fürdÅ‘ or Gellért Baths, is one of the most beautiful and most elegant baths in Budapest, built in 1918 in Art Nouveau style. ... The Water Tower, a famous landmark on Margaret Island. ... Exterior The Széchenyi Medicinal Bath in Budapest (Széchenyi-gyógyfürdÅ‘) is the largest medicinal bath in Europe. ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ...

The thermal lake of Hévíz

The thermal lake of Hévíz is the largest biologically active, natural thermal lake of the world. The oldest and most well-known bath of Hungary, in accordance with records from the Roman era, has a history of 2000 years. The Hévíz treatment, in its present sense, also dates back more than 200 years. The 4.4 ha lake is fed by its spring rushing up at a depth of 38 m, containing sulphur, radium and minerals. Due to the high water output of the spring, the water of the lake is completely changed within 48 hours. The water of the Hévíz Lake is equally rich in dissolved substances and gases, combining the favourable effects of naturally carbonated medicinal waters and those containing sulphur, calcium, magnesium, hydrogen-carbonate, as well as those with a slightly radioactive content. The medicinal mud, which covers the bed of the lake in a thick layer, deserves special attention. The Hévíz mud, which is unique of its kind, contains both organic and inorganic substances and the radium-salts and reduced sulphuric solutions in it represent special medicinal factors. The medicinal water and mud originating from the several then thousand year-old Pannonian Sea, together with the complex physiotherapeutic treatments, are suitable for treating all kinds of rheumatic and locomotory diseases. The temperature of the water is 23-25 C in winter and 33-36 C in summer. Lake Hévíz is located in Hungary and is the largest thermal lake in the world. ... The Roman Era is a period in Western history, when ancient Rome was the center of power of the world around the Mediterranean Sea, where Latin was the lingua franca. ... For other uses, see Radium (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ...


Folk Art

Folk Dance

Ugrós (Jumping dances): Old style dances dating back to the Middle Ages. Solo or couple dances accompanied by old style music, shepherd and other solo man’s dances from Transylvania, and marching dances along with remnants of medieval weapon dances belong in this group. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This article is about the region in Romania. ...


Karikázó: a circle dance performed by women only accompanied by singing of folksongs.


Csárdás: New style dances developed in the 18-19. centuries is the Hungarian name for the national dances, with Hungarian embroidered costumes and energetic music. From the men's intricate bootslapping dances to the ancient women's circle dances, Csárdás demonstrates the infectious exuberance of the Hungarian folk dancing still celebrated in the villages. Czardas or Csárdás (Hungarian csárdás, from csárda, a tavern, beer house) is a traditional Hungarian folk dance. ...


Verbunkos: a solo man’s dance evolved from the recruiting performances of the Austro-Hungarian army. Verbunkos (Hungarian s is pronounced as English sh) (other spellings are Verbounko, Verbunko, Verbunkas, Werbunkos, Werbunkosch, Verbunkoche) is an 18th-century Hungarian dance and music genre. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ...


The Legényes: is a men's solo dance done by the ethnic Hungarian people living in the Kalotaszeg region of Transylvania. Although usually danced by young men, it can be also danced by older men. The dance is performed freestyle usually by one dancer at a time in front of the band. Women participate in the dance by standing in lines to the side and sing/shout verses while the men dance. Each lad does a number of points (dance phrases) typically 4 to 8 without repetition. Each point consists of 4 parts, each lasting 4 counts. The first part is usually the same for everyone (there are only a few variations). A legényes is a mens solo dance done by the ethnic Hungarian people living in the Kaloteszeg region of Transylvania. ... This article is about the region in Romania. ...


Embroidery

Woman's Folk Costume
Woman's Folk Costume

It was in the beginning of the eighteenth century that the present style of Hungarian folk art took shape, incorporating both Renaissance and Baroque elements, depending on the area, as well as Persian Sassanide influences. Flowers and leaves, sometimes a bird or a spiral ornament, are the principal decorative themes. The most frequent ornament is a flower with a centerpiece resembling the eye of a peacock's feather. Nearly all the manifestations of folk art practiced elsewhere in Europe also flourished among the Magyar peasantry at one time or another, their ceramics and textile being the most highly developed of all. The finest achievements in their textile arts are the embroideries which vary from region to region. Those of Kalotaszeg in Transylvania are charming products of Oriental design, sewn chiefly in a single color - red, blue, or black. Soft in line, the embroideries are applied on altar cloths, pillow cases and sheets. In Hungary proper Sárköz in Transdanubia and the Matyóföld in the Great Hungarian Plain produce the finest embroideries. In the Sárköz region the women's caps show black and white designs as delicate as lace and give evidence of the people's wonderfully subtle artistic feeling. The embroidery motifs applied to women's wear have also been transposed to tablecloths and runners suitable for modern use as wall decorations. This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Hungarian ethnic group. ... This article is about the region in Romania. ... This article is about Transdanubia, the region in Hungary. ... MezÅ‘kövesd is a town in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county, Northern Hungary. ... The Pannonian plain is a large plain in central/south-eastern Europe that remained when the Pliocene Pannonian Sea (see below) dried out. ...


Black pottery

These vessels, made of black clay, reflect more than three hundred years of traditional Transdanubian folk patterns and shapes. No two are precisely alike, since all work is done by hand, including both the shaping and the decorating. The imprints are made by the thumb or a finger of the ceramist who makes the piece. This article is about Transdanubia, the region in Hungary. ...


Hungarian public holidays and special events

Hungary has nine fixed public holidays:

Date English Name Local Name Remarks
January 1 New Year's Day Újév  
March 15 National Day Nemzeti ünnep Márciusi ifjak ("March youths"), memorial day of the 1848 Revolution. There are usually speeches and music pieces performed; several people wear a cockade with the national colours (red, white and green).
Moveable Easter Sunday Húsvétvasárnap Good Friday work-free for Protestants
Moveable Easter Monday Húsvéthétfő Men visit women and ask for permission for sprinkling by reciting a little Easter poem, they sprinkle them with some perfume (or sometimes a bucket of cold water in the countryside), and they get eggs (mostly of chocolate) in exchange. Children get chocolate bunnies and eggs (from the Bunny), and sometimes fruits, nuts etc. as well. They sometimes have to look for these presents in the garden or in their room. (Living bunnies are not infrequent, either.) Mothers often cook turkey and/or ham for dinner.
May 1 Labour day;
anniversary of the accession to the EU
A munka ünnepe The countries of the EU are represented with special programmes, bridges are decorated and exhibitions are arranged.
Moveable Pentecost Sunday Pünkösdvasárnap Sunday, 50 days after Easter
Moveable Pentecost Monday Pünkösdhétfő Monday after Pentecost
August 20 Saint Stephen Day Szent István ünnepe St. Stephen's Day, Foundation of State, "the day of the new bread" as well. St. Stephen of Hungary (Szent István király in Hungarian) (ca. 975 – August 15, 1038), was the first king of Hungary.

Celebrated with a half-hour fireworks on the bank of the Danube in the evening, attended by several hundreds of thousands of people. Vacation redirects here. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see New Year (disambiguation). ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Day is a designated date on which celebrations mark the nationhood of a country. ... The Hungarian Revolution of 1848 was one of many revolutions that year and closely linked to other revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas. ... The Tricolore cockade of France. ... For the book by Ernest Hemingway, see A Moveable Feast. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... Good Friday, also called Holy Friday or Great Friday, is the Friday preceding Easter Sunday. ... For the book by Ernest Hemingway, see A Moveable Feast. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about annual labour observances internationally. ... For the book by Ernest Hemingway, see A Moveable Feast. ... The Descent of the Holy Spirit in a 15th century illuminated manuscript. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... For the book by Ernest Hemingway, see A Moveable Feast. ... The Descent of the Holy Spirit in a 15th century illuminated manuscript. ... The Descent of the Holy Spirit in a 15th century illuminated manuscript. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Saint Stephen I (Hungarian: , Slovak: ) (967/969/975, Esztergom, Hungary – 15 August 1038, Esztergom, Hungary), Grand Prince of the Magyars (997-1000/1001) and the first King of Hungary (1000/1001-1038). ... Saint Stephen I (Hungarian: , Slovak: ) (967/969/975, Esztergom, Hungary – 15 August 1038, Esztergom, Hungary), Grand Prince of the Magyars (997-1000/1001) and the first King of Hungary (1000/1001-1038). ... For other uses, see Fireworks (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Danube River. ...

October 23 National Day Nemzeti ünnep The day of the Republic (since 1989), 1956 Revolution memorial day. Celebrated with speeches and exhibitions.
November 1 All Saints Day, Day of the Dead Mindenszentek, Halottak napja It is a day to remember the lost ones. On this day people generally visit all their lost relatives' graves which they decorate with flowers.
December 24 evening,
December 25
Christmas Karácsony People buy (or make) presents for their relatives and friends in the preceding couple of weeks (so this period is the absolute boom of the year for most stores). Public transport stops operating at about 4 p.m. Families reunite and people prepare their (labelled) presents under the Christmas tree. It is made of a fir which is decorated by one or two people in the family so nobody else can see it before they signal with a little bell for the rest to come in. The family sings Christmas songs together and everyone unwraps their presents.
On 25th, people usually visit their farther relatives (eg. aunts, uncles and grandparents) and exchange presents.
December 26 Boxing Day Karácsony másnapja  

is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Day is a designated date on which celebrations mark the nationhood of a country. ... Combatants Soviet Union ÁVH Hungarian government, various nationalist militias Commanders Yuri Andropov Pál Maléter, Béla Király, Gergely Pongrátz, József Dudás Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks 100,000+ demonstrators (some later armed), unknown number of soldiers Casualties 720 killed according to official... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Christian holiday. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Christmas tree (disambiguation). ... FIR may stand for: finite impulse response (a property of some digital filters) far infrared, i. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Boxing Day is a public holiday observed in many Commonwealth countries on 26 December. ...

Holidays not endorsed by the state:

Date English Name Local Name Remarks
December 6 Santa Claus, Saint Nicholas Day Télapó, Mikulás Children get various chocolate pieces from the Santa Claus by morning. If they were bad, they might get (birch) rods exclusively or beside their presents.
December 31 New Year's Eve Szilveszter Young people go partying until morning. Streets are noisy with paper trumpets, hoots and champagne cracks; people often wear masks. Those who stay home usually watch the comedies made for this occasion; at midnight they drink champagne and wish each other good luck for the new year. National television channels broadcast the orchestral and choral national anthem at midnight, and then the speech of the current President. With these finished, further comedies and various movies follow. The next day streets are as empty as ever, and people sleep long (or sleep themselves sober).
Moveable Carnival Farsang A six day regional carnival, originally celebrated by the Šokci (ethnic-Croatians) living in the town of Mohács. Traditions include folk music, masquerading, parades and dancing.

is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A typical depiction of Santa Claus. ... Saint Nicholas, also known as Nikolaus in Germany and Sinterklaas (a contracted form of Sint Nicolaas) in the Netherlands and Flanders, is the common name for the historical Saint Nicholas of Myra, who lived in 4th century Byzantine Anatolia, (now in modern Turkey) and had a reputation for secret gift... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see New Year (disambiguation). ... Himnusz — the song beginning with the words Isten, áldd meg a magyart   listen? (God, bless the Hungarian) — is the official national anthem of Hungary. ... For the book by Ernest Hemingway, see A Moveable Feast. ... For other uses, see Carnival (disambiguation). ... The parasang (Persian فرسنگ farsang) is an ancient Persian unit of itinerant distance corresponding to approximately 3. ... Catholic Church in the Å okac village of Sonta, Serbia Å okci (Croatian & Serbian Latin: Å okci, singular Å okac, Serbian Cyrillic: Шокци, singular Шокац, pronounced as Shoktzi and Shokatz, also in Hungarian: Sokácok) are a South Slavic ethnic group living in various settlements along the Danube and Sava rivers in the historic regions of... Croatian is: Croatian language adjective for that which belongs to Croatia ethnic Croat (deprecated) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Mohács (Croatian and Bunjevac: Mohač, Serbian: Мохач, German: Mohatsch, Turkish: Mohaç) is a town in Baranya county, Hungary on the right bank of the Danube, 115 miles south of Budapest. ... Folk song redirects here. ... Masquerade ball at the Carnival of Venice An artists depiction of a masquerade ball. ... United States Marines on parade. ... For other uses, see Dance (disambiguation). ...

Hungarian domestic animals

White Puli
White Puli

There are special Hungarian species of domestic animals which are seen as national symbols in Hungary, and there are "gene banks"[citation needed] to ensure their survival, especially in national parks. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... The Hungarian Vizsla, pronounced VEEZH-luh (zh as in vision), is a dog breed originating in Hungary. ... Ch Banhegyi Ancsa with Mornebrake (Ancsa) owned by Mr and Mrs Fulton. ... Ch Banhegyi Ancsa with Mornebrake (Ancsa) owned by Mr and Mrs Fulton. ... For the fruit, see tamarind. ...

  • Long-horn Hungarian Grey Cattle- Hungarian breed, traditionally kept in the open full year. Nowadays they are raised for infant food due to natural, healthy meat.
  • Magyar Vizsla - one of the oldest hunting dogs of the world. The ancestors of this dog came into the Carpathian Basin with the nomadic Hungarian tribes.
  • Hungarian Puli - small shepherd dog
  • Hungarian Komondor - large shepherd dog, was brought to Hungary a thousand years ago by nomadic Magyars.
  • Hungarian Kuvasz - large shepherd dog.
  • Hungarian Pumi - small shepherd dog.
  • Magyar Agár (Hungarian Greyhound) is already known in the 8th century, it is as old as the Vizsla.
  • Transylvanian Bloodhound - Hungarian hound.
  • Hungarian Mudi shepherd dog.
  • Hungarian thoroughbred horses - a mid-19th century mixture of the best Arab and English race horse characteristics.
  • Mangalica, a breed of pigs, characterised by their long curly hair and relatively fatty meat which makes them ideal for making sausages and salami.

Hungarian Grey cattle in Hortobágy Puszta, the first and largest national park of Hungary Hungarian Grey cattle in Berlin Zoo (in the middle cow, on the right bull) The Hungarian Grey Cattle or Hungarian Steppe Cattle (in Hungarian: Magyar szürke szarvasmarha or Magyar alföldi) is an old... The Hungarian Vizsla, pronounced VEEZH-luh (zh as in vision), is a dog breed originating in Hungary. ... The Pannonian plain is a large plain in central/south-eastern Europe that remained when the Pliocene Pannonian Sea (see below) dried out. ... For the fruit, see tamarind. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Kuvasz (pronounced KOO-vahss; in Hungarian language the plural is Kuvaszok, pronounced KOO-vah-sock) is a dog breed of ancient Hungarian origin. ... The Pumi is a medium-small terrier-type breed of dog: males 41-47 cm, females 38-44 at the shoulder, weighing 10 - 15 kg (males) and 8 - 13 kg (female). ... Magyar Agár is also called a Hungarian Greyhound. ... Mudi usually weigh 18 to 29 pounds (8 to 13 kg) The Mudi is a versatile farm dog that can hunt, exterminate rodents, and act as a capable herding dog and flock guardian. ... The Thoroughbred is a horse breed developed in 18th century England when English mares were bred with imported Arabian stallions to create a distance racer. ...

Special events

Hungary’s most outstanding annual events include the Budapest Spring Festival (mid-march to mid-April), Hortobágy Equestrian Days (late June), Sopron Early Music Days (late June), Búcsú (Farewell), Festival in Budapest (late June), Miskolc Opera Festival (late June), Miskolc Kalálka International Folk Festival (July), Győr Summer Festival (late June), Győr Summer Cultural Festival (late June to lateJuly), Pannon Festival in Pécs (July and August), Szentendre Summer Festival (July), Kőszeg Street Theatre Festival (late July), Savaria International Dance Competition in Szombathely (July), Debrecen Jazz Days (July), Szeged Open Air Festival (mid-July to August), Diáksziget (Student Island or Pepsi Island) north of Budapest (August), Eger Wine Harvest Festival (September), and Budapest Autumn Arts Festival (mid-September to mid-October). The Miskolc Opera Festival or International Opera Festival of Miskolc (Miskolci Nemzetközi Operafesztivál) is a cultural event held every summer in Miskolc, the capital of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county, Hungary. ...


St Stephen’s Day (20 August) is celebrated with sporting events, parades and fireworks nationwide. On the same day there is a Floral Festival in Debrecen and a Bridge Fair in nearby Hortobágy. Formula 1 car races are held in early August at the Hungaroring near Mogyoród, 24 km northeast of Budapest[39]. The Hungaroring is a Formula 1 racing circuit near Budapest, Hungary where the Hungarian Grand Prix is held. ...


Budapest Spring Festival

Designed to fit the needs of Budapest’s cultural heritage and its requirements as a modern Central European centre, this metropolitan festival was instituted in 1981. By presenting and disseminating cultural assets it boosts the city’s image and encourages dynamic development of its cultural tourism. This "festival of festivals", traditionally covering a range of artistic fields, presents a series of homogeneous artistic activities to which international professional symposia are linked. The Budapest Spring Festival takes place in the last two weeks of March. Its main emphasis is on those symphony orchestra concerts, opera and ballet performances which will appeal to the widest audience, but the program also includes open-air events and an Operetta Festival. The performances take place in the capital’s most important concert halls and theatres, and often near historic monuments. Over the years a number of regional towns have been included in the Budapest Spring Festival - Debrecen, Gödöllő, Győr, Kaposvár, Kecskemét, Sopron, Szentendre and Szombathely - and thus it has more or less expanded into a national festival. The list of events always includes renowned foreign guests as well as distinguished artists and groups from the Hungarian musical life. Highlights include classical concerts, productions at the Opera House, open air events, the Operetta Festival, the Dance House Convention, the Dance Panorama, and what are considered to be the real treat, the exhibitions[40]. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 681 pixel, file size: 152 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I personally shot this photo in Budapest on August 17, 2005, and happily grant usage rights for display on Wikipedia. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 681 pixel, file size: 152 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I personally shot this photo in Budapest on August 17, 2005, and happily grant usage rights for display on Wikipedia. ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... Hungarian State Opera House Interior The Opera House on the left side (1896) The building of the Hungarian State Opera House (Hungarian: Magyar Állami Operaház) is a splendid example of neorenaissaince architecture. ... Operetta is a genre of light opera, light in terms both of music and subject matter. ... Debrecen , (approximate pronunciation, Deb-ret-sen), (Romanian: , German: ; Croatian: Debr(e)cin) is the second largest city in Hungary after Budapest. ... Front view of the palace of GödöllÅ‘ GödöllÅ‘ is a small town situated in Pest county, Hungary, about 30 km northeast from the outskirts of Budapest. ... Raab redirects here. ... Kaposvár (German Kopisch, Ruppertsberg, Ruppertsburg, Turkish KapoÅŸvar) is the capital of the county of Somogy in Hungary. ... Kecskemét (IPA: ), (approximate pronounciation, Kech-kem-it), is a city in the central part of Hungary. ... For the historical county in the Kingdom of Hungary named Sopron / Ödenburg, Sopron (county). ... Photo of Szentendres FÅ‘ tér (Main Square) Main Square Szentendre (Medieval Latin: Sankt Andrae, Hungarian muslim dialect : Mahmudiya is a riverside town in Pest county, Hungary, near the capital city of Budapest. ... Szombathely (Latin Savaria/Sabaria, German Steinamanger, Slovenian Sombotel) is a city in Hungary. ... Hungarian State Opera House Interior The Opera House on the left side (1896) The building of the Hungarian State Opera House (Hungarian: Magyar Állami Operaház) is a splendid example of neorenaissaince architecture. ...


Haydn Festival in Eszterháza

Eszterházy-Palace in Fertőd
Eszterházy-Palace in Fertőd

Haydn at Eszterháza: During its first quarter century, the palace was the primary home of the celebrated composer Joseph Haydn, who wrote the majority of his symphonies for the Prince's orchestra. Starting in 1768, the theater was a major venue for opera, often with more than a hundred performances per year. The palace was geographically isolated, a factor which led to loneliness and tedium among the musicians. This is seen in some of Haydn's letters, as well as in the famous tale of the Farewell Symphony FertÅ‘d (former Esterháza and Süttör unified in 1950) is a city in Hungary near the Austria region and it bounds to GyÅ‘r-Moson-Sopron province. ... FertÅ‘d (former Esterháza and Süttör unified in 1950) is a city in Hungary near the Austria region and it bounds to GyÅ‘r-Moson-Sopron province. ... Haydn redirects here. ... Joseph Haydns Symphony No. ...


The basic aim of the festival is to evoke the musical paradise that Eszterháza was in Haydn's time, within the original walls, with the help of period instruments and performing practice. The programmes focus mainly on the works composed during the Eszterháza period of Haydn's creative life, and among these, on compositions belonging to the most important genres (symphonies, string quartets, keyboard sonatas and trios). In addition, however, the concert programmes regularly include works by the "unknown Haydn" (baryton pieces, rarely-heard church compositions, wind divertimenti, etc.). The festival aims to provide opportunities for the world's most outstanding Haydn performers to meet here, to gain inspiration from the atmosphere and acoustics of the place, and to inspire one another through shared music-making. The majority of the performers play only compositions by Joseph Haydn, but also in exceptional cases other works closely connected, either directly or through their composers, with Haydn, Eszterháza or the family of the Esterházy princes - such as, for example, the string quartets dedicated to Haydn by Mozart, and certain pieces by Michael Haydn (the composer's younger brother), Luigi Tomasini (leader of the Eszterháza orchestra) and others. The venue for most of the concerts is the enchantingly beautiful ceremonial hall of the palace, which has superb acoustics. Some of the more intimate, solistic performances are given in the sala terrena, the central hall of the original, smaller, Renaissance hunting palace. Some concerts of church music take place in one or other of the churches in the nearby villages. FertÅ‘d (former Esterháza and Süttör unified in 1950) is a city in Hungary near the Austria region and it bounds to GyÅ‘r-Moson-Sopron province. ... (Franz) Joseph Haydn (in German, Josef; he never used the Franz) (March 31, 1732 – May 31, 1809) was a leading composer of the classical period. ... The House of Esterházy was a noble family in the Kingdom of Hungary since the Middle Ages. ... Prince Nikolaus Esterházy was a Hungarian prince who lived during the 18th century. ... (Franz) Joseph Haydn (in German, Josef; he never used the Franz) (March 31, 1732 – May 31, 1809) was a leading composer of the classical period. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was one of the most significant and influential of all composers of Western classical music. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ...


Győr Summer Festival

Győr centre
Győr centre

This festival is held annually, from the second week in June to the second week in July. The Győr Summer International Cultural Festival, which displays Győr's cultural heritage, has a history of over three decades. The list of events, which covers a wide range of genres, is based on a series of separate activities. Every year, for a month in June and July, the Baroque decorations of the city centre, its atmospheric courtyards and the banks of the Rába river are home to the International Ballet Festival, the International Puppet and Street Theatre Convention, the International Folk Dancing and Folk Music Festival, and the International Handcraft Fair and Exhibition. In addition to the performances of the hosts - the Győr Ballet, the Győr National Theatre, and the Győr Philharmonic Orchestra - visitors can also see those of the visiting theatre companies and musical groups [41]. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 393 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (459 × 700 pixel, file size: 83 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 393 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (459 × 700 pixel, file size: 83 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Raab redirects here. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... Rába (-Hungarian, in German: Raab, in Slovenian Raba) is a river in south-eastern Austria and western Hungary, tributary to the river Danube. ...


Miscellaneous

Hungarian folk art, including dances, music, cross stitchings, embroideries, costumes, potteries, wood carvings, basket wavings, porcelains etc. has a long and rich history which play a significant role in local folk traditions and customs.


Hungarian women are rumored to be among the most beautiful of the general Eastern European bloc (Posner, pp. 23-24).


See also

Hungary Portal
Lists

Telephones - main lines in use: 3. ... The adage Turáni átok, The Curse of Turan, is a Hungarian saying used mainly during discussions regarding the countless unfortunate, and sometimes just plain unlucky, turn of events during the country’s tumultuous history. ... Except for the short-lived neutrality declared by Imre Nagy in November 1956, Hungarys foreign policy generally followed the Soviet lead from 1947 to 1989. ... Hungarian-American refers to American citizens with Hungarian ethnicity. ... History of the Jews in Hungary concerns the Jews of Hungary and of Hungarian origins. ... There are special Hungarian species of domestic animals which are seen as national symbols in Hungary, and there are gene banks to ensure their survival, especially in national parks. ... This article is about the Hungarian ethnic group. ... Hungarian or Magyar cuisine is the cuisine characteristic to Hungary and the Magyars . ... Hungarian notation is a naming convention in computer programming, in which the name of a variable indicates its type or intended use. ... Hungarian (magyar nyelv  ) is a Finno-Ugric language (more specifically an Ugric language) unrelated to most other languages in Europe. ... Membership badge of Magyar Cserkészszövetség Scouting in Hungary is maintained primarily through Magyar Cserkészet Tanácsa, the Council of Hungarian Scouting. ... It has been suggested that Honvédség be merged into this article or section. ... Hungarians in Vojvodina according to the 2002 census Hungarians or Magyars are a second largest ethnic group in the Vojvodina province, Serbia and Montenegro. ... Hungarians in Transylvania The Hungarian minority of Romania is the largest ethnic minority in Romania, consisting of 1,431,807 people and making up 6. ... Approximate area in south Slovakia inhabited by ethnic Hungarians Hungarians or Magyars are the largest ethnic minority of Slovakia, numbering 520,528 people or 9. ... History: (Timeline and Samples) Genres Classical - Folk - Hardcore - Hip hop - Opera - Operett - Pop - Reggae - Rock - Wedding pop - Wedding rock Organisations Mahasz Awards Golden Giraffe Charts MAHASZ TOP 40 album, MAHASZ Kislemez TOP 10, Dance TOP 40 Festivals Sziget, Mayday, Táncháztalálkozó, Miskolc Opera Festival Media Radio PetÅ‘fi... This is a calendar of namesdays in Hungary. ... Railways: total: 7,606 km broad gauge: 36 km 1. ... Siklós Castle BoldogkÅ‘váralja Nagyvázyony - Kinizsi Castle Categories: | ... Festetics Mansion Today in Hungary there are more than 2000 castles and mansions, about 700 of them are under protection. ... // The Countrywide Blue Tour (in Hungarian: Országos Kéktúra) is the Hungarian section of the European Long Distance walking route E4. ... Hungarian Runes (Hungarian: , ( ) or simply ) is a type of runic writing system used by the Magyars (mainly by Székely Magyars) prior to AD 1000. ... Hungary has 3145 settlements: 283 cities/towns (Hungarian term: város, plural: városok; the terminology doesnt distinguish between cities and towns) and 2862 villages (Hungarian: falu or község, plural: falvak, községek. ... The following is a list of prominent Magyars (Hungarians), the majority of whom grew to be famous within Hungary rather than abroad. ... This is a list of all rulers of the Kingdom of Hungary since Árpád. ... Ignác Acsády (1845–1904) Tamás Aczél (1921–1994) Endre Ady (1877–1919) Anonymus (2nd half of the XIII century) Zoltán Ambrus (1861–1932) Lajos Áprily (1897–1973) János Arany (1817–1882) László Arany (1844–1898) Mihály Babits (1883–1941) József Bakucz (1929–1990) Bálint Balassi (1554–1594) Béla Balázs (1884... See also List of universities in Hungary Categories: | | ... Academy of Drama and Film (Hungary), Budapest [1] Andrássy Gyula German Language University of Budapest [2] Budapest University of Technology and Economics [3] Central European University, Budapest [4] Corvinus University of Budapest [5] Evangelical-Lutheran Theological University, Budapest [6] Hungarian University of Fine Arts, Budapest [7] International Business School... Family names can be unique or come in large numbers. ... It is nearly universal for a person to have a name; the rare exceptions occur in the cases of mentally disturbed parents, or wild children growing up in isolation. ...

References

  1. ^ Hungarian Central Statistical Office Retrieved 2008-05-09
  2. ^ a b IMF report retrieved 2008-04-09
  3. ^ Microsoft Word - NHDP_HU_NSRF_en_r1.doc
  4. ^ The Budapest Times - Hungary‘s leading English Language source for daily news - Parties discuss preparations for Hungary's EU presidency in 2011
  5. ^ Index - Miért menjünk Magyarországra? Miért menjünk Szlovákiába?
  6. ^ http://www.mth.gov.hu/download.php?ctag=download&docID=185
  7. ^ http://whc.unesco.org/archive/advisory_body_evaluation/400bis.pdf
  8. ^ Budapest, including the Banks of the Danube, the Buda Castle Quarter and Andrássy Avenue - World Heritage Site - Pictures, info and travel reports
  9. ^ Hungary, Encyclopædia Britannica.
  10. ^ The Avar Khaganate
  11. ^ Magyar (Hungarian) migration, 9th century
  12. ^ a b Stephen Sisa : The Spirit of Hungary - 1 Who Are the Magyars?
  13. ^ http://www.babylon.com/definition/Géza/English
  14. ^ Hungaria Travel Information | Asia Travel Europe
  15. ^ Hunmagyar.Org - The Controversy On The Origins And Early History Of The Hungarians
  16. ^ Welcome to Cambridge Szeged website :: www.cambridge-szeged-society.org.uk
  17. ^ WHKMLA : History of Croatia, 802-1102
  18. ^ The Daco-Roman Legend
  19. ^ http://www.kulugyminiszterium.hu/NR/rdonlyres/C9FDF041-86A7-4B20-8B73-94C568E448E5/0/Culture_en.pdf
  20. ^ Géza Jeszenszky: From "Eastern Switzerland" to Ethnic Cleansing ,Address at Duquesne History Forum, November 17, 2000, The author is former Ambassador of Hungary to the United States and was Foreign Minister in 1990-94.
  21. ^ Vol. 3, p.825 in Magyarország Történelmi Kronológiája, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 1982.
  22. ^ Magyar Tudomány 2000. január
  23. ^ Ignác Romsics: Magyarország története a XX. században, 2004, p. 134
  24. ^ Hungary: The Unwilling Satellite John F. Montgomery, Hungary: The Unwilling Satellite. Devin-Adair Company, New York, 1947. Reprint: Simon Publications, 2002.
  25. ^ United States Holocaust Memorial Museum; Holocaust Encyclopedia
  26. ^ Findley, Carter V., and John Rothney. Twentieth Century World. sixth ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2006. 278.
  27. ^ a b c Index of Economic Freedom
  28. ^ Hungary
  29. ^ Population Census 2001 – National and county data – Summary Data
  30. ^ Stratégiai Audit 2005 - DEMOS Magyarország
  31. ^ See, for instance, Romani World, where a high estimate of 19.62% is given for 2050.
  32. ^ Népszámlálás 2001 – 4. Nemzetiségi kötődés – Központi Statisztikai Hivatal
  33. ^ See an abstract of Poverty and Ethnicity: A Cross-Country Study of Roma Poverty in Central Europe. by the World Bank for an overview.
  34. ^ 18. Demographic data – Hungarian Central Statistical Office
  35. ^ Eurobarometer on Social Values, Science and technology 2005 - page 11. Retrieved on 2007-05-05.
  36. ^ Sulinet: Magyar növény-e a paprika?
  37. ^ a b Food in Hungary
  38. ^ a b The Contribution of Hungarians to Universal Culture (includes inventors), Embassy of the Republic of Hungary, Damascus, Syria, 2006.
  39. ^ Public Holidays and Special Events
  40. ^ Budapest Spring Festival, programs, events
  41. ^ Győr Summer Festival

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is about Damascus, the capital of Syria. ...

External links

Find more about Hungary on Wikipedia's sister projects:
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  • Official site of the National Assembly
  • Official site of the President of Hungary
  • Official site of the Prime Minister of Hungary
  • hungary.hu
  • History of Hungary: Primary Documents
  • History of Hungary – The Corvinus Library
  • In The Land of Hagar - The Jews of Hungary – A Virtual Exhibition
  • Budapest Photos
  • Aerial photography: Hungary
  • Artistic photos of Hungary
  • Translation of Hungarian literary works - a database
  • 1100 photos about the Hungarian countryside - along the long distance path "Countrywide Blue Tour"
  • Hungary at the Open Directory Project
  • An online gallery of photographs - Szeged, Kőszeg, ...
  • Agricultural land use profile
  • Cool Budapest Photos

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