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Encyclopedia > Hungarian language
Hungarian
magyar 
Pronunciation: [ˈmɒɟɒr̪]
Spoken in: Hungary and areas of Romania, Slovakia, Serbia, Ukraine, Croatia, Austria, and Slovenia
Total speakers: 14,5 million 
Ranking: 57
Language family: Uralic
 Finno-Ugric
  Ugric
   Hungarian 
Writing system: Latin alphabet (Hungarian variant
Official status
Official language of: Hungary, European Union, Slovenia (regional language), Serbia (regional language), Austria (regional language), Various localities in Romania, Some official rights in Ukraine, Croatia and Slovakia
Regulated by: Research Institute for Linguistics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences
Language codes
ISO 639-1: hu
ISO 639-2: hun
ISO 639-3: hun
Hungarian language
Alphabet, including ő ű and
cs dz dzs gy ly ny sz ty zs
Phonetics and phonology
Vowel harmony
Grammar

   Noun phrases
   Verbs Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... This is a list of languages, ordered by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... Geographical distribution of Samoyedic, Finnic, Ugric and Yukaghir languages  Yukaghir  Samoyedic  Ugric  Finnic The Uralic languages (pronounced: ) form a language family of about 30 languages spoken by approximately 20 million people. ... Approximate geographical distribution of areas where indigenous Finno-Ugric languages are spoken. ... Ugric languages or Ugrian languages are generally held to be a branch of Finno-Ugric languages. ... Writing systems of the world today. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... The Hungarian alphabet is an extension of the Roman alphabet. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... The Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Nyelvtudományi Intézete (Research Institute for Linguistics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences) was founded in 1949. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 603 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hungarian language Vowel harmony T-V distinction Double acute accent Hungarian alphabet Old Hungarian script List of English... The Hungarian alphabet is an extension of the Roman alphabet. ... The double acute accent ( ˝ ) is a diacritic mark of the latin script used primarily in written Hungarian. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Linguistics & Pronunciation Dz is the seventh letter of the Hungarian alphabet. ... // Linguistics & Pronunciation Dzs is the eighth letter, and only trigraph, of the Hungarian alphabet. ... Linguistics & Pronunciation Gy is the thirtheenth letter of the Hungarian alphabet. ... Linguistics & Pronunciation Ly is the twentieth letter of the Hungarian alphabet. ... Linguistics & Pronunciation Ny is the twenty-third letter of the Hungarian alphabet. ... Linguistics & Pronunciation Sz is the thirty-second letter of the Hungarian alphabet. ... Linguistics & Pronunciation Ty is the thirty-fourth letter of the Hungarian alphabet. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Vowel harmony (also metaphony) is a type of long-distance assimilatory phonological process involving vowels. ... Hungarian grammar is the study of the rules governing the use of the Hungarian language, a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and in adjacent areas of Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine, Serbia, Croatia, Austria, and Slovenia (all territories lost after World War I). ... This page is about noun phrases in Hungarian grammar. ... This page is about verbs in Hungarian grammar. ...

T-V distinction
Regulatory body
Hungarian name
Language history

   Sound correspondences In sociolinguistics, a T-V distinction describes the situation wherein a language has second-person pronouns that distinguish varying levels of politeness, social distance, courtesy, familiarity, or insult toward the addressee. ... The Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Nyelvtudományi Intézete, that is, Research Institute for Linguistics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, was founded in 1949. ... // Orthography Modern Hungarian orthography is slightly different (simpler) than that of 18th or 19th century, but many Hungarian surnames retain their historical spelling. ... The language is predominantly spoken in Central Europe. ... There are numerous regular sound correspondences between Hungarian and the other Ugric languages. ...

Tongue-twisters

Hungarian pronunciation of EnglishOld Hungarian scriptEnglish words from Hungarian

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Hungarian (magyar nyelv listen ) is a Finno-Ugric language (more specifically an Ugric language) unrelated to most other languages in Europe. It is spoken in Hungary and by the Hungarian minorities in seven neighbouring countries. The Hungarian name for the language is magyar [ˈmɒɟɒr̪]. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Hungarian Runes (Hungarian: , ( ) or simply ) is a type of runic writing system used by the Magyars (mainly by Székely Magyars) prior to AD 1000. ... This is a list of English words of Hungarian origin: Biro  From Bíró. Named after Mr. ... Image File history File links Hu-magyar_nyelv. ... Approximate geographical distribution of areas where indigenous Finno-Ugric languages are spoken. ... Ugric languages or Ugrian languages are generally held to be a branch of Finno-Ugric languages. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


As one of the small number of modern European languages that do not belong to the Indo-European language family, Hungarian has always been of great interest to linguists. For other uses, see Indo-European. ... Comparative linguistics (originally comparative philology) is a branch of historical linguistics that is concerned with comparing languages in order to establish their historical relatedness. ...


There are about 14.5 million native speakers, of whom 9.5-10 million live in modern-day Hungary. Some two million speakers live in areas that were part of the Kingdom of Hungary before World War I. Of these, the largest group lives in Romania, where there are approximately 1.4 million Hungarians (see Hungarian minority in Romania). Hungarian-speaking people are also to be found in Slovakia, Serbia, Ukraine, Croatia, Austria, and Slovenia, as well as about a million people scattered in other parts of the world (see Geographic distribution). This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Hungarian minority of Romania is the largest ethnic minority in Romania, consisting of 1,431,807 people and making up 6. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Hungarian

The language is predominantly spoken in Central Europe. ...

Classification

Hungarian is a Uralic language, more specifically an Ugric language. Connections between the Ugric and Finnic languages were noticed in the 1670s and established, along with the entire Uralic family, in 1717, although the classification of Hungarian continued to be a matter of political controversy into the 18th and even 19th centuries. Today the Uralic family is considered one of the best demonstrated large language families, along with Indo-European and Austronesian. The name of Hungary could be a corruption of Ugrian, and the fact that the Eastern Slavs referred to them as Ugrin (pl. Ugrove) seemed to confirm that [1]. However, current literature favors the hypothesis that the Turkic "On-ogur" ("Ten arrows" or "Ten tribes") is the origin for the word Hungarian [2] [3] [4]. Geographical distribution of Samoyedic, Finnic, Ugric and Yukaghir languages  Yukaghir  Samoyedic  Ugric  Finnic The Uralic languages (pronounced: ) form a language family of about 30 languages spoken by approximately 20 million people. ... Ugric languages or Ugrian languages are generally held to be a branch of Finno-Ugric languages. ... Geographical distribution of Finno-Ugric (Finno-Permic in blue, Ugric in green). ... Events and Trends Newton and Leibniz independently discover calculus. ... // Events January 4 — The Netherlands, Britain & France sign Triple Alliance February 26-March 6 What is now the northeastern United States was paralyzed by a series of blizzards that buried the region. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The Austronesian languages are a language family widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, with a few members spoken on continental Asia. ...


There are numerous regular sound correspondences between Hungarian and the other Ugric languages. For example, Hungarian /a:/ corresponds to Khanty /o/ in certain positions, and Hungarian /h/ corresponds to Khanty /x/, while Hungarian final /z/ corresponds to Khanty final /t/. For example, Hungarian ház (IPA: [ha:z]) "house" vs. Khanty xot (IPA: [xot]) "house", and Hungarian száz (IPA: [sa:z]) "hundred" vs. Khanty sot (IPA: [sot]) "hundred". Khanty or Xanty language, also known as the Ostyak language, is a language of the Khant peoples. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ...


The distance between the Ugric and Finnic languages is greater, but the correspondences are also regular. Geographical distribution of Finno-Ugric (Finno-Permic in blue, Ugric in green). ...

See also: Regular sound correspondences between Hungarian and other Uralic languages

There are numerous regular sound correspondences between Hungarian and the other Ugric languages. ...

Origins

As Uralic linguists claim, Hungarian separated from its closest relatives approximately 3000 years ago, so the history of the language begins around 1000 BC. The Hungarians gradually changed their way of living from settled hunters to nomadic cattle-raising, probably as a result of early contacts with Iranian nomads. Their most important animals included sheep and cattle. There are no written resources on the era, thus only a little is known about it. However, research has revealed some extremely early loanwords, such as szó ('word'; from the Turkic languages) and daru ('crane', from the related Permic languages.) (Redirected from 1000 BC) Centuries: 12th century BC - 11th century BC - 10th century BC Decades: 1050s BC 1040s BC 1030s BC 1020s BC 1010s BC - 1000s BC - 990s BC 980s BC 970s BC 960s BC 950s BC Events and Trends 1006 BC - David becomes king of the ancient Israelites (traditional... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... Permic languages is a subgroup of the Finno-Ugric language family. ...


The Turkic languages later, especially between the 5th and the 9th centuries, had a great influence on the language. Several words related to agriculture, to state administration or even to family relations have such backgrounds. Interestingly, Hungarian syntax and grammar was not influenced in a similarly dramatic way. The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ...

The Hungarians migrated to the Carpathian Basin around 896. Thus, they also got in contact with Slavic peoples, and borrowed several words from them, for example tégla, mák, or karácsony. In exchange, the neighbouring Slavic languages also contain some words of Hungarian origin (such as Croatian čizma, or Serbian ašov). Image File history File links Size of this preview: 423 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (830 × 1176 pixel, file size: 621 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) 12th century codex, now owned by the Hungarian National Library (OSZK: www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 423 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (830 × 1176 pixel, file size: 621 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) 12th century codex, now owned by the Hungarian National Library (OSZK: www. ... Original manuscript The Funeral Sermon and Prayer (Hungarian: Halotti beszéd és könyörgés) is an old handwritten Hungarian text dating to 1192-1195. ... The Pannonian plain is a large plain in central/south-eastern Europe that remained when the Pliocene Pannonian Sea (see below) dried out. ... Events The Bulgarians, under Simeon I, defeat the Byzantine Empire at Bulgarophygon. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... For other uses, see Brick (disambiguation). ... This article is about the plant. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... For other senses of this word, see boot (disambiguation). ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... For other uses, see Spade (disambiguation). ...


The first written accounts of Hungarian, mostly personal and place names, are dated back to the 10th century. Hungarians also had their own writing system, the Old Hungarian script, but no significant texts remained from the time. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... Hungarian Runes (Hungarian: , ( ) or simply ) is a type of runic writing system used by the Magyars (mainly by Székely Magyars) prior to AD 1000. ...


Influence of Latin

The Kingdom of Hungary was founded in 1000, by Stephen I of Hungary. The country was a western-styled christian state, and Latin held an important position, as it was usual in the Middle Ages. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Europe in 1000 The year 1000 of the Gregorian Calendar was the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the first millennium. ... Saint Stephen I (Hungarian: , Latin: , Slovak: , German: ; Esztergom, c. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


Therefore, Hungarian was also heavily influenced by Latin. The first extant text of the language is the Funeral Sermon and Prayer, written once in the 1190s. The earliest example of Hungarian religious poetry is the Old Hungarian 'Lamentations of Mary', a poem about the afflictions of Mary when she saw the death of her son. More extensive literature in the Hungarian language arose after 1300. The first Bible translation is the Hussite Bible from the 1430s. Original manuscript The Funeral Sermon and Prayer (Hungarian: Halotti beszéd és könyörgés) is an old handwritten Hungarian text dating to 1192-1195. ... Centuries: 11th century - 12th century - 13th century Decades: 1140s 1150s 1160s 1170s 1180s - 1190s - 1200s 1210s 1220s 1230s 1240s Years: 1190 1191 1192 1193 1194 1195 1196 1197 1198 1199 Events and Trends 1192 - Minamoto no Yoritomo granted title of shogun, thereby officially establishing Kamakura shogunate, the first shogunate in... Introduction The Old Hungarian Lamentations of Mary (OHLM) is the oldest extant Hungarian poem, copied in about 1300 into a Latin codex, similarly the first coherent written Hungarian text, which was written down between 1192 and 1195. ... According to the New Testament, Mary (Judeo-Aramaic מרים Maryām Bitter; Arabic مريم (Maryam); Septuagint Greek Μαριαμ, Mariam, Μαρια, Maria; Geez: ማሪያም, Māryām; Syriac: Mart, Maryam, Madonna), was the mother of Jesus of Nazareth, who at the time of his conception was the betrothed wife of Saint Joseph (cf. ... Ignác Acsády (1845–1904) Tamás Aczél (1921–1994) Endre Ady (1877–1919) Anonymus (2nd half of the XIII century) Zoltán Ambrus (1861–1932) Lajos Áprily (1897–1973) János Arany (1817–1882) László Arany (1844–1898) Mih... The Codex of Munich, open at the first page of the New Testament The Hussite Bible (Hungarian: Huszita Biblia; sometimes also The Bible of the Franciscans) is the oldest known Hungarian, but also Finno-Ugric Bible tranlation, dated to the 1420s-1430s. ... Events and Trends A map of Europe in the 1430s. ...


The language lost its diphthongs, and several postpositions transformed into suffixes, such as reá 'onto' – 1055: utu rea 'onto the way'; later: útra). Vowel harmony was also developed. At one time, Hungarian used six verb tenses; today, only two (the future not being counted as one, as it's a compound formed with an auxiliary verb). In phonetics, a diphthong (in Greek δίφθογγος) is a vowel combination usually involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ... Events January 11 - Theodora becomes Reigning Empress of the Eastern Roman Empire. ... Vowel harmony (also metaphony) is a type of long-distance assimilatory phonological process involving vowels. ... It has been suggested that Verbal agreement be merged into this article or section. ... Grammatical tense is a way languages express the time at which an event described by a sentence occurs. ...


The first printed Hungarian book was published in Cracow in 1533, by Benedek Komjáti. The work's title is Az Szent Pál levelei magyar nyelven[5], i.e. The letters of Saint Paul in the Hungarian language. In the 17th century, the language was already very similar to its present-day form, although two of the past tenses were still used. German, Italian and French loans also appeared in the language by these years. For other uses, see Book (disambiguation). ... Motto: none Voivodship Lesser Poland Municipal government Rada miasta Kraków Mayor Jacek Majchrowski Area 326,8 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 757,500 (2004 est. ... Events January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...


In the 18th century, the language was incapable of clearly expressing scientific concepts, and several writers found the vocabulary a bit scant for literary purposes. Thus, a group of writers, most notably Ferenc Kazinczy, began to compensate for these imperfections. Some words were shortened (győzedelem > győzelem 'triumph'); a number of dialectical words spread nationally (e. g. cselleng 'dawdle'); extinct words were reintroduced (dísz 'décor'); a wide range of expressions were coined using the various derivative suffixes; and some other, less frequently used methods of expanding the language were utilized. This movement was called the 'language reform' (Hungarian: nyelvújítás), and produced more than ten thousands words, many of which are used actively today. The reforms lead to the installment of Hungarian as the official language over Latin in the multiethnic country in 1844. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Ferenc Kazinczy (October 27, 1759 - August 22, 1831) was a Hungarian author, the most indefatigable agent in the regeneration of the Magyar language and literature at the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century. ... A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος, dialektos) is a variety of a language characteristic of a particular group of the languages speakers. ... Language reform is a kind of language planning by massive change to a language. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Jan. ...


The 19th and 20th centuries saw further standardization of the language, and the even originally inconsiderable differences between dialects gradually became less. In 1920, by signing the Treaty of Trianon, Hungary lost several territories, and along with these, 33% of the ethnic Hungarian population. Today, the language is official in Hungary, and regionally also in Romania, Serbia, and Slovenia. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... The negotiations on June 4, 1920. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to...


Geographic distribution

Regions in Europe where the Hungarian language is spoken. Based on recent censuses and on the CIA World Factbook 2006
Hungarian language in Vojvodina, Serbia (2002 census)
Hungarian language in Vojvodina, Serbia (2002 census)

Hungarian is spoken in the following countries as a mother tongue: Image File history File links Dist_of_hu_lang_europe. ... Image File history File links Dist_of_hu_lang_europe. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x787, 50 KB)Vojvodina language map (self made) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x787, 50 KB)Vojvodina language map (self made) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...

Country Speakers
Hungary 10 million (census 2001)
Romania
(mainly Transylvania)
1,443,970 (census 2002)
Slovakia 520,528 (census 2001)
Serbia
(mainly Vojvodina)
293,299 (census 2002)
Ukraine
(mainly Zakarpattia)
149,400 (census 2001)
United States 117,973 (census 2000)
Canada 75,555 (census 2001)
Israel 70,000
Austria
(mainly Burgenland)
22,000
Croatia 16,500
Slovenia 9,240
Total 12-13 million
Source: National censuses, Ethnologue

About a million more Hungarian speakers live in Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Italy, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, the United States, Venezuela, and in other parts of the world. Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or ; Hungarian: ; German: ; Bulgarian: ; Serbian: / or / ) is a historical region in central and western Romania. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Burgenland (Hungarian Várvidék, Őrvidék or FelsÅ‘Å‘rvidék, Croatian Gradišće, Slovenian Gradiščansko) is the easternmost and least populous state or Land of Austria. ... Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain...


Official status

Hungarian is the official language of Hungary, and thus an official language of the European Union. Hungarian is also one of the official languages of Vojvodina and an official language of three municipalities in Slovenia: Hodoš, Dobrovnik and Lendava, along with Slovene. Hungarian is officially recognized as a minority or regional language in Austria, Croatia, Romania, Bukovina, Zakarpattia in Ukraine, and Slovakia. In Romania and Slovakia, it is an official language at local level in all communes, towns and municipalities with an ethnic Hungarian population of over 20%. An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ... Area: 18,1 km² Population  - males  - females 356 167 189 Mayor: Ludvik Orban Average age: 38,32 let Residential areas:  - households:  - families: 32,72 m²/osebo 104 101 Working active:  - unemployed: 164 27,00 Average monthly salary (avgust 2003):  - gross:  - net:   294. ... Area: 31,1 km² Population  - males  - females 1. ... Area: 123. ... A minority language is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a country. ... A regional language is a language spoken in a part of a country, be it may be a small area, a federal state or province, or a wider area. ... Bukovina (Ukrainian: , Bukovyna; Romanian: Bucovina; German and Polish: Bukowina; see also other languages) is a historical region on the northern slopes of the northeastern Carpathian Mountains and the adjoining plains. ... Transcarpathia may refer to: Carpathian Ruthenia, a historic region Zakarpattia Oblast, an administrative unit of Ukraine This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


Dialects

The dialects of Hungarian identified by Ethnologue are: Alföld, West Danube, Danube-Tisza, King's Pass Hungarian, Northeast Hungarian, Northwest Hungarian, Székely and West Hungarian. These dialects are, for the most part, mutually intelligible. The Hungarian Csángó dialect, which is not listed by Ethnologue, is spoken mostly in Bacău County, Romania. The Csángó minority group has been largely isolated from other Hungarians, and they therefore preserved a dialect closely resembling medieval Hungarian. A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος) is a variant, or variety, of a language spoken in a certain geographical area. ... Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... A pair of languages is said to be mutually intelligible if speakers of one language can readily understand the other language. ... Approximate area in eastern Romania inhabited by Csángós The Csángó (Romanian: Ceangău, plural Ceangăi) are an ethnic group of Roman Catholic faith, some speaking a Hungarian dialect and some Romanian. ... Bacău (Hungarian: Bákó) is a county (judeÅ£) in the center-east of Romania, in the Moldova region, with its capital city at Bacău. ...


Phonology

Hungarian vowels
Hungarian vowels
Main article: Hungarian phonology

Hungarian has 14 vowel phonemes and 25 consonant phonemes. The vowel phonemes can be grouped as pairs of long and short vowels, e.g. o and ó. Most of these pairs have a similar pronunciation, only varying in their duration; the pairs <a>/<á> and <e>/<é> differ both in closedness and length, however. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


Consonant length is also distinctive in Hungarian. Most of the consonant phonemes can occur as geminates. In phonetics, consonant length is when a spoken consonant is pronounced for an audibly longer period of time than a short consonant. ... In phonetics, consonant length is when a spoken consonant is pronounced for an audibly longer period of time than a short consonant. ...


The sound voiced palatal plosive /ɟ/, written <gy>, is unlike any in English. It occurs in the name of the country, "Magyarország" (Hungary), pronounced /ˈmɒɟɒrorsaːg/. The voiced palatal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Primary stress is always on the first syllable of a word, as with its cousin Finnish and neighboring languages, Slovak (Standard dialect) and Czech. There is sometimes secondary stress on other syllables, especially in compounds, e.g. "viszontlátásra" (goodbye) pronounced /ˈvisontˌlaːtaːʃrɒ/. A syllable (Ancient Greek: ) is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. ...


Front-back vowel harmony is an important feature of Hungarian phonology. See the details about Hungarian language in the linked article. Vowel harmony (also metaphony) is a type of long-distance assimilatory phonological process involving vowels. ...


Grammar and syntax

Main article: Hungarian grammar

Hungarian is an agglutinative language – it uses a number of different affixes, including suffixes, prefixes and a circumfix to define the meaning or the grammatical function. Although common in English, Hungarian does not use any prepositions, but only postpositions. Hungarian grammar is the study of the rules governing the use of the Hungarian language, a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and in adjacent areas of Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine, Serbia, Croatia, Austria, and Slovenia (all territories lost after World War I). ... It has been suggested that Agglutination be merged into this article or section. ... Look up affix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that Ending (linguistics) be merged into this article or section. ... Look up prefix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A circumfix or circumflection is an affix, a morpheme which is placed around another morpheme. ... In grammar, a preposition is a word that establishes a relationship between an object (usually a noun phrase) and some other part of the sentence, often expressing a location in place or time. ... A postposition is a type of adposition, a grammatical particle that expresses some sort of relationship between a noun phrase (its object) and another part of the sentence; an adpositional phrase functions as an adjective or adverb. ...


There are two articles in Hungarian: a definite (’a’ before words beginning with consonants, else ’az’) and an indefinite (’egy’.) Nouns have as many as eighteen cases. Out of these, some are grammatical, e.g. the unmarked nominative (for example, az alma ’the apple’), and the accusative marked with the suffix –t (az almát). The latter is used when the noun in question is used as the object of a verb. Hungarian does not have a genitive case, and numerous English prepositions equal not to an affix, but to a postposition, such as az alma mellett ’next to the apple’. Plurals are formed using the suffix –k (az almák ’the apples’). Adjectives precede nouns, e. g. a piros alma ’the red apple’. They have three degrees, including base (piros ’red’), comparative (pirosabb ’more red’), and superlative (legpirosabb ’the most red’). If the noun takes the plural or a case, the adjective does not agree with it: a piros almák ’the red apples’. Look up article in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun. ... The term accusative may be used in the following contexts: A form of morphosyntactic alignment, as found in nominative-accusative languages. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A postposition is a type of adposition, a grammatical particle that expresses some sort of relationship between a noun phrase (its object) and another part of the sentence; an adpositional phrase functions as an adjective or adverb. ... In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ...


Verbs developed a complex conjugation system during the centuries. Every Hungarian verb has two conjugations (definite and indefinite), two tenses (past and present-future), and three moods (indicative, conditional and imperative), two numbers (singular or plural), and three persons (first, second and third). Out of these features, the two different conjugations are the most characteristic: the "definite" conjugation is used for a transitive verb with a definite object. The "indefinite" conjugation is used for an intransitive verb or for a transitive verb with an indefinite object. These rules, however, do not apply everywhere. The following examples demonstrate this system: It has been suggested that Verbal agreement be merged into this article or section. ... Conjugation may refer to: Grammatical conjugation, the modification of runnign a verb from its basic form Latin conjugation, Spanish conjugation and The English verb, each with complex conjugation forms Marriage, relationship between two individuals In mathematics: Complex conjugation, the operation which multiplies the imaginary part of a complex number by... Grammatical tense is a way languages express the time at which an event described by a sentence occurs. ... A transitive verb is a verb that requires both a subject and one or more objects. ... “Intransitive” redirects here. ...

John egy almát lát. ’John sees an apple.’
(indefinite, the apple can be any of the world’s apples)

John a piros almát látja. ’John sees the red apple.’
(definite, as it was pointed out he sees the red one)

See also: Definite and indefinite conjugations.

Present tense is unmarked, while past is formed using the suffix –t or sometimes –tt: lát 'sees'; látott 'saw', past. Futurity is often expressed with the present tense, or using the auxiliary verb fog ’will’. The first most commonly applies when the sentence also defines the time of the future event, for example John pénteken moziba megy – literally ’John on Friday into cinema goes’, i.e. ’On Friday, John will go to the cinema.’ In the other case, the verb’s infinitive (formed using –ni) and the ’fog’ auxiliary verb is used: John moziba fog menni – ’John will go to the cinema.’ This is sometimes counted as a tense, especially by non-specialist publications. This page is about verbs in Hungarian grammar. ... The present tense is the tense (form of a verb) that is often used to express: Action at the present time A state of being A habitual action An occurrence in the near future An action that occurred in the past and continues up to the present There are two...


Indicative mood is used in all tenses; the conditional only in the present and the past, finally the imperative just in the present. Indicative is always unmarked. Verbs also have verbal prefixes. Most of them define movement direction (lemegy – goes down, felmegy – goes up), but some of them give an aspect to the verb, such as the prefix meg-, which defines a finite action. In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood, which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ... Look up conditional in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Imperative programming, as opposed to functional programming, is a sort of programming employing side-effect as central execution feature. ... Aspect is a piece of information about a topic, usually on look and appearance. ...


Hungarian word order is often mentioned as free, i.e. because of marking the object using –t, it is not always necessary to place the subject before the verb, and the object after it, as in English. This feature makes Hungarian to be able to focus on particular sections of the sentence – generally, the beginning of the sentence contains the most important information: In linguistic typology, word order is the order in which words appear in sentences. ... See subject (grammar) for the linguistic definition of subject. ... WordNet gives four main senses for the English noun object: a physical entity; something that is within the grasp of the senses; an aim, target or objective — see Object (task); a grammatical Object — either a direct object or an indirect object the focus of cognitions or feelings. ...

Lát John egy almát. ’John sees an apple.’
(when it is important to stress out John really sees an apple)

Egy almát lát John. ’John sees an apple.’
(when it is important that John sees an apple, and not something else.)

Lexicon

Example with ad
Hungarian English
Derived terms
ad he is giving sth
adó tax
adózik he pays tax
adózó taxpayer
adós debtor
adalék aggregate n
adomány donation
adat data
With verbal prefixes
megad he is giving sth

(e.g. debt etc.) back

hozzáad he is adding sth to sth
As part of compounds
adóhivatal revenue office
rádióadó transmitter

Giving an exact estimate for the total word count is difficult, since it is hard to define what to call "a word" in agglutinating languages, due to the existence of compound words. To have a meaningful definition of compound words, we have to exclude such compounds whose meaning is the mere sum of its elements. The largest dictionaries from Hungarian to another language contain 120,000 words and phrases[6] (but this may include redundant phrases as well, because of translation issues). The new desk lexicon of Hungarian language contains 75,000 words[6] and the Comprehensive Dictionary of Hungarian Language (to be published in 18 volumes in the next twenty years) will contain 110,000 words. [7] The default Hungarian lexicon is usually estimated to comprise 60,000 to 100,000 words.[8] (Independently of specific languages, speakers actively use at most 10,000 to 20,000 words[9], with an average intellectual using 25-30 thousand words.[8]) However, all the Hungarian lexemes collected from technical texts, dialects etc. would all together add up to 1,000,000 words.[10] For the music festival, see Agglutination Metal Festival. ...


Hungarian words are built around so-called word-bushes. (See an example on the right.) Thus, words with similar meaning often arise from the same root.


The basic vocabulary shares a couple of hundred word roots with other Uralic languages like Finnish, Estonian, Mansi and Khanty. Examples of such include the numbers kettő 'two', három 'three', négy 'four' (cf. Finnish kaksi, kolme, neljä, Estonian kaks, kolm, neli, Mansi китыг kitig, хурум khurum, нила nila), as well as víz 'water', kéz 'hand, arm', vér 'blood', fej 'head' (cf. Finnish and Estonian vesi, käsi, veri, Finnish pää, Estonian pea or 'pää). Geographical distribution of Samoyedic, Finnic, Ugric and Yukaghir languages  Yukaghir  Samoyedic  Ugric  Finnic The Uralic languages (pronounced: ) form a language family of about 30 languages spoken by approximately 20 million people. ... The Mansi language (also known as Vogul, though this name is now old-fashioned and largely disused), is a language of the Mansi people. ... Khanty or Xanty language, also known as the Ostyak language, is a language of the Khant peoples. ...


The proportion of the word roots in Hungarian lexicon is as follows: Finno-Ugric 21 %, Slavic 20 %, German 11 %, Turkic 9.5 %, Latin and Greek 6 %, Romance 2.5 %, Other of known origin 1 %, Other of uncertain origin 30%.[11] Except for a few Latin and Greek loan-words, these differences are unnoticed even by native speakers; the words have been entirely adopted into the Hungarian lexicon. There are an increasing number of English loan-words, especially in technical fields.  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ...


Word formation

Words can be compound (as in German) and derived (with suffixes). Look up affix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Compounds

Compounds are present since the Proto-Uralic era in the language. Numerous ancient compounds transformed to base words during the centuries. Today, compounds play an important role in vocabulary. Proto-Uralic is the ancestor language of the Uralic languages, including the hypothetical families of the Samoyedic languages and the Finno-Ugric languages. ...


Compounds are made up of two base words: the first is the prefix, the latter is the suffix. A compound can be subordinative: the prefix is in logical connection with the suffix. If the prefix is the subject of the suffix, the compound is generally classified as a subjective one. There are objective, determinative, and adjunctive compounds as well. Some examples are given below: This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The accusative case of a noun is, generally, the case used to mark the direct object of a verb. ... Determiners are words which quantify or identify nouns. ... The following is about the linguistics term; adjunct is also a conjunct disjunct adverbial Categories: Linguistics stubs ...

Subjective:
menny (heaven) + dörög (thunder) → mennydörög (thundering)
nap (Sun) + sütötte (baked) → napsütötte (sunlit)
Objective:
fa (tree, wood) + vágó (cutter) → favágó (lumberjack, literally "woodcutter")
Determinative:
új (new) + (modification of -vá, -vé a suffix meaning "making it to something") + építés (construction) → újjáépítés (reconstruction, literally "making something to be new by construction")
Adjunctive:
sárga (yellow) + réz (copper) → sárgaréz (brass)

According to current orthographic rules, a subordinative compound word has to be written as a single word, without spaces; however, if the length of a compound is over six syllables, a hyphen may be inserted at the appropriate boundary to avoid ambiguity. This article discusses the unit of speech. ...


Other compound words are coordinatives: there is no concrete relation between the prefix and the suffix. Subcategories include word duplications (to stress out the meaning; olykor-olykor 'really occasionally'), twin words (where a base word and a distorted form of it makes up a compound: gizgaz, where the suffix 'gaz' means 'weed' and the prefix giz is the distorted form; the compound itself means 'inconsiderable weed'), and such compounds which have meanings, but neither their prefixes, nor their suffixes make sense (for example, hercehurca 'long-lasting, frusteredly done deed').


A compound also can be made up by multiple (i.e., more than two) base words: in this case, at least one word element, or even both the prefix and the suffix is a compound. Some examples:

elme [mind; standalone base] + (gyógy [medical] + intézet [institute]) → elmegyógyintézet (asylum)
(hadi [militarian] + fogoly [prisoner]) + (munka [work] + tábor [camp]) → hadifogoly-munkatábor (work camp of prisoners of war)

A psychiatric hospital (also called, at various places and times, mental hospital or mental ward, historically often asylum, lunatic asylum, or madhouse), is a hospital specialising in the treatment of persons with mental illness. ...

Noteworthy lexical items

Two words for "red"

There are two basic words for "red" in Hungarian, piros and vörös (variant: veres; compare with Estonian 'verev' or Finnish 'verevä'). (They are basic in the sense that one is not a sub-type of the other, like e.g. scarlet is a kind of red.) The word vörös is related to vér "blood". When they refer to an actual difference in colour (as on a colour chart), vörös usually refers to the deeper hue of red. While many languages have multiple words for this colour, Hungarian is unique in having two distinct basic colour words for red.[12]


However, the two words are also used independently of the above in collocations. Piros is first taught to children, as it is generally used to describe inanimate, artificial things, or things seen as cheerful or neutral, while vörös typically refers to animate or nature-related things (biological, geological, physical and astronomical objects), as well as serious or emotionally charged subjects. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


When the rules outlined above are in contradiction, typical collocations usually prevail. In some cases where a typical collocation doesn't exist, the use of either of the two words may be equally adequate.


Examples:

  • Expressions where "red" typically translates to piros: a red road sign, the red line of the Budapest Metro, a holiday shown in red in the calendar, ruddy complexion, the red nose of a clown, some red flowers (those with a "cold" property, e.g. tulip), red peppers and paprika, red cards (hearts and diamonds), red traffic lights, red light district, red stripes on a flag, etc.
  • Expressions where "red" typically translates to vörös: red army, red wine, red carpet (for receiving important guests), red hair / beard, red lion (as a mythical animal), the Red Cross, The Red and the Black, the Red Sea, redshift, red giant, red blood cells, red oak, some red flowers (those with a "passionate" property, e.g. rose), red fox, names of ferric and other red minerals, red copper, rust, red phosphorus, the colour of blushing with anger or shame, etc.

81-717 type train The Budapest Metro (Hungarian: budapesti metró) is the metro system in the Hungarian capital Budapest. ... The Anarchist Black Cross was originally called the Anarchist Red Cross. The band Redd Kross was originally called Red Cross. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Le Rouge et le Noir (The Red and the Black) is a novel by Stendhal, published in 1830. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... Redshift of spectral lines in the optical spectrum of a supercluster of distant galaxies (right), as compared with that of the Sun (left). ... According to the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, a red giant is a large non-main sequence star of stellar classification K or M; so-named because of the reddish appearance of the cooler giant stars. ... “Red cell” redirects here. ... Binomial name Quercus rubra L. The Northern red oak, Quercus rubra (Quercus borealis in some older references), is an oak in the red oak group (Quercus section Lobatae). ...

Kinship terms

In Hungarian there exist separate words for brothers and sisters depending on relative age:

younger elder unspecified
relative age
brother öcs báty fivér or
fiútestvér
sister húg nővér nővér or
lánytestvér
unspecified
gender
- - testvér

(There existed a separate word for "elder sister", néne, but it has become obsolete [except to mean "aunt" in some dialects] and has been replaced by the generic word for "sister".)


Besides, separate prefixes exist for up to the 6th ancestors and descendants (although there are ambiguities and dialectical differences affecting the prefixes for the 4th (and above) ancestors):

parent grandparent great-
grandparent
great-great-
grandparent
great-great-great-
grandparent
great-great-great-
great-grandparent
szülő nagyszülő dédszülő ükszülő szépszülő
(OR ük-ükszülő)
ősszülő / ószülő
(OR ük-ük-ükszülő)
child grandchild great-
grandchild
great-great-
grandchild
great-great-great-
grandchild
great-great-great-
great-grandchild
gyer(m)ek unoka dédunoka ükunoka szépunoka
(OR ük-ükunoka)
óunoka
(OR ük-ük-ükunoka)

On the other hand, no lexical items exist for "son" and "daughter", but the words for "boy" and "girl" are applied with possessive suffixes. Nevertheless, the terms are differentiated with different declension or lexemes:

boy/girl (his/her)
son/daughter
(his/her)
boy/girl (-friend)
male fiú fia barátja
female lány lánya barátnője

Fia is only used in this, irregular possessive form; it has no nominative on its own. However, the word fiú can also take the regular suffix, in which case the resulting word (fiúja) will be synonymous with barátja ("his/her boyfriend").


Extremely long words

  • Megszentségteleníthetetlenségeskedéseitekért
Partition to root and suffixes with explanations:
meg- verb prefix; in this case, it means "completed"
szent holy (the word root)
-ség like English "-ness", as in "holiness"
-t(e)len variant of "-tlen", noun suffix expressing the lack of something; like English "-less", as in "useless"
-ít constitutes a verb from an adjective
-het expresses possibility; somewhat similar to the English auxiliaries "may" or "can"
-(e)tlen another variant of "-tlen"
-ség (see above)
‑es constitutes an adjective from a noun; like English "-y" as in "witty"
-ked attached to an adjective (e.g. "strong"), produces the verb "to pretend to be (strong)"
-és constitutes a noun from a verb; there are various ways this is done in English, e.g. "-ance" in "acceptance"
-eitek plural possessive suffix, second person plural (e.g. "apple" -> "your apples", where "your" refers to multiple people)
-ért approximately translates to "because of", or in this case simply "for"
Translation: "for your [plural] repeated pretending to be undesecratable"
  • Legeslegmegszentségteleníttethetetlenebbeiteknek
"to those of you whom it is the very least possible to have desecrated"
  • Töredezettségmentesítőtleníttethetetlenségtelenítőtlenkedhetnétek tör-edez-ett-ség-mentes-ít-ő-tlen-ít-tet-het-etlen-ség-telen-ítő-tlen-ked(ik)-het-né-tek
"you [plural] could constantly mention the lack [of a thing] that makes it impossible to make someone make something defragmenter-free"

These words are never used in practice (and hard to understand even for native speakers), but only invented to show, in a somewhat facetious way, the ability of the language to form long words. They are not compound words – they are formed by adding a series of one and two-syllable suffixes (and a few prefixes) to a simple root ("szent" in the first two and "tör" in the third).


See also: Hungarian tongue-twisters.


Writing system

Main article: Hungarian alphabet
The oldest surviving words written in Hungarian, from the founding declaration of the Benedictine Abbey of Tihany, 1055
The oldest surviving words written in Hungarian, from the founding declaration of the Benedictine Abbey of Tihany, 1055
Medieval Hungarian book (a copy of the Hussite Bible), 1466
Medieval Hungarian book (a copy of the Hussite Bible), 1466

Before AD 1000, Hungarians had a different writing system. When Stephen I of Hungary established the Kingdom of Hungary, the old system gradually became unused. However, although it is not used at all in everyday life, it is still known and practiced by some enthusiasts. For more information about this writing system, see Old Hungarian script. The Hungarian alphabet is an extension of the Roman alphabet. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 137 pixels Full resolution (934 × 160 pixel, file size: 306 KB, MIME type: image/png) Text fragment from the founding declaration of the Benedictine Abbey of Tihany (Hungary), 1055. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 137 pixels Full resolution (934 × 160 pixel, file size: 306 KB, MIME type: image/png) Text fragment from the founding declaration of the Benedictine Abbey of Tihany (Hungary), 1055. ... Tihany is a village on the northern shore of Lake Balaton on the Tihany Peninsula. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 421 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (568 × 808 pixel, file size: 413 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hungarian language User... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 421 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (568 × 808 pixel, file size: 413 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hungarian language User... The Codex of Munich, open at the first page of the New Testament The Hussite Bible (Hungarian: Huszita Biblia; sometimes also The Bible of the Franciscans) is the oldest known Hungarian, but also Finno-Ugric Bible tranlation, dated to the 1420s-1430s. ... Saint Stephen I (Hungarian: , Latin: , Slovak: , German: ; Esztergom, c. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Hungarian Runes (Hungarian: , ( ) or simply ) is a type of runic writing system used by the Magyars (mainly by Székely Magyars) prior to AD 1000. ...


Hungarian is written using a variant of the Latin alphabet, and has a phonemic orthography, i.e. pronunciation can generally be predicted from the written language. In addition to the standard letters of the Latin alphabet, Hungarian uses several additional letters. These include letters with acute accents (á,é,í,ó,ú) which represent long vowels, with umlauts (ö and ü) and their long counterparts ő and ű. Sometimes (usually as a result of a technical glitch) ô or õ is used for ő and û for ű, due to the limitations of the Latin-1 / ISO-8859-1 code page, though these are not part of the Hungarian language, and are considered misprints. Hungarian can be properly represented with the Latin-2 / ISO-8859-2 code page, but this code page is not always available. (Hungarian is the only language using both ő and ű.) Of course, Unicode includes them, and they therefore can be used on the Internet. The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ... The double acute accent ( ˝ ) is a diacritic mark of the latin script used primarily in written Hungarian. ... ISO 8859-1, more formally cited as ISO/IEC 8859-1 or less formally as Latin-1, is part 1 of ISO/IEC 8859, a standard character encoding of the Latin alphabet. ... ISO 8859-2, more formally cited as ISO/IEC 8859-2 or less formally as Latin-2, is part 2 of ISO/IEC 8859, a standard character encoding defined by ISO. It encodes what it refers to as Latin alphabet no. ... Code page is the traditional IBM term used for a specific character encoding table: a mapping in which a sequence of bits, usually a single octet representing integer values 0 through 255, is associated with a specific character. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ...


For a complete table of the pronunciation of the Hungarian alphabet, see the X-SAMPA description in the Hungarian Wikipedia (in Hungarian, but the table is obvious), which transliterates Hungarian letters into IPA and X-SAMPA characters. Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The Extended SAM Phonetic Alphabet (X-SAMPA) is a variant of SAMPA developed in 1995 by John C. Wells, professor of phonetics at the University of London. ...


Additionally, the letter pairs <ny>, <ty>, and <gy> represent the palatal consonants /ɲ/, /c/, and /ɟ/ (a little like the "d+y" sounds in British "duke" or American "would you"). Also like saying d with your tongue pointing to your upper palate. Hungarian uses <s> for /ʃ/ and <sz> for /s/, which is the reverse of Polish. <zs> is /ʒ/ and <cs> is /ʧ/. All these digraphs are considered single letters. <ly> is also a "single letter digraph", but is pronounced like /j/ (English <y>), and mostly appears in old words. More exotic letters are <dz> and <dzs> /ʤ/. They are hard to find even in a longer text. Examples are madzag ("string"), edzeni ("to train (athletically)") and dzsungel ("jungle"). Linguistics & Pronunciation Ny is the twenty-third letter of the Hungarian alphabet. ... Linguistics & Pronunciation Ty is the thirty-fourth letter of the Hungarian alphabet. ... Linguistics & Pronunciation Gy is the thirtheenth letter of the Hungarian alphabet. ... Linguistics & Pronunciation Sz is the thirty-second letter of the Hungarian alphabet. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Linguistics & Pronunciation Ly is the twentieth letter of the Hungarian alphabet. ... Linguistics & Pronunciation Dz is the seventh letter of the Hungarian alphabet. ... // Linguistics & Pronunciation Dzs is the eighth letter, and only trigraph, of the Hungarian alphabet. ...


Single R's are tapped, like the Spanish "pero"; Double R's and initial R's are trilled, like the Spanish "perro". The alveolar tap or flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ...


Hungarian distinguishes between long and short vowels, where the long vowels are written with acutes, and between long consonants and short consonants, where the long consonants are written double. The digraphs, when doubled, become trigraphs: <sz>+<sz>=<ssz>, but when the digraph occurs at the end of a line, all letters are written out:

... busz-
szal...

When a prefix ends in a digraph and the suffix starts with the same digraph, both digraphs are written out: lány + nyak = lánynyak.


Usually a trigraph is a double digraph, but there are a few exceptions: tizennyolc "eighteen" is tizen + nyolc. There are doubling minimal pairs: tol (push) vs. toll (feather or pen). In phonology, minimal pairs are pairs of words or phrases in a particular language, which differ in only one phone, phoneme, toneme or chroneme and have a distinct meaning. ...


While it seems unusual to English speakers at first, once one learns the new orthography and pronunciations, written Hungarian is nearly totally phonemic.


Name order

Main article: Hungarian name

The Hungarian language uses the so-called eastern name order, in which the family name comes first and the given name comes last. However, as a rule, names are represented in the western name order when used in foreign languages. Thus for example Edward Teller, the Hungarian-born physicist, is known in Hungary as Teller Ede. Prior to the mid-20th century, given names were usually translated along with the name order; this is no longer as common. For example, the pianist uses András Schiff when abroad, not Andrew Schiff. // Orthography Modern Hungarian orthography is slightly different (simpler) than that of 18th or 19th century, but many Hungarian surnames retain their historical spelling. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Anthroponym. ... A family name, surname, or last name is the part of a persons name that indicates to what family he or she belongs. ... Look up Appendix:Most popular given names by country in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Edward Teller (original Hungarian name Teller Ede) (January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Austria-Hungary-born American theoretical physicist, known colloquially as the father of the hydrogen bomb. ... András Schiff (born December 21, 1953) is a Hungarian-born Jewish classical pianist. ...


In modern usage, foreign names retain their order when used in Hungarian. Therefore:

  • Amikor Kiss János Los Angelesben járt, látta John Travoltát.

translates to

  • When János Kiss went to Los Angeles, he saw John Travolta.

Pre-20th-century foreign personalities have often had their names Hungarianized even in recent times: Verne Gyula (rather than Jules Verne), Marx Károly (rather than Karl Marx) and Engels Frigyes (rather than Friedrich Engels). Other exceptional forms include Kolumbusz Kristóf (Christopher Columbus), Luther Márton (Martin Luther), Husz János (Jan Hus) and Kálvin János (John Calvin). Jules Gabriel Verne (February 8, 1828–March 24, 1905) was a French author who pioneered the science-fiction genre. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Friedrich Engels (November 28, 1820 – August 5, 1895) was a German social scientist and philosopher, who developed communist theory alongside his better-known collaborator, Karl Marx, co-authoring The Communist Manifesto (1848). ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and maritime explorer credited as the discoverer of the Americas. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Jan Hus ( ) (IPA: , alternative spellings John Hus, Jan Huss, John Huss) (c. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ...


Vocabulary examples

Note: The stress is always placed on the first syllable of each word. The remaining syllables all receive an equal, lesser stress. All syllables are pronounced clearly and evenly, even at the end of a sentence, unlike in English.

  • Hungarian (person, language): magyar [mɑɟɑr]
  • Hello!:
    • Formal, when addressing a stranger: "Good day!": Jó napot (kívánok)! [joːnɑpot ki:vaːnok]
    • Informal, when addressing someone you know very well: Szia! [siɑ] (it sounds almost exactly like American colloquialism "See ya!")
  • Good-bye!: Viszontlátásra! (formal) (see above), Viszlát! [vislaːt] (semi-informal), Szia (informal: same stylistic remark as for "Hello!" )
  • Excuse me: Elnézést! [ɛlneːzeːʃt]
  • Please:
    • Kérem (szépen) [keːrɛm seːpɛn] (This literally means "I'm asking (it/you) beautifully", as in German Danke schön, "I thank (you) beautifully". See next for a more common form of the polite request.)
    • Legyen szíves! [lɛɟɛn sivɛʃ] (literally: "Be (so) kind!")
  • I would like ____, please: Szeretnék ____ [sɛrɛtneːk] (this example illustrates the use of the conditional tense, as a common form of a polite request)
  • Sorry!: Bocsánat! [botʃaːnɑt]
  • Thank you: Köszönöm [køsønøm]
  • that/this: az [ɑz], ez [ɛz]
  • How much?: Mennyi? [mɛɲɲi]
  • How much does it cost?: Mennyibe kerül? [mɛɲɲibe kɛryl]
  • Yes: Igen [iɡɛn]
  • No: Nem [nɛm]
  • I don't understand: Nem értem [nɛm eːrtɛm]
  • I don't know: Nem tudom [nɛm tudom]
  • Where's the toilet?:
    • Hol van a vécé? [hol vɑn ɑ veːtseː] (vécé/veːtseː is the Hungarian pronouncation of the English abbreviation of "Water Closet")
    • Hol van a mosdó? [hol vɑn ɑ moʒdoː] – more polite (and word-for-word) version
  • generic toast: Egészségünkre! [ɛɡeːʃʃeːgynkrɛ] (literally: "To our health!")
  • juice: gyümölcslé [ɟymøltʃleː]
  • water: víz [viːz]
  • wine: bor [bor]
  • beer: sör [ʃør]
  • tea: tea [tɛɑ]
  • milk: tej [tɛj]
  • Do you speak English?: Tud(sz) angolul? [tud(s) ɑngolul] Note that the fact of asking is only shown by the proper intonation: continually rising until the penultimate syllable, then falling for the last one.
  • I love you: Szeretlek [sɛrɛtlɛk]
  • Help!: Segítség! [ʃɛgiːtʃeːg]

The conditional tense (sometimes described as the conditional mood) is a verb form in many languages, in which a verb root is modified to form verb tenses, moods, or aspects expressing degrees of certainty or uncertainty and hypothesis about past, present, or future. ...

Controversy over origins

Mainstream linguistics holds that Hungarian is part of the Uralic family of languages, related ultimately to languages such as Finnish and Nenets. Geographical distribution of Finnic, Ugric, Samoyed and Yukaghir languages The Uralic languages form a language family of about 30 languages spoken by approximately 20 million people. ... Nenets (autonym: ненёця вада) is a language spoken by the Nenets people in northern Russia. ...

  • For many years (from 1869), it was a matter of dispute whether Hungarian was a Finno-Ugric/Uralic language, or was more closely related to the Turkic languages, a controversy known as the "Ugric-Turkish war". Hungarians did absorb some Turkic influences during several centuries of co-habitation. For example, it appears that the Hungarians learned animal breeding techniques from the Turkic Chuvash, as a high proportion of words specific to agriculture and livestock are of Chuvash origin. There was also a strong Chuvash influence in burial customs. Furthermore, all Ugric languages, not just Hungarian, have Turkic loanwords related to horse riding. Nonetheless, the science of linguistics shows that the basic wordstock and morphological patterns of the Hungarian language are solidly based on a Uralic heritage.
  • There have been historical attempts to link Hungarian with e.g. Etruscan, Turkic, and Sumerian. Such alternative theories are usually only advocated by non-specialists today. See Pseudoscientific language comparison.
  • Hungarian has often been claimed to be related to Hunnish, since Hungarian legends and histories show close ties between the two peoples (although the name Hunor, preserved in legends and still used as a given name in Hungary, can also show a link with Khanty). Some people believe that the Székelys, a Hungarian ethnic group living in Romania, are descended from the Huns. However, the link with Hunnish is uncertain, and it is not even known which languages the Huns spoke.

There have been attempts, dismissed by mainstream linguists, to show that Hungarian is related to other languages including Hebrew, Egyptian, Basque, Persian, Pelasgian, Greek, Chinese, Sanskrit, English, Tibetan, Magar, Quechua, Armenian and at least 42 other Asian, European and even American languages.[13] 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... The Chuvash are a bunch of pakis . ... Languages in Iron Age Italy, 6th century BC Etruscan was a language spoken and written in the ancient region of Etruria (current Tuscany plus western Umbria and northern Latium) and in parts of what are now Lombardy, Veneto, and Emilia-Romagna (where the Etruscans were displaced by Gauls), in Italy. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... Sumerian ( native tongue) was the language of ancient Sumer, spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BCE. It was gradually replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language in the beginning of the 2nd millenium BCE, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Hunnic language is an extinct language of the Huns. ... Khanty or Xanty language, also known as the Ostyak language, is a language of the Khant peoples. ... The Székely or Szeklers (Hungarian: , Romanian: , German: ) ( sék-ei in pronunciation ) are a Hungarian ethnic group mostly living in Transylvania in Romania, with a significant population also living in Vojvodina, Serbia. ... The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ... The Pelasgian language is the unclassified language of the ancient Pelasgians. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Tibetan language is spoken primarily by the Tibetan people who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia, as well as by large number of Tibetan refugees all over the world. ... Magar (ISO/DIS 639-3: mgp /ISO/DIS 639-3: mrd) is a language spoken in parts of Nepal and Sikkim in India. ... Quechua (Runa Simi in Quechua; Runa, human + Simi, speech, literally mouth; i. ...


See also

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Wikibooks
Wikibooks has more about this subject:

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Hungarian grammar is the study of the rules governing the use of the Hungarian language, a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and in adjacent areas of Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine, Serbia, Croatia, Austria, and Slovenia (all territories lost after World War I). ... The Hungarian alphabet is an extension of the Roman alphabet. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Ignác Acsády (1845&#8211;1904) Tamás Aczél (1921&#8211;1994) Endre Ady (1877&#8211;1919) Anonymus (2nd half of the XIII century) Zoltán Ambrus (1861&#8211;1932) Lajos Áprily (1897&#8211;1973) János Arany (1817&#8211;1882) László Arany (1844&#8211;1898) Mih... This is a list of English words of Hungarian origin: Biro  From Bíró. Named after Mr. ... The language is predominantly spoken in Central Europe. ... This article is about the Hungarian ethnic group. ... Introduction The Old Hungarian Lamentations of Mary (OHLM) is the oldest extant Hungarian poem, copied in about 1300 into a Latin codex, similarly the first coherent written Hungarian text, which was written down between 1192 and 1195. ...

Bibliography

Courses

  • Colloquial Hungarian - The complete course for beginners. Rounds, Carol H.; Sólyom, Erika (2002). London; New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-242584.
This book gives an introduction to the Hungarian language in 15 chapters. The dialogues are available on cassette or CDs.
  • Teach Yourself Hungarian - A complete course for beginners. Pontifex, Zsuzsa (1993). London: Hodder & Stoughton. Chicago: NTC/Contemporary Publishing. ISBN 0-340-56286-2.
This is a complete course in spoken and written Hungarian. The course consists of 21 chapters with dialogues, culture notes, grammar and exercises. The dialogues are available on cassette.
These course books were developed by the University of Debrecen Summer School program for teaching Hungarian to foreigners. The books are written completely in Hungarian. There is an accompanying 'dictionary' for each book with translations of the Hungarian vocabulary in English, German, and French.
  • "NTC's Hungarian and English Dictionary" by Magay and Kiss. ISBN 0-8442-4968-8 (You may be able to find a newer edition also. This one is 1996.)

Grammars

  • A practical Hungarian grammar (3rd, rev. ed.). Keresztes, László (1999). Debrecen: Debreceni Nyári Egyetem. ISBN 963-472-300-4.
  • Practical Hungarian grammar: [a compact guide to the basics of Hungarian grammar]. Törkenczy, Miklós (2002). Budapest: Corvina. ISBN 963-13-5131-9.
  • Hungarian verbs and essentials of grammar: a practical guide to the mastery of Hungarian (2nd ed.). Törkenczy, Miklós (1999). Budapest: Corvina; Lincolnwood, [Ill.]: Passport Books. ISBN 963-13-4778-8.
  • Hungarian: an essential grammar. Rounds, Carol (2001). London; New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-22612-0.
  • Hungarian: Descritpive grammar. Kenesei, István, Robert M. Vago, and Anna Fenyvesi (1998). London; New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-02139-1.
  • Hungarian Language Learning References (including the short reviews of three of the above books)
  • Noun Declension Tables - HUNGARIAN. Budapest: Pons. Klett. ISBN 9789639641044
  • Verb Conjugation Tables - HUNGARIAN. Budapest: Pons. Klett. ISBN 9789639641037

References

  1. ^ Lebedynsky, Iaroslav. Les Nomades: Les peuples nomades de la steppe des origines aux invasions mongoles. Paris: Errance, 2003: p. 191
  2. ^ Sugar, P.F..A History of Hungary. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1996: p. 9
  3. ^ Maxwell, A.Magyarization, Language Planning and Whorf: The word Uhor as a Case Study in Linguistic RelativismMultilingua 23: 319, 2004.
  4. ^ Marcantonio, Angela. The Uralic Language Family: Facts, Myths and Statistics. Blackwell Publishing, 2002: p. 19
  5. ^ In original spelling: Az zenth Paal leueley magyar nyeluen
  6. ^ a b A nyelv és a nyelvek ("Language and languages"), edited by István Kenesei. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 2004, ISBN 963-05-7959-6, p. 77)
  7. ^ The first two volumes of the 20-volume series were introduced on 13 November, 2006, at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (in Hungarian)
  8. ^ a b "Hungarian is not difficult" (interview with Ádám Nádasdy)
  9. ^ A nyelv és a nyelvek ("Language and languages"), edited by István Kenesei. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 2004, ISBN 963-05-7959-6, p. 86)
  10. ^ A nyelv és a nyelvek ("Language and languages"), edited by István Kenesei. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 2004, ISBN 963-05-7959-6, pp. 76 and 86)
  11. ^ A nyelv és a nyelvek ("Language and languages"), edited by István Kenesei. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 2004, ISBN 963-05-7959-6, p. 134)
  12. ^ Berlin, B and Kay, P (1969). Basic Color Terms. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press
  13. ^ Zsirai Miklós: Őstörténeti csodabogarak. Budapest, 1943.

Ádám Nádasdy (in Hungarian: Nádasdy Ádám) is a Hungarian linguist and poet. ...

External links

Image:Wikipedia-logo-hu.png
Hungarian language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wiktionary
Hungarian language edition of Wiktionary, the free dictionary/thesaurus

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Ádám Nádasdy (in Hungarian: Nádasdy Ádám) is a Hungarian linguist and poet. ...

Linguistic chapters from the Encyclopaedia Humana Hungarica (1–5)

  • Introduction to the History of the Language; The Pre-Hungarian Period; The Early Hungarian Period; The Old Hungarian Period
  • The Linguistic Records of the Early Old Hungarian Period; The Linguistic System of the Age
  • The Old Hungarian Period; The System of the Language of the Old Hungarian Period
  • The Late Old Hungarian Period; The System of the Language
  • The First Half of the Middle Hungarian Period; Turkish Loan Words
  • (The English translations of volumes 6 to 9 are in preparation.)

Dictionaries

  • Hungarian Dictionary: from Webster's Dictionary
  • Hungarian<->English created by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences - Computer and Automation Research Institute MTA SZTAKI
    Also includes dictionaries for the following languages to and from Hungarian : German, French, Italian, Dutch, and Polish.
  • English-Hungarian-Finnish - three language freely editable online dictionary
  • Dictionary with Hungarian - English Translations from Webster's Online Dictionary - the Rosetta Edition
  • Hungarian-English False friends (False friend)
  • Hungarian slang
  • Hungarian-Japanese-Hungarian online dictionary
  • Hungarian bilingual dictionaries

Look up False friend in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Online Language Courses

  • A Hungarian Language Course by Aaron Rubin
  • Online course hungarotips.com
  • Study Hungarian! (AFS.com)
  • Hungarian Phrase Guides
  • Magyaróra: New paths to the Hungarian language
  • Hungarian Language Lessons - Puzzles, Quizzes, Sound Files
Finno-Ugric languages
Ugric Hungarian | Khanty | Mansi
Permic Komi | Komi-Permyak | Udmurt
Finno-Volgaic Mari | Erzya | Moksha | Merya† | Meshcherian† | Muromian†
Sami Akkala Sami† | Inari Sami | Kemi Sami† | Kildin Sami | Lule Sami | Northern Sami | Pite Sami | Skolt Sami | Southern Sami | Ter Sami | Ume Sami
Baltic-Finnic Estonian | Finnish | Ingrian | Karelian | Kven | Livonian | Ludic | Meänkieli | South Estonian | Veps | Votic | Võro
† denotes extinct

  Results from FactBites:
 
Hungarian Language Course (0 words)
Magyar (pronounced /Mawdyar/), as the Hungarians call their language, is spoken by the approximately 11 million inhabitants of Hungary, as well as another 4 million people in neighboring countries and a million others scattered around the world.
Hungarian is not at all related to the Indo-European languages which surround it, and is very different both in vocabulary and in grammar.
Hungarian is an agglutinative language, meaning that it relies heavily on suffixes and prefixes.
Greatest Hungarian Poets (1154 words)
Latinizing of the culture after Hungary's conversion to Christianity delayed the rise of an indigenous literature, and the Hungarian language was first used to translate religious matter, the earliest known text originating around 1200.
The scope of Hungarian literature was further expanded by the classicism of Mihaly Babits; the realistic fiction of Zsigmond MORICZ; the sophisticated plays of Ferenc MOLNAR; the fiction of Tibor DERY, Lajos Kassak, Gyula Krudy, and Laszlo Nemeth; and the poetry of Attila JOZSEF, Gyula Illyes, and Sandor Weores.
It is distinguished by penetrating characterization, a striking use of mythology and chivalry, and vivid diction.
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