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Encyclopedia > Hundred Years' War
Hundred Years' War

Romantic painting of Joan of Arc at the Siege of Orléans.
Date 13371453
Location Primarily France and the Low Countries
Result The House of Valois establish themselves as Kings of France. The Plantagenets fail to establish themselves as Kings of France and England.
Territorial
changes
House of Valois secures control of all France except Calais Pale
Belligerents
House of Valois
Castile
Scotland
Genoa
Majorca
Bohemia
Crown of Aragon
Brittany
House of Plantagenet
Burgundy
Brittany
Portugal
Navarre
Flanders
Hainaut
Aquitaine
Luxembourg
Holy Roman Empire

The Hundred Years' War (French: Guerre de Cent Ans) was a prolonged conflict between two royal houses for the French throne, vacant with the extinction of the senior Capetian line of French kings. The two primary contenders were the House of Valois, and the House of Plantagenet. The House of Valois claimed the title of King of France, while the Plantagenets from England claimed to be Kings of France and England. The Plantagenet Kings in England, also known as the House of Anjou, had their roots in the French regions of Anjou and Normandy. French soldiers fought on both sides, with Burgundy and Aquitaine providing notable support for the Plantagenet side. The Battle of Cadsand was fought in 1337 between the English, commanded by the Earl of Derby and Sir Walter Manny, and the Flemish garrison of Cadzand, under Sir Guy of Flanders, bastard son of Louis, Count of Nevers. ... Combatants England Flanders France Genoese mercenaries Castilian mercenaries Commanders Robert Morley, Various others Hugues Quiéret, Nicolas Béhuchet Strength Varied 40-70 ships The English Channel naval campaign of the years 1338 and 1339 saw a protracted series of raids conducted by the nascent French navy and numerous privately... Combatants Kingdom of England Kingdom of France Commanders Edward III of England Hugues Quiéret, Nicolas Béhuchet Strength 250 ships 190 ships Casualties Unknown 20 000 (Europe: A History by Norman Davies) Most ships captured The naval Battle of Sluys was fought on 24 June 1340 as one of... Combatants France Flanders England Commanders Eudes IV, Duke of Burgundy Jean I, Count of Armagnac Robert III of Artois Strength ~3,000 11,000-16,000 Casualties Unknown, light 8,000 The battle of Saint-Omer was a large action fought in 1340 as part of King Edward IIIs... The Battle of Auberoche was fought in 1345 between the English and the French. ... This article is about the battle in 1346 during the Hundred Years War. ... The Battle of Blanchetaque was fought in 1346 between French and English forces. ... Crécy redirects here. ... Combatants Kingdom of England Kingdom of France Commanders Edward III of England Jean de Fosseux Strength 34,000 men: 5,300 knights, 6,600 infantry, 20,000 archers, 2,000 Flemish soldiers 7,000 to 8,000 citizens The Siege of Calais in northern France began in 1346, towards the... Combatants Scotland England Commanders David II of Scotland William Zouche, Archbishop of York Strength 12,000 3,000-3,500 Casualties 7,000 Unknown but very low The Battle of Nevilles Cross took place near Durham, England on October 17, 1346. ... The naval Battle of LEspagnols sur Mer (Spanish on the Sea), or Battle of Winchelsea took place on 29 August (Old Style) 1350 and was a victory for an English fleet of 50 ships commanded by Edward III, with the Black Prince, over a Castilian fleet of 40 ships... Combatants Kingdom of England Gascony France Commanders Edward, the Black Prince Captal de Buch John II of France Strength 9,000 12,000 Casualties Minimal 2,500 killed or wounded The Battle of Poitiers was fought between the Kingdom of England and France on September 19, 1356, resulting in the... The Battle of Nájera from a fifteenth-century manuscript. ... Combatants Franco-Castilians Portugal, Jews, Granadines, Marinids Commanders Henry II of Castile Pedro I the Cruel The Battle of Montiel was fought in 1369 between Franco-Castilian forces, and an alliance of pro-England forces led by the Portuguese. ... The Battle of La Rochelle was a naval engagement fought in 1372 between a Franco-Castilian and an English fleet. ... Combatants Kingdom of England Kingdom of France Commanders Henry V of England Charles dAlbret Strength About 6,000 (but see Modern re-assessment). ... At the time of the Siege of Rouen (July 1418 - January 1419), the city had a population of 70,000, making it one of the leading cities in France, and its capture crucial to the Normandy campaign during the Hundred Years War. ... Combatants France, Scotland England Commanders John Stewart, 2nd Earl of Buchan Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence † Strength 5,000 1,500 Casualties light heavy The Battle of Baugé, fought between the English and the Franco-Scots on March 21, 1421 in Baugé, France, east of Angers, was one... The Siege of Meaux was fought in 1422 between the English and the French. ... Combatants England, Burgundy France, Scotland, Brittany Commanders Thomas Montacute, 4th Earl of Salisbury John Stewart, 2nd Earl of Buchan Louis, Count of Vendôme Strength 4,000 8,000 Casualties Around 600 6,000 The Battle of Cravant was an encounter fought on July 31, 1423, during the Hundred Years... Belligerents Kingdom of England, Duchy of Burgundy Kingdom of France, Kingdom of Scotland Commanders John, Duke of Bedford Viscount Aumale John Stewart, 2nd Earl of Buchan Archibald Douglas, 4th Earl of Douglas Strength 8,000 - 10,000 12,000-18,000 Casualties and losses 1000 6000 The Battle of Verneuil... Combatants England France Commanders Earl of Shrewsbury Earl of Salisbury Duke of Suffolk Jean de Dunois Gilles de Rais Joan of Arc Jean de Brosse Strength 5,000 6,400 soldiers, 4,000+ armed citizens Casualties 4,000 2000+ The Siege of Orléans (1428 – 1429) marked a turning point... Combatants France England Commanders Joan of Arc, Duke John II of Alençon William de la Pole Strength 1,200 700 Casualties  ? 300-400 The Battle of Jargeau took place on June 11 - 12, 1429. ... Combatants France England Commanders Joan of Arc, Duke John II of Alençon John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, Thomas Scales. ... Combatants France England Commanders Joan of Arc, John II of Alençon John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury The Battle of Beaugency took place on 16 - 17 June, 1429. ... Combatants Kingdom of France Kingdom of England Commanders La Hire Poton de Xaintrailles Sir John Fastolf Strength 1,500 cavalry 5,000 Casualties About 100 2,500 dead, wounded, or captured The Battle of Patay (18 June 1429) was a major battle in the Hundred Years War between the French... Statue of Joan of Arc at Vaucouleurs. ... Combatants Kingdom of France England Commanders La Hire ? The Battle of Gerbevoy was fought in 1435 between French and English forces. ... Combatants England France Brittany Commanders Thomas Kyriell Comte de Clermont Comte de Richemont Strength 4,000 5,000 Casualties 2,500 300 The Battle of Formigny (April 15, 1450) was a clash of the Hundred Years War. ... Combatants England France Brittany Commanders John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury† Jean Bureau Strength 4,000-6,000 8,000 - 13,000 Casualties 4,000 mainly wounded or captured 100 dead or wounded The Battle of Castillon was the last battle fought between the French, the Bretons and the English... The House of Capet includes any of the direct descendants of Robert the Strong. ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... Modern département of Maine-et-Loire, which largely corresponds to Anjou Anjou is a former county (c. ... For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ... Coat of arms of the second Duchy of Burgundy and later of the French province of Burgundy Burgundy (French: ; German: ) is a historic region of France, inhabited in turn by Celts (Gauls), Romans (Gallo-Romans), and various Germanic peoples, most importantly the Burgundians and the Franks; the former gave their... (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Dordogne Gironde Landes Lot-et-Garonne Pyrénées-Atlantiques Arrondissements 18 Cantons 235 Communes 2,296 Statistics Land area1 41,308 km² Population (Ranked 6th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ...


The conflict lasted 116 years from 1337 to 1453. The war was punctuated by several brief periods of peace, and two lengthy periods of peace, before it finally ended in the expulsion of the Plantagenets from France (except the Calais Pale). Subtracting the two long periods of peace from 1360–69 and 1389–1415, the war was fought for about 81 years. // March 16 - Edward, the Black Prince is created Duke of Cornwall. ... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ... Angevin is the name applied to two distinct medieval dynasties which originated as counts (from 1360, dukes) of the western French province of Anjou (of which angevin is the adjectival form), but later came to rule far greater areas including England, Hungary and Poland (see Angevin Empire). ...


The war was in fact a series of conflicts and is commonly divided into three or four phases: the Edwardian War (1337–1360), the Caroline War (1369–1389), the Lancastrian War (1415–1429), and the slow decline of English fortunes after the appearance of Joan of Arc (1412–1431). Several other contemporary European conflicts were directly related to the conflict between England and France: the Breton War of Succession, the Castilian Civil War, and the War of the Two Peters. The term "Hundred Years' War" was a later term invented by historians to describe the series of events. The Edwardian War was the first phase of the Hundred Years War, lasting from 1337 to 1360, from the outbreak of hostilities until the signing of the Treaty of Brétigny. ... For other uses, see Joan of Arc (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The First Castilian Civil War[1] lasted three years from 1366 to 1369. ... Combatants Kingdom of Castile; With the support of: Granada; England; Republic of Genoa; Navarre Crown of Aragon; With the support of: pretender Henry of Trastámara; France Commanders Pedro of Castile Peter IV of Aragon The War of the Two Peters (Spanish: , Catalan: ) was a war fought from 1356 to...


The war owes its historical significance to a number of factors. Though primarily a dynastic conflict, the war gave impetus to ideas of both French and English nationality. Militarily, it saw the introduction of new weapons and tactics, which eroded the older system of feudal armies dominated by heavy cavalry. The first standing armies in Western Europe since the time of the Western Roman Empire were introduced for the war, thus changing the role of the peasantry. For all this, as well as for its long duration, it is often viewed as one of the most significant conflicts in the history of medieval warfare. In France, the English invasion, civil wars, deadly epidemics, famines and marauding mercenary armies turned to banditry reduced the population by two-thirds.[1] In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... Early 16th century French gendarmes, with complete plate armour and heavy lances. ... A standing army is an army composed of full time professional soldiers. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... Medieval warfare is the warfare of the Middle Ages. ... An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ... This is a list of major epidemics. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... For other uses, see Mercenary (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Background

The background to the conflict can be found in 1066, when William, Duke of Normandy, a vassal of the French king, led an invasion of England. He defeated the Anglo-Saxon King Harold II at the Battle of Hastings, and had himself crowned King of England. As Duke of Normandy, he remained a vassal of the French King, and was required to swear fealty to the latter for his lands in France; for a King to swear fealty to another King was considered humiliating, and the Norman Kings of England generally attempted to avoid the service. On the French side, the Capetian monarchs resented a neighbouring king holding lands within their own realm, and sought to neutralise the threat England now posed to France. For the book, see 1066 And All That. ... William I of England (c. ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... Harold Godwinson (Haraldur Guðinason), or Harold II (c. ... Combatants Normans supported by: Bretons (one third of total), Flemings, French Anglo-Saxons, the Þingalið Commanders William of Normandy, Odo of Bayeux Harold Godwinson † Strength 7,000-8,000 7,000-8,000 Casualties Unknown, thought to be around 2,000 killed and wounded Unknown, thought to be around 4...


Following a period of civil wars and unrest in England known as The Anarchy (1135–1154), the Anglo-Norman dynasty was succeeded by the Angevin Kings. At the height of power the Angevins controlled Normandy and England, along with Maine, Anjou, Touraine, Poitou, Gascony, Saintonge, and Aquitaine. Such assemblage of lands is sometimes known as the Angevin Empire. The King of England directly ruled more French territory than the King of France himself. This situation – where the Angevin kings owed vassalage to a ruler who was de facto much weaker – was a cause of continual conflict. The French resolved the situation somewhat in three decisive wars: the conquest of Normandy (1214), the Saintonge War (1242) and finally the War of Saint-Sardos (1324), thus reducing Angevin hold on the continent to a few small provinces in Gascony and the complete loss of the crown jewel of Normandy. By the early 14th century, many in the English aristocracy could still remember a time when their grandparents and great-grandparents had control over wealthy continental regions, such as Normandy, which they also considered their ancestral homeland, and were motivated to regain possession of these territories. French remained the official language of England until the second half of the 14th century. This article is about the definition of the specific type of war. ... The Anarchy in English history commonly names the period of civil war and unsettled government that occurred during the reign (1135–1154) of King Stephen of England. ... Angevin (IPA: ) is the name applied to the residents of Anjou, a former province of the Kingdom of France, as well as to the residents of Angers. ... Maine is one of the traditional provinces of France. ... Modern département of Maine-et-Loire, which largely corresponds to Anjou Anjou is a former county (c. ... The Touraine is a former province of France. ... Coat of arms of Richard, Earl of Cornwall, Plantagenet claimant to the county of Poitou, now favored as the coat of arms of Poitou by people in Poitou Poitou was a province of France whose capital city was Poitiers. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Saintonge is a small region on the atlantic coast of France in the region of Poitou-Charentes (17- Charente-Maritime). ... (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Dordogne Gironde Landes Lot-et-Garonne Pyrénées-Atlantiques Arrondissements 18 Cantons 235 Communes 2,296 Statistics Land area1 41,308 km² Population (Ranked 6th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... The term Angevin Empire describes a collection of states ruled by the Angevin Plantagenet dynasty. ... A vassal, in European medieval feudalism terminology, is one who through a commendation ceremony (composed of homage and fealty) enters into mutual obligations with a lord, usually military conscription and mutual protection, in exchange for a fief. ... The Battle of Bouvines, July 27, 1214, was the first great international conflict of alliances among national forces in Europe. ... Combatants France England Commanders Louis IX Henry III Strength around 50,000 around 30,000 Casualties unknown unknown The Saintonge War occurred in 1242 between France under Louis IX and England under Henry III. It was fought because some vassals of Louis were displeased with the land that Louis had... The War of Saint-Sardos was a short war fought between England and France in 1324. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ...


Dynastic turmoil: 1314–1328

The specific events leading up to the war took place in France, where the unbroken line of the Direct Capetian firstborn sons had succeeded each other for centuries. It was the longest continuous dynasty in medieval Europe. In 1314, the Direct Capetian, King Philip IV, died, leaving three male heirs: Louis X, Philip V, and Charles IV. The eldest son and heir, Louis X, died in 1316, leaving only his posthumous son John I, who was born and died that same year, and a daughter Joan, whose paternity was suspect. The House of Capet includes any of the direct descendants of Robert the Strong. ... Events June 24 - Battle of Bannockburn. ... “Philip the Fair” redirects here. ... Louis X of France Louis X the Quarreller, also called the Headstrong or the Stubborn, (French: Louis X le Hutin, Spanish: Luis el Obstinado) (October 4, 1289 – June 5, 1316), King of France from 1314 to 1316, was a member of the Capetian Dynasty. ... Philip V (17 November 1293 – 3 January 1322), called the Tall (French: le Long), was King of France and Navarre (as Philip II) and Count of Champagne from 1316 to his death, and the second to last of the House of Capet. ... Charles IV of France, also Charles I of Navarre, called the Fair (French: le Bel) (11 December 1294 – 1 February 1328), was the King of France and Navarre and Count of Champagne from 1322 to his death: the last French king of the senior Capetian lineage. ... Events Pope John XXII elected to the papacy. ... John I the Posthumous (French: Jean Ier le Posthume) (November 15, 1316 – November 20, 1316) was King of France for the five days he lived. ... Joan II, Juana II, or Jeanne II, Queen of Navarre (1311 - 1349) - was the only daughter of King Louis X of France (Luis I of Navarre) and his first wife, Margaret of Burgundy. ...


In order to ensure that he, rather than Joan, inherited the throne, Philip IV's second-eldest son, Philip V, used the rumours that Joan was a result of her mother's adultery to have her barred from the succession; a by-product of this being the invocation of Salic law to assert that women could not inherit the French throne. When Philip died in 1322, his daughters too were put aside in favour of the third son of Philip IV, Charles IV. // The Salic law (Lat. ... Events September 27/September 28 - Battle of Ampfing, often called the last battle of knights, in which Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor defeats Frederick I of Austria Births January 11 - Emperor Komyo of Japan (died 1380) Deaths January 3 - King Philip V of France (born 1293) March 16 - Humphrey de...


In 1324, Charles IV of France and Edward II of England fought the short War of Saint-Sardos in Gascony. The major event of the war was the brief siege of the English fortress of La Réole, on the Garonne. The English forces, led by Edmund of Woodstock, Earl of Kent, were forced to surrender after a month of bombardment from the French cannons, after promised reinforcements never arrived. The war was a complete failure for England, and only Bordeaux and a narrow coastal strip of the once great Duchy of Aquitaine remained in English hands. Events Publication of Defensor pacis by Marsilius of Padua Mansa Kankan Musa I, ruler of the Mali Empire arrives in Cairo on his hajj or pilgrimage to Mecca. ... Edward II, (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until deposed in January, 1327. ... The War of Saint-Sardos was a short war fought between England and France in 1324. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... La Réole is a commune of the Gironde département, in France. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Edmund Plantagenet, or Edmund of Woodstock (August 5, 1301 – March 19, 1330) was Earl of Kent from July 28, 1321 (1st creation). ... For other uses, see Bordeaux (disambiguation). ... [Note : The Roman numerals after the names indicate which duke of that name they were and are not necessarily the same as their ordinals for their other titles. ...


The recovery of these lost lands became a major focus of English diplomacy. The war also galvanised opposition to Edward II among the English nobility and led to his eventual assassination (1327), which in turn caused the succession of the young Edward III. Charles IV died in 1328, leaving only a daughter, and an unborn infant which would prove to be a girl. The senior line of the Capetian dynasty thus ended, creating a crisis over the French succession. Events January 25 - Edward III becomes King of England. ... This article is about the King of England. ... Events Augustiner brew Munich May 1 - Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton - England recognises Scotland as an independent nation after the Wars of Scottish Independence May 12 - Nicholas V is consecrated at St Peters Basilica in Rome by the bishop of Venice. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with House of Capet. ...


Meanwhile living in England, Charles IV's sister Isabella, widow of Edward II, was at the time effectively in control of the crown in the name of the young king. Edward III, being the nephew of Charles, was his closest living male relative, and was at that time the only surviving male descendant of the senior line of the Capetian dynasty descending through Philip IV. By the English interpretation of feudal law, this made Edward III the legitimate heir to the throne of France. Isabella returns to England with her son, Edward III. Jean Fouquet, 1455x1460. ... Contrasting with heir presumptive, an heir apparent is one who cannot be prevented from inheriting by the birth of any other person. ...

Family tree relating the French and English royal houses at the beginning of the war.
Family tree relating the French and English royal houses at the beginning of the war.

The French nobility, however, balked at the prospect of a foreign king, particularly one who was also king of England. They asserted, based on their interpretation of the ancient Salic Law, that the royal inheritance could not pass to a woman or through her to her offspring. Therefore, the most senior male of the Capetian dynasty after Charles IV, Philip of Valois, who had taken regency after Charles IV's death, was the legitimate heir in the eyes of the French, and was allowed to take the throne after Charles' widow gave birth to a daughter. He was crowned as Philip VI, the first of the House of Valois, a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty. Image File history File links Hundred_Years_War_family_tree. ... Image File history File links Hundred_Years_War_family_tree. ... // The Salic law (Lat. ... Philip VI of France Philip VI of Valois (French: Philippe VI de Valois; 1293 – August 22, 1350) was the King of France from 1328 to his death, and Count of Anjou, Maine, and Valois 1325–1328. ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ...


Joan II of Navarre, the daughter of Louis X, also had a good legal claim to the French throne, but lacked the power to back it up. The Kingdom of Navarre had no precedent against female rulers (the House of Capet having inherited it through Joan's grandmother, Joan I of Navarre), and so by treaty she and her husband, Philip of Evreux, were permitted to inherit that Kingdom; however, the same treaty forced Joan and her husband to accept the accession of Philip VI in France, and to surrender her hereditary French domains of Champagne and Brie to the French crown in exchange for inferior estates. Joan and Philip of Evreux then produced a son, Charles II of Navarre. Born in 1332, Charles replaced Edward III as Philip IV's male heir in primogeniture, and in proximity to Louis X; although Edward remained the male heir in proximity to Saint Louis, Philip IV, and Charles IV. Joan II, Juana II, or Jeanne II, Queen of Navarre (1311 - 1349) - was the only daughter of King Louis X of France (Luis I of Navarre) and his first wife, Margaret of Burgundy. ... The Kingdom of Navarre (Basque: Nafarroako Erresuma) was a European state which occupied lands on either side of the Pyrenees alongside the Atlantic Ocean. ... Jeanne (or Joan or Johanna) of Navarre (c. ... Philip III of Navarre and Philip of Evreux (1301 – 1343) – Philippe, comte dÉvreux in Fr. ... Charles II (1332–1387), called Charles the Bad, was King of Navarre 1349–1387 and Count of Évreux 1343–1387. ... Events November 7 - Lucerne joins the Swiss Confederation with Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden. ... Primogeniture is the common law right of the first born son to inherit the entire estate, to the exclusion of younger siblings. ...


On the eve of war: 1328–1337

After Philip's accession, the English still controlled Gascony. Gascony produced vital shipments of salt and wine, and was very profitable. It was a separate fief, held of the French crown, rather than a territory of England. The homage done for its possession was a bone of contention between the two kings. Philip VI demanded Edward's recognition as sovereign; Edward wanted the return of further lands lost by his father. A compromise "homage" in 1329 pleased neither side; but in 1331, facing serious problems at home, Edward accepted Philip as King of France and gave up his claims to the French throne. In effect, England kept Gascony, in return for Edward giving up his claims to be the rightful king of France. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about common table salt. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... Under the system of feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud or fee, consisted of heritable lands or revenue-producing property granted by a liege lord in return for a vassal knights service (usually fealty, military service, and security). ... For a description of the medieval homage ceremony see commendation ceremony Homage is generally used in modern English to mean any public show of respect to someone to whom you feel indebted. ... Events Antipope Nicholas V is excommunicated by Pope John XXII. Aimone of Savoy becomes Count of Savoy. ... Events September 8 - Stefan Dusan declares himself king of Serbia Start of the reign of Emperor Kogon of Japan, first of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Births Coluccio Salutati, Florentine political leader (died 1406) Deaths January 14 - Odoric, Italian explorer October 27 - Abulfeda, Arab historian and geographer (born 1273) Categories: 1331...


In 1333, Edward III went to war with David II of Scotland, a French ally under the Auld Alliance, and began the Second War of Scottish Independence. Philip saw the opportunity to reclaim Gascony while England's attention was concentrated northwards. However, the war was, initially at least, a quick success for England, and David was forced to flee to France after being defeated by King Edward and Edward Balliol at the Battle of Halidon Hill in July. In 1336, Philip made plans for an expedition to restore David to the Scottish throne, and to also seize Gascony. Events End of the Kamakura period and beginning of the Kemmu restoration in Japan. ... David II (March 5, 1324 – February 22, 1371) king of Scotland, son of King Robert the Bruce by his second wife, Elizabeth de Burgh (d. ... The Auld Alliance refers to a series of treaties, offensive and defensive in nature, between Scotland and France aimed specifically against an aggressive and expansionist England. ... The Second War of Scottish Independence began properly in 1333 when Edward III overturned the 1328 Treaty of Northampton, under which England recognised the legitimacy of the dynasty established by Robert Bruce. ... Edward Balliol (c. ... Combatants Scotland England Commanders Sir Archibald Douglas Edward III of England Strength 13,000 9,000 Casualties exact figure unknown, but very high exact figure unknown, but very low Battle of Halidon Hill (July 19, 1333) was fought during the second War of Scottish Independence. ... Events End of the Kemmu restoration and beginning of the Muromachi period in Japan. ...


Beginning of the war: 1337–1360

Main article: Hundred Years' War (1337–1360)
See also: War of the Breton Succession

Open hostilities broke out as French ships began scouting coastal settlements on the English Channel and in 1337 Philip reclaimed the Gascon fief, citing feudal law and saying that Edward had broken his oath (a felony) by not attending to the needs and demands of his lord. Edward III responded by saying he was in fact the rightful heir to the French throne, and on All Saints' Day, Henry Burghersh, Bishop of Lincoln, arrived in Paris with the defiance of the king of England. War had been declared. The Battle of Cadsand was fought in 1337 between the English, commanded by the Earl of Derby and Sir Walter Manny, and the Flemish garrison of Cadzand, under Sir Guy of Flanders, bastard son of Louis, Count of Nevers. ... Combatants England Flanders France Genoese mercenaries Castilian mercenaries Commanders Robert Morley, Various others Hugues Quiéret, Nicolas Béhuchet Strength Varied 40-70 ships The English Channel naval campaign of the years 1338 and 1339 saw a protracted series of raids conducted by the nascent French navy and numerous privately... Combatants Kingdom of England Kingdom of France Commanders Edward III of England Hugues Quiéret, Nicolas Béhuchet Strength 250 ships 190 ships Casualties Unknown 20 000 (Europe: A History by Norman Davies) Most ships captured The naval Battle of Sluys was fought on 24 June 1340 as one of... Combatants France Flanders England Commanders Eudes IV, Duke of Burgundy Jean I, Count of Armagnac Robert III of Artois Strength ~3,000 11,000-16,000 Casualties Unknown, light 8,000 The battle of Saint-Omer was a large action fought in 1340 as part of King Edward IIIs... The Battle of Auberoche was fought in 1345 between the English and the French. ... This article is about the battle in 1346 during the Hundred Years War. ... The Battle of Blanchetaque was fought in 1346 between French and English forces. ... Crécy redirects here. ... Combatants Kingdom of England Kingdom of France Commanders Edward III of England Jean de Fosseux Strength 34,000 men: 5,300 knights, 6,600 infantry, 20,000 archers, 2,000 Flemish soldiers 7,000 to 8,000 citizens The Siege of Calais in northern France began in 1346, towards the... Combatants Scotland England Commanders David II of Scotland William Zouche, Archbishop of York Strength 12,000 3,000-3,500 Casualties 7,000 Unknown but very low The Battle of Nevilles Cross took place near Durham, England on October 17, 1346. ... The naval Battle of LEspagnols sur Mer (Spanish on the Sea), or Battle of Winchelsea took place on 29 August (Old Style) 1350 and was a victory for an English fleet of 50 ships commanded by Edward III, with the Black Prince, over a Castilian fleet of 40 ships... Combatants Kingdom of England Gascony France Commanders Edward, the Black Prince Captal de Buch John II of France Strength 9,000 12,000 Casualties Minimal 2,500 killed or wounded The Battle of Poitiers was fought between the Kingdom of England and France on September 19, 1356, resulting in the... The Edwardian War was the first phase of the Hundred Years War, lasting from 1337 to 1360, from the outbreak of hostilities until the signing of the Treaty of Brétigny. ... The Breton War of Succession was a conflict fought between 1341 and 1364 over the control of the Duchy of Brittany, opposing the Houses of Blois and Montfort. ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... // March 16 - Edward, the Black Prince is created Duke of Cornwall. ... For the record label, see Felony Records The term felony is a term used in common law systems for very serious crimes, whereas misdemeanors are considered to be less serious offenses. ... All Saints in Poland The festival of All Saints, also sometimes known as All Hallows, or Hallowmas, is a feast celebrated in honour of all the saints and martyrs, known or unknown. ... Henry Burghersh (1292 – December 4, 1340), English bishop and chancellor, was a younger son of Robert, Baron Burghersh (d. ... Arms of the Bishop of Lincoln The Bishop of Lincoln heads the Anglican Diocese of Lincoln in the Province of Canterbury. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


When the war began, France had a population of about 17 million, whereas England had about 4 million.[2] Moreover, France was generally considered to have the most knights in Europe. For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... A statue of an armoured knight of the Middle Ages For the chess piece, see knight (chess). ...

Battle of Sluys from a manuscript of Froissart's Chronicles, Bruge, c.1470
Battle of Sluys from a manuscript of Froissart's Chronicles, Bruge, c.1470

In the early years of the war, Edward III allied with the nobles of the Low Countries and the burghers of Flanders, but after two campaigns where nothing was achieved, the alliance fell apart in 1340. The payments of subsidies to the German princes and the costs of maintaining an army abroad dragged the English government into bankruptcy, heavily damaging Edward’s prestige. At sea, France enjoyed supremacy for some time, through the use of Genoese ships and crews. Several towns on the English coast were sacked, some repeatedly. This caused fear and disruption along the English coast. There was a constant fear during this part of the war that the French would invade. France's sea power led to economic disruptions in England as it cut down on the wool trade to Flanders and the wine trade from Gascony. However, in 1340, while attempting to hinder the English army from landing, the French fleet was almost completely destroyed in the Battle of Sluys. After this, England was able to dominate the English Channel for the rest of the war, preventing French invasions. Battle of Sluys Illustration from Chronicles, a 14th century manuscript by Jean Froissart This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Battle of Sluys Illustration from Chronicles, a 14th century manuscript by Jean Froissart This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Execution of prisoners after the Battle of Nicopol Ms. ... Froissarts Chronicle was written in French by Jean Froissart. ... For information about the confusion between the Low Countries and the Netherlands, see Netherlands (terminology). ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... Events Europe has about 74 million inhabitants. ... Events Europe has about 74 million inhabitants. ... Combatants Kingdom of England Kingdom of France Commanders Edward III of England Hugues Quiéret, Nicolas Béhuchet Strength 250 ships 190 ships Casualties Unknown 20 000 (Europe: A History by Norman Davies) Most ships captured The naval Battle of Sluys was fought on 24 June 1340 as one of... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... Invasion is a military action consisting of troops entering a foreign land (a nation or territory, or part of that), often resulting in the invading power occupying the area, whether briefly or for a long period. ...


In 1341, conflict over the succession to the Duchy of Brittany began the Breton War of Succession, in which Edward backed John of Montfort and Philip backed Charles of Blois. Action for the next few years focused around a back and forth struggle in Brittany, with the city of Vannes changing hands several times, as well as further campaigns in Gascony with mixed success for both sides. Year 1341 was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... John IV of Montfort (in French Jean IV de Montfort) (1295 - September 16, 1345), was duke of Brittany, from 1341 to his death. ... Charles of Blois (died September 29, 1364), was duke of Brittany, from 1341 to his death. ... In the old city centre Harbour to cathedral Vannes (Breton: Gwened) is a town and commune located in the Morbihan département, in Brittany, in the west of France. ...


In July 1346, Edward mounted a major invasion across the Channel, landing in the Cotentin. The English army captured Caen in just one day, surprising the French who had expected the city to hold out much longer. Philip gathered a large army to oppose him, and Edward chose to march northward toward the Low Countries, pillaging as he went, rather than attempting to take and hold territory. Finding himself unable to outmanoeuvre Philip, Edward positioned his forces for battle, and Philip's army attacked. The famous Battle of Crécy was a complete disaster for the French, largely credited to the English longbowmen. Edward proceeded north unopposed and besieged the city of Calais on the English Channel, capturing it in 1347. This became an important strategic asset for the English. It allowed them to keep troops in France safely. In the same year, an English victory against Scotland in the Battle of Neville's Cross led to the capture of David II and greatly reduced the threat from Scotland. // Events Serbian Empire was proclaimed in Skopje by Dusan Silni, occupying much of the South-Eastern Europe Foundation of the University of Valladolid Foundation of Pembroke College, University of Cambridge August 26 Battle of Crecy after which Edward the Black Prince honored the bravery of John I, Count of Luxemburg... The Cotentin Peninsula juts out into the English Channel from Normandy towards England, forming part of the north-west coast of France. ... , Caen (pronounced ) is a commune of northwestern France. ... Crécy redirects here. ... Self-yew English longbow, 6 ft 6 in (2 m) long, 470 N (105 lbf) draw force. ... Calais (Kales in Dutch) is a town in northern France, located at 50°57N 1°52E. It is in the département of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... Illustration of the Black Death from the Toggenburg Bible (1411). ... Combatants Scotland England Commanders David II of Scotland William Zouche, Archbishop of York Strength 12,000 3,000-3,500 Casualties 7,000 Unknown but very low The Battle of Nevilles Cross took place near Durham, England on October 17, 1346. ...


In 1348, the Black Death began to ravage Europe. In 1356, after it had passed and England was able to recover financially, Edward's son and namesake, the Prince of Wales, known as the Black Prince, invaded France from Gascony, winning a great victory in the Battle of Poitiers, where the English archers repeated the tactics used at Crécy. The new French king, John II, was captured. John signed a truce with Edward, and in his absence, much of the government began to collapse. Later that year, the Second Treaty of London was signed, by which England gained possession of Aquitaine and John was freed. April 7 - Charles University is founded in Prague. ... This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... Events January 20 - Edward Balliol surrenders title as King of Scotland to Edward III of England April 16 — the King of the Serbian Kingdom of RaÅ¡ka Stefan DuÅ¡an is proclaimed Tsar (Emperor) of all Serbs, Arbanasses and Greeks in Skopje by the Serbian Orthodox Christian Patriarch of a... This article is about the title Prince of Wales. ... Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales, KG (15 June 1330 – 8 June 1376), popularly known as the Black Prince, was the eldest son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault, and father to King Richard II of England. ... Combatants Kingdom of England Gascony France Commanders Edward, the Black Prince Captal de Buch John II of France Strength 9,000 12,000 Casualties Minimal 2,500 killed or wounded The Battle of Poitiers was fought between the Kingdom of England and France on September 19, 1356, resulting in the... John II the Good (French: Jean II le Bon) (April 16, 1319 – April 8, 1364), was King of France 1350–1364, Duke of Normandy and Count of Anjou and Maine 1332–1350, Count of Poitiers 1344–1350, and Duke of Guienne 1345–1350. ... The Second Treaty of London was a treaty signed in 1359, which was demanded by the English and accepted by the French after Edward, the Black Prince defeated and captured the French king John II at the Battle of Poitiers. ... (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Dordogne Gironde Landes Lot-et-Garonne Pyrénées-Atlantiques Arrondissements 18 Cantons 235 Communes 2,296 Statistics Land area1 41,308 km² Population (Ranked 6th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ...


The French countryside at this point began to fall into complete chaos. Brigandage, the actions of the professional soldiery when fighting was at low ebb, was rampant. In 1358, the peasants rose in rebellion in what was called the Jacquerie. Edward invaded France, for the third and last time, hoping to capitalise on the discontent and seize the throne, but although no French army stood against him in the field, he was unable to take Paris or Rheims from the Dauphin, later King Charles V. He negotiated the Treaty of Brétigny which was signed in 1360. The English came out of this phase of the war with half of Brittany, Aquitaine (about a quarter of France), Calais, Ponthieu, and about half of France's vassal states as their allies, representing the clear advantage of a united England against a generally disunified France. Brigandage refers to the life and practice of brigands; highway robbery and plunder. ... Events Jacquerie. ... The Jacquerie in Froissarts chronicles The Jacquerie was a popular revolt in late medieval Europe that took place in northern France in 1358, during the Hundred Years War. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Reims (English traditionally Rheims) is a city of north-eastern France, 98 miles east-northeast of Paris. ... Coat of Arms of the Dauphins of France. ... Charles V the Wise (French: Charles V le Sage) (January 21, 1338 – September 16, 1380) was king of France from 1364 to 1380 and a member of the Valois Dynasty. ... The Treaty of Brétigny was a treaty signed on May 8, 1360, between King Edward III of England and King John II (the Good) of France. ... Events October 24 - The Treaty of Brétigny is ratified at Calais, marking the end of the first phase of the Hundred Years War. ...


First peace: 1360–1369

Main article: Treaty of Brétigny
See also: Castilian Civil War

When John's son Louis I, Duc d'Anjou, sent to the English as a hostage on John's behalf, escaped in 1362, John II chivalrously gave himself up and returned to captivity in England. He died in honourable captivity in 1364 and Charles V succeeded him as king of France. The Treaty of Brétigny was a treaty signed on May 8, 1360, between King Edward III of England and King John II (the Good) of France. ... The First Castilian Civil War[1] lasted three years from 1366 to 1369. ... Louis I of Anjou (July 23, 1339, Château de Vincennes, – September 20, 1384, Biselia) was the second son of King John II of France and Bonne of Luxembourg. ... Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s - 1360s - 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s Years: 1357 1358 1359 1360 1361 - 1362 - 1363 1364 1365 1366 1367 See also: 1362 state leaders Events Under Edward III, English replaces French as Englands national language, for the... Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s - 1360s - 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s Years: 1359 1360 1361 1362 1363 - 1364 - 1365 1366 1367 1368 1369 See also: 1364 state leaders Events Charles V becomes King of France. ... Charles V the Wise (French: Charles V le Sage) (January 21, 1338 – September 16, 1380) was king of France from 1364 to 1380 and a member of the Valois Dynasty. ...


The Treaty of Brétigny had made Edward renounce his claim to the French crown. At the same time it greatly expanded his territory in Aquitaine and confirmed his conquest of Calais. In reality, Edward never renounced his claim to the French crown, and Charles made a point of retaking Edward's new territory as soon as he ascended to the throne. In 1369, on the pretext that Edward III had failed to observe the terms of the treaty of Brétigny, Charles declared war once again. Events King Charles V of France renounces the treaty of Brétigny and war is declared between France and England. ...


French ascendancy under Charles V: 1369–1389

Main article: Hundred Years' War (1369–1389)

The reign of Charles V saw the English steadily pushed back. Although the Breton war ended in their favour at the Battle of Auray, the dukes of Brittany eventually reconciled with the French throne. The Breton soldier Bertrand du Guesclin became one of the most successful French generals of the Hundred Years' War. The Battle of Nájera from a fifteenth-century manuscript. ... Combatants Franco-Castilians Portugal, Jews, Granadines, Marinids Commanders Henry II of Castile Pedro I the Cruel The Battle of Montiel was fought in 1369 between Franco-Castilian forces, and an alliance of pro-England forces led by the Portuguese. ... The Battle of La Rochelle was a naval engagement fought in 1372 between a Franco-Castilian and an English fleet. ... Combatants Bretons-England Bretons-France Commanders John de Montfort Charles of Blois Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Auray took place on September 29, 1364 at the French town of Auray. ... Statue of Bertrand du Guesclin in Dinan Bertrand du Guesclin at the Saint-Denis Basilica, near Paris Bertrand du Guesclin (c. ...

Statue of Du Guesclin in Dinan.
Statue of Du Guesclin in Dinan.

Simultaneously, the Black Prince was occupied with war in Iberian peninsula from 1366 and due to illness was relieved of command in 1371, whilst Edward III was too elderly to fight; providing France with even more advantages. Pedro of Castile, whose daughters Constance and Isabella were married to the Black Prince's brothers John of Gaunt and Edmund of Langley, was deposed by Henry of Trastámara in 1370 with the support of Du Guesclin and the French. War erupted between Castile and France on one side and Portugal and England on the other. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (795x1200, 156 KB) Statue de: Statue von Bertrand du Guesclin in Dinan en: Statue of Bertrand du Guesclin in Dinan fr: Statue de Bertrand du Guesclin à Dinan Photograph of the statue de: Eigenes Photo vom August 2004 vom französischen Nutzer... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (795x1200, 156 KB) Statue de: Statue von Bertrand du Guesclin in Dinan en: Statue of Bertrand du Guesclin in Dinan fr: Statue de Bertrand du Guesclin à Dinan Photograph of the statue de: Eigenes Photo vom August 2004 vom französischen Nutzer... The Rue du Jerzual is a steep medieval street connecting Dinan to the river below. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Events Births Anne of Bohemia, Queen consort of Richard II of England. ... Pedro of Castile (1290, Valladolid – 1319), Infante of Castile and Lord of Los Cameros, was the son of Sancho IV of Castile and his wife Maria de Molina. ... John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster (June 24, 1340 - February 3, 1399), the third surviving son of King Edward III of England, gained his name because he was born at Ghent in 1340. ... Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, (June 5, 1341 - August 1, 1402) was a younger son of King Edward III of England, the fourth of the five sons of the King who lived to adulthood. ... Henry of Trastamara (January 13, 1334 Sevilla - May 29, 1379 Santo Domingo de la Calzada) (Enrique de Trastámara), was the illegitimate son of Alfonso XI of Castile and Leonora de Guzman, and half brother to Pedro I the Cruel (or the Lawful, depending on who wrote the history). ... Events Beginning of the rule of Poland by Capet-Anjou family. ...


With the death of John Chandos, seneschal of Poitou, in the field and the capture of the Captal de Buch, the English were deprived of some of their best generals in France. Du Guesclin, in a series of careful Fabian campaigns, avoiding major English field armies, captured many towns, including Poitiers in 1372 and Bergerac in 1377. The English response to Du Guesclin was to launch a series of destructive chevauchées. But Du Guesclin refused to be drawn in by them. Sir John Chandos (died 1369) was an English knight. ... A seneschal was an officer in the houses of important nobles in the Middle Ages. ... Coat of arms of Richard, Earl of Cornwall, Plantagenet claimant to the county of Poitou, now favored as the coat of arms of Poitou by people in Poitou Poitou was a province of France whose capital city was Poitiers. ... Captal de Buch (later Buché) was an archaic feudal title in Gascony, captal from Latin capitalis prime, chief in the formula capitales domini or principal lords. ... The Fabian strategy is a military strategy where pitched battles are avoided in favor of wearing down an opponent through a war of attrition. ... Location within France Poitiers (population 85,000) is a small city located in west central France. ... In this year, the city of Aachen, Germany begins adding a Roman numeral Anno Domini date to a few of its coins. ... Bergerac is a market town and a sous-préfecture of the Dordogne département in France. ... // Events January 17 – Pope Gregory XI enters Rome. ... A chevauchée (French for promenade or horse charge, depending on context) was a method in medieval warfare for weakening the enemy, focusing mainly on wreaking havoc, burning and pillaging enemy territory, in order to reduce the productivity of a region; as opposed to siege warfare or wars of conquest. ...


With the death of the Black Prince in 1376 and Edward III in 1377, the prince's underaged son Richard of Bordeaux succeeded to the English throne. Then, with Du Guesclin's death in 1380, and the continued threat to England's Northern borders from Scotland represented by the Battle of Otterburn, the war inevitably wound down to a truce in 1389. The peace was extended many times before open war flared up again. // Events March – The treaty between England and France is extended until April of 1377. ... Richard II (January 6, 1367 – February 14, 1400) was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. ... September 8 - Battle of Kulikovo - Russian forces under Grand Prince Dmitri Donskoi of Moscow resist a large invasion by the Blue Horde, Lithuania and Ryazan, stopping their advance at Kulikovo. ... The Battle of Otterburn took place on the 9 August 1388 or 15 August 1388, as part of the continuing border skirmishes between the Scottish and English. ... Events February 24 - Margaret I defeats Albert in battle, thus becoming ruler of Denmark, Norway and Sweden June 28 - Battle of Kosovo between Serbs and Ottomans. ...


Second peace: 1389–1415

See also: Civil war between the Armagnacs and the Burgundians

Although Henry IV of England planned campaigns in France, he was unable to put them into effect due to his short reign. In the meantime, though, the French King Charles VI was descending into madness, and an open conflict for power began between his cousin, John the Fearless, and his brother, Louis of Orléans. After Louis's assassination, the Armagnac family took political power in opposition to John. By 1410, both sides were bidding for the help of English forces in a civil war. Henry IV (3 April 1367 – 20 March 1413) was the King of England and France and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413. ... Charles VI Charles VI the Well-Beloved, later known as the Mad (French: Charles VI le Bien-Aimé, later known as le Fol) (December 3, 1368 – October 21, 1422) was a King of France (1380 – 1422) and a member of the Valois Dynasty. ... John the Fearless (French: Jean sans Peur), also John II, Duke of Burgundy, known as John of Valois and John of Burgundy (May 28, 1371 – September 10, 1419), was Duke of Burgundy from 1404 to 1419. ... Louis de Valois (March 13, 1372 – November 23, 1407) was Duke of Orléans from 1392 to his death. ... The hilly Armagnac region in the foothills of the Pyrenées, between the Adour and Garonne rivers is a historic comté of the Duchy of Gascony (Gascogne), established in 601 CE in the southwest of Aquitaine (now France). ... March 29 - The Aragonese capture Oristano, capital of the giudicato di Arborea in Sardinia July 15 – Battle of Grunwald (also known as Tannenberg or Zalgiris). ...


England too was plagued with internal strife during this period, as uprisings in Ireland and Wales were accompanied by renewed border war with Scotland and two separate civil wars. The Irish troubles embroiled much of the reign of Richard II, who had not resolved them by the time he lost his throne and life to his cousin Henry, who took power for himself in 1399. This was followed by the rebellion of Owain Glyndŵr in Wales which was not finally put down until 1415 and actually resulted in Welsh semi-independence for a number of years. In Scotland, the change in regime in England prompted a fresh series of border raids which were countered by an invasion in 1402 and the defeat of a Scottish army at the Battle of Homildon Hill. A dispute over the spoils of this action between Henry and the Earl of Northumberland resulted in a long and bloody struggle between the two for control of northern England, which was only resolved with the almost complete destruction of the Percy family by 1408. Throughout this period, England was also faced with repeated raids by French and Scandinavian pirates, which heavily damaged the trade and navy. These problems accordingly delayed any resurgence of the dispute with France until 1415. Scene from the failed Québecois rebellion against British rule in 1837. ... This article is about the country. ... Richard II (January 6, 1367 – February 14, 1400) was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. ... Events September 30 - Accession of Henry IV of England October 13 - Coronation of Henry IV of England November 1 - Accession of John VI, Duke of Brittany Births William Canynge, English merchant (approximate date; died 1474) Zara Yaqob, Emperor of Ethiopia (died 1468) Deaths January 4 - Nicolau Aymerich, Catalan theologian and... Seal of Owain Glyndŵr The Arms of Powys and Deheubarth quartered, adopted by Owain Glyndŵr: Or and Gules, four Lions counterchanged Owain Glyndŵr (Pronounced IPA: ), or Owain Glyn Dŵr, anglicised by Shakespeare into Owen Glendower (c. ... Events Friedrich I Hohenzollern (b. ... Events September 14 - Battle of Homildon Hill. ... On September 14, 1402, a Scottish army returning from a pillaging expedition in the English county of Northumberland, suffered complete defeat at the Battle of Humbleton Hill (or Homildon Hill). ... Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland (November 10, 1342 - February 20, 1408), was the son of Henry, 3rd baron Percy, and the father of Henry Harry Hotspur Percy. ... This article is about the year. ... Pirates may refer to: A group of people committing any of these activities: Piracy at sea or on a river/lake. ...


English ascendancy under Henry V: 1415–1429

Main article: Hundred Years' War (1415–1429)

The final phase of warmaking that engulfed France between 1415 and 1435 is the most famous phase of the Hundred Years' War. Plans had been laid for the declaration of war since the rise to the throne of Henry IV, in 1399. However, it was his son, Henry V, who was finally given the opportunity. In 1414, Henry turned down an Armagnac offer to restore the Brétigny frontiers in return for his support. Instead, he demanded a return to the territorial status during the reign of Henry II. In August 1415, he landed with an army at Harfleur and took it. Although tempted to march on Paris directly, he elected to make a raiding expedition across France toward English-occupied Calais. In a campaign reminiscent of Crécy, he found himself outmaneuvered and low on supplies, and had to make a stand against a much larger French army at the Battle of Agincourt, north of the Somme. In spite of his disadvantages, his victory was near-total, and the French defeat was catastrophic, with the loss of many of the Armagnac leaders. Combatants Kingdom of England Kingdom of France Commanders Henry V of England Charles dAlbret Strength About 6,000 (but see Modern re-assessment). ... At the time of the Siege of Rouen (July 1418 - January 1419), the city had a population of 70,000, making it one of the leading cities in France, and its capture crucial to the Normandy campaign during the Hundred Years War. ... Combatants France, Scotland England Commanders John Stewart, 2nd Earl of Buchan Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence † Strength 5,000 1,500 Casualties light heavy The Battle of Baugé, fought between the English and the Franco-Scots on March 21, 1421 in Baugé, France, east of Angers, was one... The Siege of Meaux was fought in 1422 between the English and the French. ... Combatants England, Burgundy France, Scotland, Brittany Commanders Thomas Montacute, 4th Earl of Salisbury John Stewart, 2nd Earl of Buchan Louis, Count of Vendôme Strength 4,000 8,000 Casualties Around 600 6,000 The Battle of Cravant was an encounter fought on July 31, 1423, during the Hundred Years... Belligerents Kingdom of England, Duchy of Burgundy Kingdom of France, Kingdom of Scotland Commanders John, Duke of Bedford Viscount Aumale John Stewart, 2nd Earl of Buchan Archibald Douglas, 4th Earl of Douglas Strength 8,000 - 10,000 12,000-18,000 Casualties and losses 1000 6000 The Battle of Verneuil... Combatants England France Commanders Earl of Shrewsbury Earl of Salisbury Duke of Suffolk Jean de Dunois Gilles de Rais Joan of Arc Jean de Brosse Strength 5,000 6,400 soldiers, 4,000+ armed citizens Casualties 4,000 2000+ The Siege of Orléans (1428 – 1429) marked a turning point... Combatants France England Commanders Joan of Arc, Duke John II of Alençon William de la Pole Strength 1,200 700 Casualties  ? 300-400 The Battle of Jargeau took place on June 11 - 12, 1429. ... Combatants France England Commanders Joan of Arc, Duke John II of Alençon John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, Thomas Scales. ... Combatants France England Commanders Joan of Arc, John II of Alençon John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury The Battle of Beaugency took place on 16 - 17 June, 1429. ... Combatants Kingdom of France Kingdom of England Commanders La Hire Poton de Xaintrailles Sir John Fastolf Strength 1,500 cavalry 5,000 Casualties About 100 2,500 dead, wounded, or captured The Battle of Patay (18 June 1429) was a major battle in the Hundred Years War between the French... Statue of Joan of Arc at Vaucouleurs. ... Combatants Kingdom of France England Commanders La Hire ? The Battle of Gerbevoy was fought in 1435 between French and English forces. ... Combatants England France Brittany Commanders Thomas Kyriell Comte de Clermont Comte de Richemont Strength 4,000 5,000 Casualties 2,500 300 The Battle of Formigny (April 15, 1450) was a clash of the Hundred Years War. ... Combatants England France Brittany Commanders John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury† Jean Bureau Strength 4,000-6,000 8,000 - 13,000 Casualties 4,000 mainly wounded or captured 100 dead or wounded The Battle of Castillon was the last battle fought between the French, the Bretons and the English... Events September 30 - Accession of Henry IV of England October 13 - Coronation of Henry IV of England November 1 - Accession of John VI, Duke of Brittany Births William Canynge, English merchant (approximate date; died 1474) Zara Yaqob, Emperor of Ethiopia (died 1468) Deaths January 4 - Nicolau Aymerich, Catalan theologian and... Henry V of England (16 September 1387 – 31 August 1422) was one of the great English warrior kings of the Middle Ages. ... // Events Council of Constance begins. ... Henry II of England (called Curtmantle; 25 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... Harfleur is a town and commune of France in the Seine-Maritime département of Haute-Normandie, on the north bank of the mouth of the Seine, about 10 km east of Le Havre, and across the river from Honfleur. ... Crécy is part of the name of several communes of France. ... Combatants Kingdom of England Kingdom of France Commanders Henry V of England Charles dAlbret Strength About 6,000 (but see Modern re-assessment). ... This article is about the French department. ...

Fifteenth-century miniature depicting the Battle of Agincourt.
Fifteenth-century miniature depicting the Battle of Agincourt.

Henry took much of Normandy, including Caen in 1417 and Rouen on January 19, 1419, making Normandy English for the first time in two centuries. He made formal alliance with the Duchy of Burgundy, who had taken Paris, after the assassination of Duke John the Fearless in 1419. In 1420, Henry met with the mad king Charles VI, who signed the Treaty of Troyes, by which Henry would marry Charles' daughter Catherine and Henry's heirs would inherit the throne of France. The Dauphin, Charles VII, was declared illegitimate. Henry formally entered Paris later that year and the agreement was ratified by the Estates-General. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... , Caen (pronounced ) is a commune of northwestern France. ... Events Antipope Benedict XIII is deposed, and Pope Martin V is elected. ... , Rouen (pronounced in French) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on the River Seine, and currently the capital of the Haute-Normandie (Upper Normandy) région. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 19 – Hundred Years War: Rouen surrenders to Henry V of England which brings Normandy under the control of England. ... The following is a list of the Dukes of Burgundy Richard of Autun, the Justicier (880–921) Rudolph of Burgundy (king of France from 923) (921–923) Hugh the Black (923–952) Gilbert of Chalon (952–956) Odo of Paris (956-965) Otto-Henry the Great (965–1002) Otto-William... John the Fearless (French: Jean sans Peur), also John II, Duke of Burgundy, known as John of Valois and John of Burgundy (May 28, 1371 – September 10, 1419), was Duke of Burgundy from 1404 to 1419. ... Events May 21 - Treaty of Troyes. ... Charles VI Charles VI the Well-Beloved, later known as the Mad (French: Charles VI le Bien-Aimé, later known as le Fol) (December 3, 1368 – October 21, 1422) was a King of France (1380 – 1422) and a member of the Valois Dynasty. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Catherine of Valois (27 October 1401 – 3 January 1437) was the Queen consort of England from 1420 until 1422. ... Charles VII the Victorious, a. ... In France under the Ancien Regime, the States-General or Estates-General (French: états généraux), was a legislative assembly (see The States) of the different classes (or estates) of French subjects. ...


Henry's progress was now stopped by the arrival in France of a Scottish army of around 6,000 men. In 1421, the Earl of Buchan crushed a larger English army at the Battle of Bauge, killing the English commander, Thomas, 1st Duke of Clarence, and killing or capturing most of the English leaders. The French were so grateful that Buchan was immediately promoted to the High Constable of France. Soon after this setback Henry V died at Meaux in 1422. Soon, Charles too had died. Henry's infant son, Henry VI, was immediately crowned king of England and France, but the Armagnacs remained loyal to Charles' son and the war continued in central France. The Battle of Bauge was fought on March 21, 1421 in Bauge, France, East of Angers. ... Coordinates Administration Country Region Île-de-France Department Seine-et-Marne (sous-préfecture) Arrondissement Meaux Canton Chief town of 2 cantons: Meaux-Nord, Meaux-Sud Intercommunality Communauté dagglomération du Pays de Meaux Mayor Jean-François Copé (2001-2008) Statistics Altitude 39 m–107 m Land area... Events January 10 - Battle of Nemecky Brod during the Hussite Wars. ... Henry VI (December 6, 1421 – May 21, 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 (though with a Regent until 1437) and then from 1470 to 1471, and King of France from 1422 to 1453. ...


The English continued to attack France and in 1429 were besieging the important French city of Orleans. An attack on an English supply convoy led to the skirmish that is now known as Battle of the Herrings when John Fastolf circled his supply wagons (largely filled with herring) around his archers and repelled a few hundred attackers. Later that year, a French saviour appeared in the form of a peasant woman from Lorraine named Joan of Arc. January 10 - Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, founds the European Order of the Golden Fleece February 12 - Battle of Rouvray (or of the Herrings). English Forces under Sir John Fastolf defend a supply convoy carrying rations to the army of William de la Pole, 4th Earl of Suffolk at... Battle of the Herrings, the name applied to the action of Rouvray, fought in February 1429 between the French (and Scots) and the English, who, under Sir John Falstolf, were convoying Lenten provisions, chiefly herrings, to the besiegers of Orleans. ... Sir John Fastolf (died 5 November 1459) was an English soldier during the Hundred Years War, who has enjoyed a more lasting reputation as in some part being the prototype of Shakespeares Sir John Falstaff. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Lorraine (province). ... For other uses, see Joan of Arc (disambiguation). ...


French victory: 1429–1453

Hundred Years' War evolution. French territory: yellow; English: grey; Burgundian: dark grey.
Hundred Years' War evolution. French territory: yellow; English: grey; Burgundian: dark grey.

By 1424, the uncles of Henry VI had begun to quarrel over the infant's regency, and one, Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, married Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut, and invaded Holland to regain her former dominions, bringing him into direct conflict with Philip III, Duke of Burgundy. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (541x621, 139 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (541x621, 139 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... August 17 - Battle of Verneuil - An English force under John, Duke of Bedford defeats a larger French army under the Duke of Alençon, John Stewart, and Earl Archibald of Douglas. ... Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester (3 October 1390 – February 23, 1447) was the fourth son of King Henry IV of England by his first wife, Mary de Bohun. ... Jacqueline, Countess of Hainault and Holland Jacoba of Bavaria or Jacqueline of Wittelsbach (1401 – 1436, Dutch: Jacoba van Beieren, French: Jacqueline de Bavière) was Duchess of Bavaria-Straubing, Countess of Hainaut and Holland from 1417 to 1432. ... The virtually independent county of Hainaut emerged from chaotic conditions at the end of the 9th century as a semi-independent state, at first a vassal of the crown of Lotharingia. ... This article is about a region in the Netherlands. ... Philip III, Duke of Burgundy (Philip the Good or Philippe le Bon) (1396–1467) was Duke of Burgundy from 1419 until his death. ... Cross of Burgundy Flag The Duchy of Burgundy, today Bourgogne, has its origin in the small portion of traditional lands of Burgundians west of river Saône which in 843 was allotted to Charles the Balds kingdom of West Franks. ...


By 1428, the English were ready to pursue the war again, laying siege to Orléans. Their force was insufficient to fully invest the city, but larger French forces remained passive. In 1429, Joan of Arc convinced the Dauphin to send her to the siege, saying she had received visions from God telling her to drive out the English. She raised the morale of the local troops and they attacked the English Redoubts, forcing the English to lift the siege. Inspired by Joan, the French took several English strong points on the Loire. Shortly afterwards, a French army, some 8000 strong, broke through English archers at Patay with heavy cavalry, defeating a 3000 strong army commanded by John Fastolf and John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury. The first major French land victory of the wars, this opened the way for the Dauphin to march to Reims for his coronation as Charles VII. Events October 12 - English forces under Thomas Montacute, 4th Earl of Salisbury besiege Orléans. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... Combatants England France Commanders Earl of Shrewsbury Earl of Salisbury Duke of Suffolk Jean de Dunois Gilles de Rais Joan of Arc Jean de Brosse Strength 5,000 6,400 soldiers, 4,000+ armed citizens Casualties 4,000 2000+ The Siege of Orléans (1428 – 1429) marked a turning point... Investment is the military tactic of surrounding an enemy fortification or town with armed forces to prevent entry or escape. ... January 10 - Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, founds the European Order of the Golden Fleece February 12 - Battle of Rouvray (or of the Herrings). English Forces under Sir John Fastolf defend a supply convoy carrying rations to the army of William de la Pole, 4th Earl of Suffolk at... For other uses, see Joan of Arc (disambiguation). ... Coat of Arms of the Dauphins of France. ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... A redoubt is a fort or fort system usually consisting of an enclosed defensive emplacement outside a larger fort. ... Sir John Fastolf (died 5 November 1459) was an English soldier during the Hundred Years War, who has enjoyed a more lasting reputation as in some part being the prototype of Shakespeares Sir John Falstaff. ... John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury (1384/90 – 17 July 1453) was an important English military commander during the Hundred Years War. ... Reims (alternative English spelling Rheims; pronounced in French) is a city of the Champagne-Ardenne région of northern France, standing 144 km (89 miles) east-northeast of Paris. ...


After Joan was captured by the Burgundians in 1430 and later sold to the English and executed, the French advance stalled in negotiations. But, in 1435, the Burgundians under Philip III switched sides, signing the Treaty of Arras and returning Paris to the King of France. Burgundy's allegiance remained fickle, but their focus on expanding their domains into the Low Countries left them little energy to intervene in France. The long truces that marked the war also gave Charles time to reorganise his army and government, replacing his feudal levies with a more modern professional army that could put its superior numbers to good use, and centralising the French state. // Events May 23 - Joan of Arc is captured by the Burgundians while leading an army to relieve Compiègne The Ottoman Empire captures Thessalonica from the Venetians First use of optical methods in the creation of Art A map of Europe in 1430. ... For other uses, see number 1435. ... The Treaty of Arras was fought over the Utopian Princess by the countries of Gama and Dama. ...


Generally, though, the tactical superiority of English forces remained a potent factor; John Talbot, for instance, who specialised in fast attacks, routed French forces at Ry and Avranches in Normandy in 1436 and 1439 respectively. Talbot, one of the most daring warriors of the age, was the victor in 40 battles and skirmishes. This was one of the main reasons the war was so prolonged. The biographer of the Constable Richemont put it plainly when he wrote that "The English and their captains, above all Talbot, had a well established reputation for superiority, Richemont knew them better than anyone". John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury (1384/90 – 17 July 1453) was an important English military commander during the Hundred Years War. ...


But a repetition of Du Guesclin's battle avoidance strategy paid dividends and the French were able to recover town after town.


By 1449, the French had retaken Rouen, and in 1450 the count of Clermont and Arthur de Richemont, Earl of Richmond, of the Montfort family (the future Arthur III, Duke of Brittany) caught an English army attempting to relieve Caen at the Battle of Formigny and defeated it, the English army having been attacked from the flank and rear by Richemont's force just as they were on the verge of beating Clermont's army. The French proceeded to capture Cherbourg on July 6 and Bordeaux and Bayonne in 1451. The attempt by Talbot to retake Gascony, though initially welcomed by the locals, was crushed by Jean Bureau and his cannon at the Battle of Castillon in 1453 where Talbot had led a small Anglo-Gascon force in a frontal attack on an entrenched camp. This is considered the last battle of the Hundred Years' War. Events January 6 - Constantine XI is crowned Byzantine Emperor. ... , Rouen (pronounced in French) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on the River Seine, and currently the capital of the Haute-Normandie (Upper Normandy) région. ... // March - French troops under Guy de Richemont besiege the English commander in France, Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, in Caen. ... Clermont is the name of several places in the United States of America: Clermont, Florida Clermont, Georgia Clermont, Indiana Clermont, Iowa Clermont, New York Clermont County, Ohio Clermont is the name of several communes in France: Clermont, in the Ariège département Clermont, in the Haute-Savoie département Clermont, in the... Coat of Arms of the Dukes of Brittany, and of the region Brittany Arthur III (in breton Arzhur III) (August 24, 1393 – December 26, 1458), known as the Justicier and as Arthur de Richemont, was Lord of Parthenay and titular Count (Earl) of Richmond in England and, for eleven months... Combatants England France Brittany Commanders Thomas Kyriell Comte de Clermont Comte de Richemont Strength 4,000 5,000 Casualties 2,500 300 The Battle of Formigny (April 15, 1450) was a clash of the Hundred Years War. ... Cherbourg is a city of Normandy, in northwestern France, in the Manche département, of which it is a sous_préfecture. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Bordeaux (disambiguation). ... Bayonne (French: Bayonne, pronounced ; Gascon Occitan and Basque: Baiona) is a city and commune of southwest France at the confluence of the Nive and Adour rivers, in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... // Events February 3 - Murad II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Mehmed II. April 11 - Celje acquires market-town status and town rights by orders from the Celje count Frederic II. June 30 - French troops under the Comte de Dunois invade Guyenne and capture... Jean Bureau (died July 5, 1463) was Charles VII s master of artillery during the final years of the Hundred Years War. ... Combatants England France Brittany Commanders John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury† Jean Bureau Strength 4,000-6,000 8,000 - 13,000 Casualties 4,000 mainly wounded or captured 100 dead or wounded The Battle of Castillon was the last battle fought between the French, the Bretons and the English... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ...


Significance

The Hundred Years' War was a time of military evolution. Weapons, tactics, army structure, and the societal meaning of war all changed, partly in response to the demands of the war, partly through advancement in technology, and partly through lessons that warfare taught. Look up warfare in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


England was what might be considered a more modern state than France. It had a centralised authority—Parliament—with the authority to tax. As the military writer Colonel Alfred Burne notes, England had revolutionized its recruitment system, substituting a paid army for one drawn from feudal obligation. Professional captains were appointed who recruited troops for a specified (theoretically short) period. This "modern army", to some extent a necessity—many barons refused to go on a foreign campaign, as feudal service was supposed to be for protection of the realm[citation needed]—also gave England a military advantage early on.[citation needed] Alfred Burne is a British military historian who specialised in medieval warfare. ...


Before the Hundred Years' War, heavy cavalry was considered the most powerful unit in an army, but by the war's end this belief had shifted. The heavy horse was increasingly negated by the use of the longbow and fixed defensive positions of men-at-arms—tactics which helped lead to English victories at Crécy and Agincourt. Learning from the Scots, the English began using lightly armoured mounted troops—later called dragoons—who would dismount in order to fight battles. By the end of the Hundred Years' War, this meant a fading of the expensively-outfitted, highly-trained heavy cavalry, and the eventual end of the knight as a military force and the nobility as a political one. A light dragoon from the American Revolution A dragoon is a soldier trained to fight on foot, but transport himself on horseback. ... Knights Dueling, by Eugène Delacroix For other uses, see Knight (disambiguation) or Knights (disambiguation). ... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ...


Although they had a tactical advantage, "nevertheless the size of France prohibited lengthy, let alone permanent, occupation," as the military writer General Fuller noted. Covering a much larger area than England, and containing four times its population, France proved difficult for the English to occupy.


An insoluble problem for English commanders was that, in an age of siege warfare, the more territory that was occupied, the greater the requirements for garrisons. This lessened the striking power of English armies as time went on. Salisbury's army at Orleans consisted of only 5,000 men, insufficient not only to invest the city but also numerically inferior to French forces within and without the city. The French only needed to recover some part of their shattered confidence, the result of many years of defeat, for the outcome to become inevitable. At Orleans they were assisted by the death of Salisbury through a fluke cannon shot and by the inspiration of Joan of Arc.


Furthermore, the ending of the Burgundian alliance spelled the end of English efforts in France, despite the campaigns of the aggressive John, Lord Talbot, and his forces to delay the inevitable.


The war also stimulated nationalistic sentiment. It devastated France as a land, but it also awakened French nationalism. The Hundred Years' War accelerated the process of transforming France from a feudal monarchy to a centralised state. The conflict became one of not just English and French kings but one between the English and French peoples. There were constant rumours in England that the French meant to invade and destroy the English language. National feeling emerged out of such rumours that unified both France and England further. The Hundred Years War basically confirmed the fall of the French language, which had served as the language of the ruling classes and commerce in England from the time of the Norman conquest until 1362.[3] This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s - 1360s - 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s Years: 1357 1358 1359 1360 1361 - 1362 - 1363 1364 1365 1366 1367 See also: 1362 state leaders Events Under Edward III, English replaces French as Englands national language, for the...


The latter stages of the war saw the emergence of the dukes of Burgundy as important players on the political field, and it encouraged the English, in response to the seesawing alliance of the southern Netherlands (now Belgium, a rich centre of woolen production at the time) throughout the conflict, to develop their own woolen industry and foreign markets. The Southern Netherlands (Dutch: , Spanish: , French: ) were a part of the Low Countries controlled by Spain (Spanish Netherlands, 1579-1713), Austria (Austrian Netherlands, 1713-1794) and captured by France (1794-1815). ...


Weapons

Self-yew English longbow, 2m (6 ft 6 in) long, 470N (105 lbf) draw force.
Self-yew English longbow, 2m (6 ftin) long, 470N (105 lbf) draw force.

The most famous weapon was the English and Welsh longbow of the yeoman archer: while not a new weapon at the time, it played a significant role throughout the war, giving the English tactical advantage in the many battles and skirmishes in which they were used. The French mainly relied on crossbows, often employed by Genoese mercenaries. The crossbow was used because it took little training or skill to operate effectively. However, it was slow to reload, heavy, and vulnerable to rain-damage; and it lacked the accuracy of the longbow. The longbow was a very difficult weapon to employ, and English archers had to have practiced from an early age to become proficient. It also required tremendous strength to use, with a draw weight typically around 620-670 newtons (140–150lbf) and possibly as high as 800N (180lbf). It was its widespread use in the British Isles that gave the English the ability to use it as a weapon. It was the strategic developments that brought it to prominence. The English in their battles with the Scots had learned through defeat what dismounted bowmen in fixed positions could do to heavy cavalry. Since the arrows shot from a longbow could kill or incapacitate armoured knights (and particularly their costly horses), a charge could be dissipated before it ever reached an army's lines. The longbow enabled an often-outnumbered English army to pick battle locations, fortify them, and destroy opposing armies. As the Hundred Years' War came to a close, the number of capable longbowmen began to drop off; given the training required to fire such powerful bows, the casualties taken by the longbowmen at Verneuil (1424) and Patay (1429) were significant, and therefore the longbow became less viable as a weapon, because there were not enough men to wield them. Improvements in armour-plating from the 15th century meant that expensive armour was almost arrow-proof. Only the most powerful longbows at close-range could stand a chance of penetrating.[citations needed] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2180x560, 626 KB) English Yew longbow (105 lbf at 32 inches). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2180x560, 626 KB) English Yew longbow (105 lbf at 32 inches). ... The metre, or meter (symbol: m) is the SI base unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... For other uses, see Newton (disambiguation). ... The pound-force is a non-SI unit of force or weight (properly abbreviated lbf or lbf). The pound-force is equal to a mass of one pound multiplied by the standard acceleration due to gravity on Earth (which is defined as exactly 9. ... Self-yew English longbow, 6 ft 6 in (2 m) long, 470 N (105 lbf) draw force. ... Yeoman is a word with several modern and historical meanings. ... For other uses, see Mercenary (disambiguation). ... This article is about the weapon. ... Belligerents Kingdom of England, Duchy of Burgundy Kingdom of France, Kingdom of Scotland Commanders John, Duke of Bedford Viscount Aumale John Stewart, 2nd Earl of Buchan Archibald Douglas, 4th Earl of Douglas Strength 8,000 - 10,000 12,000-18,000 Casualties and losses 1000 6000 The Battle of Verneuil... Combatants Kingdom of France Kingdom of England Commanders La Hire Poton de Xaintrailles Sir John Fastolf Strength 1,500 cavalry 5,000 Casualties About 100 2,500 dead, wounded, or captured The Battle of Patay (18 June 1429) was a major battle in the Hundred Years War between the French...


A number of new weapons were introduced during the Hundred Years' War as well. Gunpowder for gonnes (an early firearm) and cannons played significant roles as early as 1375. The last battle of the war, the Battle of Castillon, was the first battle in European history in which artillery was the deciding factor. For other uses, see Weapon (disambiguation). ... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... Hand gonnes from the Historisches Museum, Bern Hand gonne being fired from a stand, Belli Fortis, manuscript, by Konrad Kyeser, 1400 The gonne, hand gonne or hand cannon, as it was called, was the first handheld, portable firearm. ... Firearms redirects here. ... For other uses, see Cannon (disambiguation). ... Events October 24 - Valdemar IV of Denmark dies and is succeeded by his grandson Olaf III of Denmark. ... Combatants England France Brittany Commanders John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury† Jean Bureau Strength 4,000-6,000 8,000 - 13,000 Casualties 4,000 mainly wounded or captured 100 dead or wounded The Battle of Castillon was the last battle fought between the French, the Bretons and the English...


War and society

The consequences of these new weapons meant that the nobility was no longer the deciding factor in battle; peasants armed with longbows or firearms could gain access to the power, rewards, and prestige once reserved only for knights who bore arms. The composition of armies changed, from feudal lords who might or might not show up when called by their lord, to paid mercenaries. By the end of the war, both France and England were able to raise enough money through taxation to create standing armies, the first time since the fall of the Western Roman Empire that there were standing armies in Western or Central Europe. Standing armies represented an entirely new form of power for kings. Not only could they defend their kingdoms from invaders, but standing armies could also protect the king from internal threats and also keep the population in check. It was a major step in the early developments towards centralised nation-states that eroded the medieval order. The Roman Empire is not the Holy Roman Empire (843-1806). ...


At the first major battle of the war, the Battle of Crécy, it is said that the age of chivalry came to an end in that heavy-cavalry charges no longer decided battles. At the same time, there was a revival of the mores of chivalry, and it was deemed to be of the highest importance to fight, and to die, in the most chivalrous way possible. It was a lesson the French would take a long time to learn at great cost, before they also began to fight in less chivalrous ways. The notion of chivalry was strongly influenced by the Romantic epics of the 12th century, and knights literally imagined themselves re-enacting those stories on the field of battle. Someone like Bertrand Du Guesclin was said to have gone into battle with one eye closed, declaring "I will not open my eye for the honour of my lady until I have killed three Englishmen." Knights often carried the colors of their ladies into battle. This is a partial list of battles that have entries in Wikipedia. ... Crécy redirects here. ... Bors Dilemma - he chooses to save a maiden rather than his brother Lionel Chivalry[1] is a term related to the medieval institution of knighthood. ... Statue of Bertrand du Guesclin in Dinan Bertrand du Guesclin at the Saint-Denis Basilica, near Paris Bertrand du Guesclin (c. ...


In France, during the captivity of King John II, the Estates General attempted to arrogate power from the king. The Estates General was a body of representatives from the three groups who traditionally had consultative rights in France: the clergy, the nobles, and the townspeople. First called together under Philip IV “the Fair”, the Estates had the right to confirm or disagree with the “levée”, the principal tax by which the kings of France raised money. Under the leadership of a merchant named Etienne Marcel, the Estates General attempted to force the monarchy to accept a sort of agreement called the Great Ordinance. Like the English Magna Carta, the Great Ordinance held that the Estates should supervise the collection and spending of the levy, meet at regular intervals independent of the king’s call, exercise certain judicial powers, and generally play a greater role in government. The nobles took this power to excess, however, causing in 1358 a peasant rebellion known as the Jacquerie. Swarms of peasants furious over the nobles’ high taxes and forced-labour policies killed and burned in the north of France. One of their victims proved to be Etienne Marcel, and without his leadership the Estates General divided. John II the Good (French: Jean II le Bon) (April 16, 1319 – April 8, 1364), was King of France 1350–1364, Duke of Normandy and Count of Anjou and Maine 1332–1350, Count of Poitiers 1344–1350, and Duke of Guienne 1345–1350. ... The word States-General, or Estates-General, refers in English to : the Etats-G raux of France before the French Revolution the Staten-Generaal of the Netherlands. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... The Lords and Barons prove their Nobility by hanging their Banners and exposing their Coats-of-arms at the Windows of the Lodge of the Heralds. ... “Philip the Fair” redirects here. ... Étienne Marcel (died July 31, 1358) was provost of the merchants of Paris under King John II. Étienne Marcel belonged by birth to the wealthy Parisian bourgeoisie, being the son of a clothier named Simon Marcel and of Isabelle Barbou. ... This article is about the English charter issued in 1215. ... Events Jacquerie. ... The Jacquerie in Froissarts chronicles The Jacquerie was a popular revolt in late medieval Europe that took place in northern France in 1358, during the Hundred Years War. ...


England and the Hundred Years' War

The effects of the Hundred Years’ War in England also raised some questions about the extent of royal authority. Like the French, the English experienced a serious rebellion against the king during a gap in the succession caused by the death of Edward III when his grandson had not yet reached maturity. Called the Peasants' Revolt and also Wat Tyler’s Rebellion, the 1381 uprising saw some 100,000 peasants march on London to protest the payment of high war taxes and efforts by the nobility to reduce English peasants to serfdom. The mob murdered and burned the houses of government officials and tax collectors. The young king-to-be, Richard II, met the peasants outside his castle, defusing their violence by promising to meet their demands. At the same time, agents of the throne murdered Wat Tyler, a key leader of the revolt, and Richard II sent the peasants back to their homes in the countryside. After they left, however, he reneged on his promises and kept taxes high. Edward III King of England Edward III (13 November 1312–21 June 1377) was one of the most successful English Kings of medieval times. ... The end of the revolt: Wat Tyler killed by Walworth while Richard II watches, and a second image of Richard addressing the crowd The Peasants Revolt, Tyler’s Rebellion, or the Great Rising of 1381 was one of a number of popular revolts in late medieval Europe and is a... This article is about the revolt leader Wat Tyler. ... Year 1381 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Serf redirects here. ... Murder is both a legal and a moral term, that are not always coincident. ...


Initially the success of the campaigns brought much wealth to English Monarchy and the nobles. As the war continued, the upkeep and maintenance of the region proved too burdensome and the English crown was essentially bankrupted, despite the wealth of France continuously being brought back by the nobles. The English monarchy began to seek truce, abandoning many of their subjects in France. Many English nobles with claims and holdings were greatly disillusioned with the crowns. The conflict became one of the major contributing factors to the Wars of the Roses. Lancaster York For other uses, see Wars of the Roses (disambiguation). ...


Major battles

// March 16 - Edward, the Black Prince is created Duke of Cornwall. ... The Battle of Cadsand was fought in 1337 between the English, commanded by the Earl of Derby and Sir Walter Manny, and the Flemish garrison of Cadzand, under Sir Guy of Flanders, bastard son of Louis, Count of Nevers. ... Events Europe has about 74 million inhabitants. ... Combatants Kingdom of England Kingdom of France Commanders Edward III of England Hugues Quiéret, Nicolas Béhuchet Strength 250 ships 190 ships Casualties Unknown 20 000 (Europe: A History by Norman Davies) Most ships captured The naval Battle of Sluys was fought on 24 June 1340 as one of... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... Philip VI of France Philip VI of Valois (French: Philippe VI de Valois; 1293 – August 22, 1350) was the King of France from 1328 to his death, and Count of Anjou, Maine, and Valois 1325–1328. ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... Events Miracle of the Host Births October 31 - King Fernando I of Portugal (died 1383) Agnès of Valois, daughter of John II of France (died 1349) Eleanor Maltravers, English noblewoman (died 1405) Deaths April 14 - Richard Aungerville, English writer and bishop (born 1287) September 16 - John IV, Duke of... The Battle of Auberoche was fought in 1345 between the English and the French. ... // Events Serbian Empire was proclaimed in Skopje by Dusan Silni, occupying much of the South-Eastern Europe Foundation of the University of Valladolid Foundation of Pembroke College, University of Cambridge August 26 Battle of Crecy after which Edward the Black Prince honored the bravery of John I, Count of Luxemburg... Crécy redirects here. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Collégiale St Vulfran Beffroi Abbeville is a city in the Picardie région, in the north of France. ... // Events Serbian Empire was proclaimed in Skopje by Dusan Silni, occupying much of the South-Eastern Europe Foundation of the University of Valladolid Foundation of Pembroke College, University of Cambridge August 26 Battle of Crecy after which Edward the Black Prince honored the bravery of John I, Count of Luxemburg... Illustration of the Black Death from the Toggenburg Bible (1411). ... Combatants Kingdom of England Kingdom of France Commanders Edward III of England Jean de Fosseux Strength 34,000 men: 5,300 knights, 6,600 infantry, 20,000 archers, 2,000 Flemish soldiers 7,000 to 8,000 citizens The Siege of Calais in northern France began in 1346, towards the... Events 29 August - An English fleet personally commanded by King Edward III defeats a Spanish fleet in the battle of Les Espagnols sur Mer. ... The naval Battle of LEspagnols sur Mer (Spanish on the Sea), or Battle of Winchelsea took place on 29 August (Old Style) 1350 and was a victory for an English fleet of 50 ships commanded by Edward III, with the Black Prince, over a Castilian fleet of 40 ships... Events End of the reign of Emperor Suko of Japan, third of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Start of the reign of Emperor Go-Kogon of Japan, fourth of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders May 1 Zürich joins the Swiss Confederation. ... The Combat of the Thirty was a famous battle fought on March 27, 1351, during the Breton civil war (part of the Hundred Years War) between Jean de Montfort (supported by the English) and Charles de Blois (supported by the French). ... Josselin is a commune of France, in the Morbihan département, in the region of Brittany. ... Beaumanoir was a seigniory in what is now the department of Côtes-dArmor, France, which gave its name to an illustrious family. ... The Earldom of Pembroke, associated with Pembroke Castle in Wales, was created by King Stephen of England. ... Events January 20 - Edward Balliol surrenders title as King of Scotland to Edward III of England April 16 — the King of the Serbian Kingdom of RaÅ¡ka Stefan DuÅ¡an is proclaimed Tsar (Emperor) of all Serbs, Arbanasses and Greeks in Skopje by the Serbian Orthodox Christian Patriarch of a... Combatants Kingdom of England Gascony France Commanders Edward, the Black Prince Captal de Buch John II of France Strength 9,000 12,000 Casualties Minimal 2,500 killed or wounded The Battle of Poitiers was fought between the Kingdom of England and France on September 19, 1356, resulting in the... Edward the Black Prince - illustration from Cassells History of England circa 1902 Effigy on the Black Princes tomb in Canterbury Cathedral Edward, Prince of Wales, known as the Black Prince (June 15, 1330 - June 8, 1376) was the eldest son of King Edward III of England. ... John II the Good (French: Jean II le Bon) (April 16, 1319 – April 8, 1364), was King of France 1350–1364, Duke of Normandy and Count of Anjou and Maine 1332–1350, Count of Poitiers 1344–1350, and Duke of Guienne 1345–1350. ... Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s - 1360s - 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s Years: 1359 1360 1361 1362 1363 - 1364 - 1365 1366 1367 1368 1369 See also: 1364 state leaders Events Charles V becomes King of France. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Bretons-England Bretons-France Commanders John de Montfort Charles of Blois Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Auray took place on September 29, 1364 at the French town of Auray. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Events Battle of Najera, Peter I of Castile restored as King. ... The Battle of Nájera from a fifteenth-century manuscript. ... Najera (Nájera in Spanish, Naiara in Basque) is a city located in the Rioja Alta district of La Rioja, Spain upon the river Najerilla. ... In this year, the city of Aachen, Germany begins adding a Roman numeral Anno Domini date to a few of its coins. ... The Battle of La Rochelle was a naval engagement fought in 1372 between a Franco-Castilian and an English fleet. ... September 8 - Battle of Kulikovo - Russian forces under Grand Prince Dmitri Donskoi of Moscow resist a large invasion by the Blue Horde, Lithuania and Ryazan, stopping their advance at Kulikovo. ... Fernando (or Fernán) Sánchez de Tovar († Lisbon, 1384) was a Spanish (Castilian) soldier and admiral of the Middle Ages. ... Year 1385 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Jean de Vienne (1341, Dole - 1396, Nicopolis) was a French knight, general and admiral during the Hundred Years War. ... Events Friedrich I Hohenzollern (b. ... Combatants Kingdom of England Kingdom of France Commanders Henry V of England Charles dAlbret Strength About 6,000 (but see Modern re-assessment). ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Henry V of England (16 September 1387 – 31 August 1422) was one of the great English warrior kings of the Middle Ages. ... May 30 - The Catholic Church burns Jerome of Prague as a heretic. ... Valmont may refer to: A character in the 1782 French novel Les Liaisons dangereuses by Choderlos de Laclos A 1989 movie titled Valmont starring Colin Firth and Annette Bening, based on the above referenced novel and directed by MiloÅ¡ Forman A sanatorium named Valmont in Montreux, Switzerland A commune named... Harfleur is a town and commune of France in the Seine-Maritime département of Haute-Normandie, on the north bank of the mouth of the Seine, about 10 km east of Le Havre, and across the river from Honfleur. ... Events Antipope Benedict XIII is deposed, and Pope Martin V is elected. ... This article is about the river in France. ... Events May 19 - Capture of Paris by John, Duke of Burgundy September - Beginning of English Siege of Rouen Mircea the Old, ruler of Wallachia dies and is succeeded by Vlad I Uzurpatorul. ... At the time of the Siege of Rouen (July 1418 - January 1419), the city had a population of 70,000, making it one of the leading cities in France, and its capture crucial to the Normandy campaign during the Hundred Years War. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 19 – Hundred Years War: Rouen surrenders to Henry V of England which brings Normandy under the control of England. ... Events January 19 – Hundred Years War: Rouen surrenders to Henry V of England which brings Normandy under the control of England. ... For the controversial hypothesis advanced by Gavin Menzies, see: 1421 hypothesis. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Battle of Bauge was fought on March 21, 1421 in Bauge, France, East of Angers. ... Events July 31 - Hundred Years War: Battle of Cravant - The French army is defeated at Cravant on the banks of the river Yonne. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants England, Burgundy France, Scotland, Brittany Commanders Thomas Montacute, 4th Earl of Salisbury John Stewart, 2nd Earl of Buchan Louis, Count of Vendôme Strength 4,000 8,000 Casualties Around 600 6,000 The Battle of Cravant was an encounter fought on July 31, 1423, during the Hundred Years... August 17 - Battle of Verneuil - An English force under John, Duke of Bedford defeats a larger French army under the Duke of Alençon, John Stewart, and Earl Archibald of Douglas. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Battle of Verneuil (occasionally Vernuil) was a battle of the Hundred Years War, fought on 17 August 1424 near Verneuil in Normandy and was a significant English victory. ... Events March 6 - Battle of St. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Arthur III (August 24, 1393 – December 26, 1458), known as the Justicier and as Arthur de Richemont, was Lord of Parthenay and titular Count (Earl) of Richmond in England and, for eleven months at the very end of his life, Duke of Brittany and Count of Montfort after inheriting those... January 10 - Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, founds the European Order of the Golden Fleece February 12 - Battle of Rouvray (or of the Herrings). English Forces under Sir John Fastolf defend a supply convoy carrying rations to the army of William de la Pole, 4th Earl of Suffolk at... Battle of the Herrings, the name applied to the action of Rouvray, fought in February 1429 between the French (and Scots) and the English, who, under Sir John Falstolf, were convoying Lenten provisions, chiefly herrings, to the besiegers of Orleans. ... Sir John Fastolf (died 5 November 1459) was an English soldier during the Hundred Years War, who has enjoyed a more lasting reputation as in some part being the prototype of Shakespeares Sir John Falstaff. ... Events October 12 - English forces under Thomas Montacute, 4th Earl of Salisbury besiege Orléans. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 10 - Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, founds the European Order of the Golden Fleece February 12 - Battle of Rouvray (or of the Herrings). English Forces under Sir John Fastolf defend a supply convoy carrying rations to the army of William de la Pole, 4th Earl of Suffolk at... Combatants England France Commanders Earl of Shrewsbury Earl of Salisbury Duke of Suffolk Jean de Dunois Gilles de Rais Joan of Arc Jean de Brosse Strength 5,000 6,400 soldiers, 4,000+ armed citizens Casualties 4,000 2000+ The Siege of Orléans (1428 – 1429) marked a turning point... January 10 - Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, founds the European Order of the Golden Fleece February 12 - Battle of Rouvray (or of the Herrings). English Forces under Sir John Fastolf defend a supply convoy carrying rations to the army of William de la Pole, 4th Earl of Suffolk at... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Kingdom of France Kingdom of England Commanders La Hire Poton de Xaintrailles Sir John Fastolf Strength 1,500 cavalry 5,000 Casualties About 100 2,500 dead, wounded, or captured The Battle of Patay (18 June 1429) was a major battle in the Hundred Years War between the French... La Hire and Xaintrailles depicted in a 15th century illuminated book. ... For other uses, see Joan of Arc (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see number 1435. ... Combatants Kingdom of France England Commanders La Hire ? The Battle of Gerbevoy was fought in 1435 between French and English forces. ... For alternative meanings, see number 1440. ... // March - French troops under Guy de Richemont besiege the English commander in France, Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, in Caen. ... Combatants England France Brittany Commanders Thomas Kyriell Comte de Clermont Comte de Richemont Strength 4,000 5,000 Casualties 2,500 300 The Battle of Formigny (April 15, 1450) was a clash of the Hundred Years War. ... Combatants England France,Brittany Commanders Thomas Kyriell Comte de Clermont, Arthur III, Duke of Brittany Strength 4,000 5,000 Casualties 2,500 600-1000 The Battle of Formigny (April 15, 1450) was a clash of the Hundred Years War. ... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ... Combatants England France Brittany Commanders John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury† Jean Bureau Strength 4,000-6,000 8,000 - 13,000 Casualties 4,000 mainly wounded or captured 100 dead or wounded The Battle of Castillon was the last battle fought between the French, the Bretons and the English... Jean Bureau (died July 5, 1463) was Charles VII s master of artillery during the final years of the Hundred Years War. ...

Important people

England
King Edward III 13271377 Edward II's son
King Richard II 13771399 Edward III's grandson
King Henry IV 13991413 Edward III's grandson
King Henry V 14131422 Henry IV's son
King Henry VI 14221461 Henry V's son
Edward, the Black Prince 13301376 Edward III's son
John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster 13401399 Edward III's son
John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford 13891435 Henry IV's son
Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster 13061361 Knight
John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury 13841453 Knight
Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York 14111460 Knight
Sir John Fastolf 1378?–1459 Knight
France
King Philip VI 13281350
King John II 13501364 Philip VI's son
King Charles V 13641380 John II's son
Louis I of Anjou 13801382 John II's son
King Charles VI 13801422 Charles V's son
King Charles VII 14221461 Charles VI's son
Joan of Arc 14121431 Saint
Jean de Dunois 14031468 Knight
Gilles de Rais 14041440 Knight
Bertrand du Guesclin 13201380 Knight
Jean Bureau 13??–1463 Knight
La Hire 13901443 Knight
Burgundy
Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy 13631404 Son of John II of France
John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy 14041419 Son of Philip the Bold
Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy 14191467 Son of John the Fearless

This article is about the King of England. ... Events January 25 - Edward III becomes King of England. ... // Events January 17 – Pope Gregory XI enters Rome. ... Edward II, (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until deposed in January, 1327. ... Richard II (January 6, 1367 – February 14, 1400) was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. ... // Events January 17 – Pope Gregory XI enters Rome. ... Events September 30 - Accession of Henry IV of England October 13 - Coronation of Henry IV of England November 1 - Accession of John VI, Duke of Brittany Births William Canynge, English merchant (approximate date; died 1474) Zara Yaqob, Emperor of Ethiopia (died 1468) Deaths January 4 - Nicolau Aymerich, Catalan theologian and... Henry IV (3 April 1367 – 20 March 1413) was the King of England and France and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413. ... Events September 30 - Accession of Henry IV of England October 13 - Coronation of Henry IV of England November 1 - Accession of John VI, Duke of Brittany Births William Canynge, English merchant (approximate date; died 1474) Zara Yaqob, Emperor of Ethiopia (died 1468) Deaths January 4 - Nicolau Aymerich, Catalan theologian and... // March 21 - Henry V becomes King of England. ... Henry V of England (16 September 1387 – 31 August 1422) was one of the great English warrior kings of the Middle Ages. ... // March 21 - Henry V becomes King of England. ... Events January 10 - Battle of Nemecky Brod during the Hussite Wars. ... Henry VI (December 6, 1421 – May 21, 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 (though with a Regent until 1437) and then from 1470 to 1471, and King of France from 1422 to 1453. ... Events January 10 - Battle of Nemecky Brod during the Hussite Wars. ... Events February 2 - Battle of Mortimers Cross - Yorkist troops led by Edward, Duke of York defeat Lancastrians under Owen Tudor and his son Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke in Wales. ... Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales, KG (15 June 1330 – 8 June 1376), popularly known as the Black Prince, was the eldest son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault, and father to King Richard II of England. ... Events The Bulgars under Michael III are beaten by the Serbs at Velbuzhd, and large parts of Bulgaria fall to Serbia. ... // Events March – The treaty between England and France is extended until April of 1377. ... John of Gaunt John of Gaunt John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster (March 6, 1340 – February 3, 1399) was the third surviving son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. ... Events Europe has about 74 million inhabitants. ... Events September 30 - Accession of Henry IV of England October 13 - Coronation of Henry IV of England November 1 - Accession of John VI, Duke of Brittany Births William Canynge, English merchant (approximate date; died 1474) Zara Yaqob, Emperor of Ethiopia (died 1468) Deaths January 4 - Nicolau Aymerich, Catalan theologian and... John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford (20 June 1389–14 September 1435), also known as John Plantagenet, was the fourth son of King Henry IV of England by Mary de Bohun, and acted as Regent of England for his nephew, King Henry VI. He was created Earl of Kendal... Events February 24 - Margaret I defeats Albert in battle, thus becoming ruler of Denmark, Norway and Sweden June 28 - Battle of Kosovo between Serbs and Ottomans. ... For other uses, see number 1435. ... Henry of Grosmont, Duke of Lancaster (c. ... Events March 25 - Robert the Bruce becomes King of Scotland June 19 - Forces of Earl of Pembroke defeat Bruces Scottish rebels at the Battle of Methven Philip IV of France exiles all the Jews from France and confiscates their property In London, a city ordinance degrees that heating with... Founding of the University of Pavia, Italy. ... John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury (1384/90 – 17 July 1453) was an important English military commander during the Hundred Years War. ... Year 1384 was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ... Richard, Duke of York (21 September 1411 – 30 December 1460) was a member of the English royal family, who served in senior positions in France at the end of the Hundred Years War, and in England during Henry VIs madness. ... Events February 11 : Peace of ToruÅ„ 1411 signed in ToruÅ„, Poland Births September 21 - Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, claimant to the English throne (died 1460) Juan de Mena, Spanish poet (died 1456) Deaths June 3 - Duke Leopold IV of Austria (born 1371) November 4 - Khalil Sultan, ruler of... Events The first Portuguese navigators reach the coast of modern Sierra Leone. ... Sir John Fastolf (d. ... Events March - John Wyclif tried to gain public favour by laying his theses before parliament, and then made them public in a tract. ... Events September 23 - Battle of Blore Heath. ... Philip VI of France Philip VI of Valois (French: Philippe VI de Valois; 1293 – August 22, 1350) was the King of France from 1328 to his death, and Count of Anjou, Maine, and Valois 1325–1328. ... Events Augustiner brew Munich May 1 - Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton - England recognises Scotland as an independent nation after the Wars of Scottish Independence May 12 - Nicholas V is consecrated at St Peters Basilica in Rome by the bishop of Venice. ... Events 29 August - An English fleet personally commanded by King Edward III defeats a Spanish fleet in the battle of Les Espagnols sur Mer. ... John II the Good (French: Jean II le Bon) (April 16, 1319 – April 8, 1364), was King of France 1350–1364, Duke of Normandy and Count of Anjou and Maine 1332–1350, Count of Poitiers 1344–1350, and Duke of Guienne 1345–1350. ... Events 29 August - An English fleet personally commanded by King Edward III defeats a Spanish fleet in the battle of Les Espagnols sur Mer. ... Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s - 1360s - 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s Years: 1359 1360 1361 1362 1363 - 1364 - 1365 1366 1367 1368 1369 See also: 1364 state leaders Events Charles V becomes King of France. ... Charles V the Wise (French: Charles V le Sage) (January 21, 1338 – September 16, 1380) was king of France from 1364 to 1380 and a member of the Valois Dynasty. ... Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s - 1360s - 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s Years: 1359 1360 1361 1362 1363 - 1364 - 1365 1366 1367 1368 1369 See also: 1364 state leaders Events Charles V becomes King of France. ... September 8 - Battle of Kulikovo - Russian forces under Grand Prince Dmitri Donskoi of Moscow resist a large invasion by the Blue Horde, Lithuania and Ryazan, stopping their advance at Kulikovo. ... Louis I of Anjou (July 23, 1339, Château de Vincennes, – September 20, 1384, Biselia) was the second son of King John II of France and Bonne of Luxembourg. ... September 8 - Battle of Kulikovo - Russian forces under Grand Prince Dmitri Donskoi of Moscow resist a large invasion by the Blue Horde, Lithuania and Ryazan, stopping their advance at Kulikovo. ... Year 1382 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Charles VI Charles VI the Well-Beloved, later known as the Mad (French: Charles VI le Bien-Aimé, later known as le Fol) (December 3, 1368 – October 21, 1422) was a King of France (1380 – 1422) and a member of the Valois Dynasty. ... September 8 - Battle of Kulikovo - Russian forces under Grand Prince Dmitri Donskoi of Moscow resist a large invasion by the Blue Horde, Lithuania and Ryazan, stopping their advance at Kulikovo. ... Events January 10 - Battle of Nemecky Brod during the Hussite Wars. ... Charles VII the Victorious, a. ... Events January 10 - Battle of Nemecky Brod during the Hussite Wars. ... Events February 2 - Battle of Mortimers Cross - Yorkist troops led by Edward, Duke of York defeat Lancastrians under Owen Tudor and his son Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke in Wales. ... For other uses, see Joan of Arc (disambiguation). ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Komatsu of Japan. ... Year 1431 was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Comte Jean de Dunois (Jean dOrléans) (November 23, 1402 - November 24, 1468) was the bastard of Louis dOrléans (Duc dOrléans 1372-1407) and Mariette dEnghien. ... Events July 21 - Battle of Shrewsbury. ... August 26 - Baeda Maryam succeeds his father Zara Yaqob as Emperor of Ethiopia. ... Gilles de Rais Gilles de Rais (also spelled Retz) (September 10, 1404 – October 26, 1440) was a French noble, soldier, and one time brother-in-arms of Joan of Arc. ... Events June 14 - Owain Glyndwr of Wales allies with the French against the English and the Henry of Lancaster. ... For alternative meanings, see number 1440. ... Statue of Bertrand du Guesclin in Dinan Bertrand du Guesclin at the Saint-Denis Basilica, near Paris Bertrand du Guesclin (c. ... Events January 20 - Dante - Quaestio de Aqua et Terra January 20 - Duke Wladyslaw Lokietek becomes king of Poland April 6 - The Scots reaffirm their independence by signing the Declaration of Arbroath. ... September 8 - Battle of Kulikovo - Russian forces under Grand Prince Dmitri Donskoi of Moscow resist a large invasion by the Blue Horde, Lithuania and Ryazan, stopping their advance at Kulikovo. ... Jean Bureau (died July 5, 1463) was Charles VII s master of artillery during the final years of the Hundred Years War. ... Events January 5 - Poet Francois Villon is banned from Paris Births January 17 - Frederick III, Elector of Saxony (died 1525) February 24 - Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, Italian philosopher (died 1494) October 20 - Alessandro Achillini, Italian philosopher (died 1512) Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de Medici, Italian patron of the arts (died 1503... La Hire and Xaintrailles depicted in a 15th century illuminated book. ... Events Births December 27 - Anne de Mortimer, claimant to the English throne (died 1411) Domenico da Piacenza, Italian dancemaster (died 1470) John Dunstable, English composer (died 1453) Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson, Swedish statesman and rebel leader (died 1436) Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester (died 1447) John VIII Palaeologus Byzantine Emperor (died 1448) Deaths... Events Albanians, under Skanderbeg, defeat the Turks John Hunyadi defeats Turks at the Battle of Nis Vlad II Dracul begins his second term as ruler of Wallachia, succeeding Basarab II. Births January 27 - Albert, Duke of Saxony (died 1500) February 23 - Matthias Corvinus of Hungary (died 1490) May 17 - Edmund... Philip II, Duke of Burgundy, known as the Bold (Philippe II de Bourgogne, le Hardi in French) (January 15, 1342–April 27, 1404), was the fourth son of King John II of France and his wife, formerly Jutta of Bohemia. ... Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s - 1360s - 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s Years: 1358 1359 1360 1361 1362 - 1363 - 1364 1365 1366 1367 1368 See also: 1363 state leaders Events Magnus II, King of Sweden, is deposed by Albert of Mecklenburg. ... Events June 14 - Owain Glyndwr of Wales allies with the French against the English and the Henry of Lancaster. ... Duke John I aka Jean de Valois and Jean de Bourgogne (May 28, 1371, Dijon – September 10, 1419, on the bridge of Montereau), also known as the Fearless (French: sans peur) was Duke of Burgundy from 1404 to 1419. ... Events June 14 - Owain Glyndwr of Wales allies with the French against the English and the Henry of Lancaster. ... Events January 19 – Hundred Years War: Rouen surrenders to Henry V of England which brings Normandy under the control of England. ... Philip III, Duke of Burgundy (Philip the Good or Philippe le Bon) (July 31, 1396 – June 15, 1467) was Duke of Burgundy from 1419 until his death. ... Events January 19 – Hundred Years War: Rouen surrenders to Henry V of England which brings Normandy under the control of England. ... Events October 29 - Battle of Brusthem: Charles the Bold defeats Liege Beginning of the Sengoku Period in Japan. ...

The French "Reconquista"

In 1558 France conquered Calais and its surroundings, which had been under English rule for two centuries. In the aftermath, the region around Calais, then-known as the Calaisis, was renamed the Pays Reconquis ("Reconquered Country") in commemoration of its recovery by the French. January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of the Kingdom of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ... Calais (Kales in Dutch) is a town in northern France, located at 50°57N 1°52E. It is in the département of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


Since the French were well-aware of the importance of the Reconquista in the history of their neighbours to the south, and since the French reconquest of Calais occurred in the context of a war with Spain (Philip II of Spain was at the time the consort of Mary I of England), French use of the term might have been intended as a deliberate snub to the Spanish.[citation needed] However, and just as likely, the term might have simply had a higher frequency of use at that time in Western Europe, in light of the Reconquista. And therefore, the French would have merely thought it to be politically appropriate and authoritative word for their own reconquest of land. Philip II (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the individual territories... Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de facto) or 19 July 1553 (de jure) until her death on 17 November 1558. ...


See also

This is a timeline of the Hundred Years War between England and France from 1337 to 1453 as well as some of the events leading up to the war. ... The military history of France includes both those military actions centered on the territory encompassing modern France, and the military history of French-speaking peoples of European descent, in Europe and in its overseas possessions and territories. ... British military history is a long and varied topic, extending from the prehistoric and ancient historic period, through the Roman invasions of Julius Cæsar and Claudius and subsequent Roman occupation; warfare in the Mediaeval period, including the invasions of the Saxons and the Vikings in the Early Middle Ages... Medieval demography is the study of human demography in Europe during the Middle Ages. ... The Second Hundred Years War is a phrase used by some historians to describe the series of military conflicts between the Kingdom of Great Britain and France that occurred from about 1689 to 1815. ... The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland) in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange), who as a result ascended the English throne as William... Combatants French Empire Seventh Coalition: United Kingdom Prussia United Netherlands Hanover Nassau Brunswick Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte, Michel Ney Duke of Wellington, Gebhard von Blücher Strength 73,000 67,000 Anglo-Allies 60,000 Prussian (48,000 engaged by about 18:00) Casualties 25,000 killed or wounded 7,000...

Notes

  1. ^ Don O'Reilly. "Hundred Years' War: Joan of Arc and the Siege of Orléans". TheHistoryNet.com.
  2. ^ Mc Evedy, Colin, and Richard Jones, Atlas of World Population History. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, 1978, pp. 41–43, 55–58.
  3. ^ French as a mother-tongue in Medieval England

Bibliography

  • Allmand, Christopher, The Hundred Years War: England and France at War, c.1300-c.1450, Cambridge University Press, 1988, ISBN 0-521-31923-4
  • Bell, Adrian R., War and the Soldier in the Fourteenth Century, The Boydell Press, November 2004, ISBN 1-843-83103-1
  • Braudel, Fernand, The Perspective of the World, Vol III of Civilization and Capitalism 1984 (in French 1979).
  • Burne, Alfred, The Agincourt War, Wordsworth Military Library, ISBN 1-84022-211-5
  • Curry, Anne, The Hundred Years War, Macmillan Press, 1993
  • Dunnigan, James F., and Albert A. Nofi. Medieval Life & The Hundred Years War, Online Book.
  • Neillands, Robin, The Hundred Years War, Routledge, 2001, ISBN 978-0415261319
  • Perroy, Edouard, The Hundred Years War, Capricorn Books, 1965.
  • Ross, Charles, The Wars of the Roses, Thames and Hudson, 1976.
  • Seward, Desmond, The Hundred Years War. The English in France 1337–1453, Penguin Books, 1999, ISBN 0-14-028361-7
  • Sumption, Jonathan, The Hundred Years War I: Trial by Battle, University of Pennsylvania Press, September 1999, ISBN 0-8122-1655-5
  • Sumption, Jonathan, The Hundred Years War II: Trial by Fire, University of Pennsylvania Press, October 2001, ISBN 0-8122-1801-9
  • Wagner, John A., Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War, Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, August 2006. ISBN 0-313-32736-X

Fernand Braudel (August 24, 1902–November 27, 1985) was a French historian. ...

External links

Hundred Years' War
Battles • Sieges • Chevauchées
French and English kings • Peace treaties • People
Armagnacs and Burgundians • Jacquerie
Breton War of SuccessionCastilian Civil War

Jean Froissart (~1337 - ~1405) was one of the most important of the chroniclers of medieval France. ... The Internet History Sourcebooks Project is located at the Fordham University Center for Medieval Studies and is part of the Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies (ORB). ... A chevauchée (French for promenade or horse charge, depending on context) was a method in medieval warfare for weakening the enemy, focusing mainly on wreaking havoc, burning and pillaging enemy territory, in order to reduce the productivity of a region; as opposed to siege warfare or wars of conquest. ... For the various rulers of the kingdoms within England prior to its formal unification, during the Heptarchy, see Bretwalda. ... The Jacquerie in Froissarts chronicles The Jacquerie was a popular revolt in late medieval Europe that took place in northern France in 1358, during the Hundred Years War. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The First Castilian Civil War[1] lasted three years from 1366 to 1369. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Hundred Years War. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (626 words)
By 1429 the English and their Burgundian allies were masters of practically all France N of the Loire, but in that year Joan of Arc raised the siege of Orléans and saw Charles VII crowned king of France at Reims.
The Hundred Years War inflicted untold misery on France.
Farmlands were laid waste, the population was decimated by war, famine, and the Black Death (see plague), and marauders terrorized the countryside.
Hundred Years' War - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6054 words)
Thus, the war was in fact a series of conflicts and is commonly divided into three or four phases: the Edwardian War (1337-1360), the Caroline War (1369-1389), the Lancastrian War (1415-1429), and the slow decline of English fortunes after the appearance of Joan of Arc.
The Hundred Years War was not the beginning of this conflict; it was a continuation of one that had existed since the time of the first Norman Kings of England.
In the early years of the war, Edward III allied with the nobles of the Low Countries and the burghers of Flanders, but after two campaigns where nothing was achieved, the alliance fell apart in 1340.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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