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Encyclopedia > Hundred Days Offensive
Allied "Hundred Days" Offensive, 1918
Part of the Western Front (World War I)
Allied gains in late 1918
Date August 8November 11, 1918
Location Northern France; Belgium
Result Allied victory
Combatants
Belgium
Flag of United Kingdom British Empire
Flag of France France
Flag of United States United States of America
German Empire
Commanders
King Albert I
Flag of France Ferdinand Foch
Flag of United Kingdom Douglas Haig
Flag of France Philippe Petain
Flag of United States John Pershing
Flag of German Empire Erich Ludendorff
Casualties
411,636 British
531,000 French
127,000+ American
785,733
Western Front
FrontiersLiègeAntwerpGreat RetreatRace to the SeaNeuve Chapelle2nd Ypres2nd ArtoisHill 703rd ArtoisLoosVerdunHulluchSommeArrasVimy Ridge2nd AisneMessinesPasschendaeleCambraiMichaelLys3rd AisneBelleau Wood2nd Marne – Château-Thierry – HamelHundred Days

The Hundred Days Offensive was the final offensive in World War I by the Allies against the Central Powers on the Western Front from 8 August 1918 to 11 November 1918. In French, it is sometimes referred to as "Les cent jours du Canada", highlighting the participation of Canadian forces under British command. The offensive led to the demoralisation and retreat of the German armies and the end of World War I. Combatants Belgium, British Empire, France, United States, other Western Allies of WWI Germany Commanders No unified command until 1918, then General Ferdinand Foch Kaiser Wilhelm II Casualties ~4,800,000 Unknown though considerably higher Following the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, the German army opened the Western... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Franz... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1242x961, 195 KB) Summary Map of the final Allied offensives on the Western Front (World War I, 1918 From the History Department of the US Military Academy West Point - http://www. ... August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_States. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Motto: Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem: Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Polish (Posen, Lower Silesia,Upper Silesia, Masuria) French (Alsace-Lorraine) Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Albert I (April 8, 1875 – February 17, 1934) was the third King of the Belgians. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Ferdinand Foch OM GCB (October 2, 1851 – March 20, 1929) was a French soldier, military educator and author credited for possessing the most original and subtle mind in the French Army. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Field Marshal Lord Haig Field Marshal Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig, KT, GCB, OM, GCVO, KCIE, ADC (June 19, 1861 – January 28, 1928) was a British soldier and senior commander (Field Marshal) during World War I. He was commander of the British Expeditionary Force during the Battle of the Somme... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... World War II and Vichy France After the fall of France during World War II, in the spring of 1940, the Chamber of Deputies appointed Pétain as Prime Minister of France and granted him extraordinary powers. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_States. ... John Joseph Black Jack Pershing (September 13, 1860 – July 15, 1948) was an officer in the United States Army. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Ludendorff in 1918 Erich Ludendorff (sometimes given incorrectly as Erich von Ludendorff) (April 9, 1865 – December 20, 1937, Tutzing, Bavaria, Germany) was a German Army officer, noted as a general during World War I. // Ludendorff was born in Kruszewnia near Posen, Prussia (now PoznaÅ„, Poland). ... Combatants Belgium, British Empire, France, United States, other Western Allies of WWI Germany Commanders No unified command until 1918, then General Ferdinand Foch Kaiser Wilhelm II Casualties ~4,800,000 Unknown though considerably higher Following the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, the German army opened the Western... The Battle of the Frontiers was a series of battles fought along the eastern frontier of France and in southern Belgium shortly after the outbreak of the First World War. ... The Battle of Liège was the opening battle of the German invasion into Belgium, and the first battle of World War I. // The plan In 1870, soon after the German military defeated the French in the Franco-Prussian War, German military leader Helmuth von Moltke began formulating a plan... The Siege of Antwerp was an engagement of the Germans and the Belgians during World War I. The German army invaded Belgium on the morning of August 4, 1914, two days after the decision of the Belgian government not to allow German troops unhindered passage to France. ... The Great Retreat covers the slow retreat by the Allies to the River Marne after their defeat by the Germans at Battle of Mons on 23 August. ... Course of the Race to the Sea showing dates of encounters and highlighting the significant battles. ... The Battles of Neuve Chapelle and Artois was a battle in the First World War. ... Combatants France United Kingdom Australia Canada Newfoundland German Empire Commanders Horace Smith-Dorrien Albrecht of Württemberg Strength 8 infantry divisions 7 infantry divisions Casualties 70,000 dead, wounded, or missing 35,000 dead, wounded, or missing The Second Battle of Ypres was the first time Germany used chemical weapons... Combatants France United Kingdom German Empire Commanders Field Marshall Joffre Unknown Strength 9 French & British divisions (initial) Unknown Casualties 100,000 French 11,000 British 75,000 A battle on the western front of World War I, the First Battle of Artois was fought at the same time as the... The Battle of Hill 70 took place took place near the French city of Lens on 15 August and 16 August 1917 and was fought between the Canadian Corps under the command of Gen. ... Combatants France, Britain Germany Commanders Auguste Dubail Sir John French Crown Prince Rupprecht Strength French 10th Army 6 British Divisions German 6th Army Casualties 48,000 French 50,000 British 20,000 German A battle on the western front of World War I, the Second Battle of Artois is also... The Battle of Loos was one of the major British offensives mounted on the Western Front in 1915 during World War I. The battle was the British component of the combined Anglo-French offensive known as the Second Battle of Artois. ... Combatants France German Empire Commanders Philippe Pétain Robert Nivelle Erich von Falkenhayn Strength About 30,000 on 21 February 1916 About 150,000 on 21 February 1916 Casualties 378,000; of whom 120,000 died 337,000; of whom 100,000 died The Battle of Verdun was one of... The Battle of Hulluch was a conflict in World War One, April 27-29, 1916, involving the 16th Division of the British Armys 19th Corps. ... Combatants British Empire Australia Canada New Zealand Newfoundland South Africa United Kingdom France German Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Joseph Joffre Max von Gallwitz Fritz von Below Strength 13 British & 11 French divisions (initial) 51 British and 48 French divisions (final) 10. ... The Battle of Arras took place from 9 April to 16 May 1917. ... Combatants Canada United Kingdom German Empire Austria-Hungary Commanders Julian Byng Arthur Currie Ludwig von Falkenhausen Strength 30,000 Unknown Casualties 3,598 dead 7,104 wounded 20,000 dead 4,000 captured The Battle of Vimy Ridge was one of the opening battles in a larger British campaign known... Combatants France German Empire Commanders Robert Nivelle Charles Mangin François Anthoine Mazel von Boehm Fritz von Below Strength 1. ... The Battle of Messines was launched on June 7, 1917 by British General Herbert Plumers second army, which included the 16th (Irish) Division and the 36th (Ulster) Division, near the villages of Mesen (in French Messines, as it was on most maps at that time) and Wytschaete. ... Combatants British Empire Australia Canada New Zealand United Kingdom France German Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Hubert Gough Herbert Plumer Arthur Currie Max von Gallwitz Erich Ludendorff Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties 448,000 killed and wounded 260,000 killed and wounded The 1917 Battle of Passchendaele, also known as the Third... Combatants United Kingdom Newfoundland German Empire Commanders Julian Byng Georg von der Marwitz Strength 2 Corps 1 Corps Casualties 45,000 killed 9,000 prisoners 100 tanks destroyed 45,000 killed 11,000 prisoners The Battle of Cambrai (November 20 - December 3, 1917) was a British campaign of World War... The 1918 Spring Offensive or Kaiserschlacht was a series of German attacks along the Western Front during the First World War, which marked the deepest advance by either side since 1914. ... British and Portuguese captured by German forces in the Flanders region (1918) British 55th (West Lancashire) Division troops blinded by tear gas during the battle, 10 April 1918. ... The Third Battle of the Aisne was a German offensive during World War I that focused on capturing the Chemin des Dames Ridge before the American Expeditionary Force could arrive in France. ... Combatants United States France British Empire German Empire Commanders John J. Pershing James Harbord Crown Prince Wilhelm Strength 2 U.S. divisions French 6th Army (elements) British IX Corps (elements) 5 German divisions (elements) Casualties 9,777 unknown The Battle of Belleau Wood was a battle of the first World... Combatants France United Kingdom United States German Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Erich Ludendorff Casualties France: 95,000 Britain: 13,000 United States: 12,000 168,000 The Second Battle of the Marne, or Battle of Reims, was a major World War I battle fought from July 15 to August 5... The Battle of Chateau Thierry was fought on July 18, 1918. ... The Battle of Hamel (4 July 1918) was a planned attack launched by the Australian Corps of the Australian Imperial Force against German positions in the town of Hamel in western France during World War I. The battle was planned and commanded by Lieutenant General John Monash (later knighted). ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Franz... European military alliances in 1914. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Triple Alliance. ... For most of World War I, Allied Forces, predominantly those of France and the United Kingdom, were stalled at trenches on the Western Front. ... August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... 26th Battalion of the Second Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1915 The Canadian Expeditionary Force was the group of Canadian military units formed for service overseas in the First World War. ... Front page of the New York Times on Armistice Day, 11 November 1918 The armistice treaty between the Allies and Germany was signed in a railway carriage in Compiègne Forest on November 11, 1918, and marked the end of the First World War on the Western Front. ...

Contents

Background

The great German offensives on the Western Front beginning with Operation Michael in March 1918 had petered out by July. The Germans had advanced to the Marne River, but failed to achieve a decisive breakthrough. When Operation Marne-Rheims ended in July, the Allied supreme commander, the French Field Marshal Ferdinand Foch, ordered a counter-offensive which became the Second Battle of the Marne. The Germans, recognising their untenable position, withdrew from the Marne towards the north. For most of World War I, Allied Forces, predominantly those of France and the United Kingdom, were stalled at trenches on the Western Front. ... The 1918 Spring Offensive or Kaiserschlacht was a series of German attacks along the Western Front during the First World War, which marked the deepest advance by either side since 1914. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The Marne is a river in France, a tributary of the Seine in the area east and southeast of Paris. ... Note: This article is about the military usage of the word marshal. For other usages, see the end of this article. ... Ferdinand Foch OM GCB (October 2, 1851 – March 20, 1929) was a French soldier, military educator and author credited for possessing the most original and subtle mind in the French Army. ... Combatants France United Kingdom United States German Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Erich Ludendorff Casualties France: 95,000 Britain: 13,000 United States: 12,000 168,000 The Second Battle of the Marne, or Battle of Reims, was a major World War I battle fought from July 15 to August 5...


Foch now considered the time had arrived for the Allies to return to the offensive. The Americans were now present in France in large numbers and their presence invigorated the French armies. Their Commander in Chief, General John Pershing was keen to use his army in an independent role. The British Army had also been reinforced by large numbers of troops returned from Palestine and Italy, and large numbers of replacements previously held back in Britain by Prime Minister David Lloyd George. John Joseph Black Jack Pershing (September 13, 1860 – July 15, 1948) was an officer in the United States Army. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir John Maxwell Archibald Murray Henry George Chauvel Philip Chetwode Charles Dobell Edmund Allenby Djemal Pasha Kress von Kressenstein Jadir Bey Tala Bey Erich von Falkenhayn Otto Liman von Sanders The Sinai and Palestine Campaign during the Middle Eastern Theatre of... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who guided Britain and the Commonwealth of Nations through World War I and the postwar settlement as the Liberal Party Prime Minister, 1916-1922. ...


Foch agreed on a proposal by Field Marshal Douglas Haig, the commander of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF), to strike on the Somme, east of Amiens and southwest of the 1916 battlefield of the Battle of the Somme. The Somme was chosen as a suitable site for the offensive for a number of reasons. As in 1916, it marked the boundary between the BEF and the French armies, in this case defined by the Amiens-Roye road, allowing the two armies to cooperate. Also the Picardy countryside provided a good surface for tanks, which was not the case in Flanders. Finally, the German defences, manned by the German Second Army of General Georg von der Marwitz, were relatively weak, having been subjected to continual raiding by the Australians in a process termed Peaceful Penetration. Field Marshal Lord Haig Field Marshal Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig, KT, GCB, OM, GCVO, KCIE, ADC (June 19, 1861 – January 28, 1928) was a British soldier and senior commander (Field Marshal) during World War I. He was commander of the British Expeditionary Force during the Battle of the Somme... The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) was the British army sent to France and Belgium in World War I and British Forces in Europe from 1939 - 1940 during World War II. The BEF was established by Secretary of State for War Richard Haldane following the Second Boer War in case the... Somme river The Somme River (French Rivière Somme) is a river in Picardy, northern France. ... The cathedral in Amiens Location within France Amiens is a city and commune in the north of France, 120 km north of Paris. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Combatants British Empire Australia Canada New Zealand Newfoundland South Africa United Kingdom France German Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Joseph Joffre Max von Gallwitz Fritz von Below Strength 13 British & 11 French divisions (initial) 51 British and 48 French divisions (final) 10. ... wazzup Categories: | ... Flanders (Dutch: ) has several main meanings: the social, cultural and linguistical, scientific and educational, economical and political community of the Flemings; some prefer to call this the Flemish community (others refer to this as the Flemish nation) which is, with over 6 million inhabitants, the majority of all Belgians; a... The German Second Army (German: ) was a World War II field army. ... Johannes Georg von der Marwitz (7 July 1856–27 October 1929) was a Prussian cavalry general, who commanded several German armies during the First World War. ...


Amiens

Main article: Battle of Amiens

The Battle of Amiens opened on August 8, 1918 with an attack by more than 10 Allied divisions — Australian, Canadian, British and French forces — with more than 500 tanks. Through careful preparations, the Allies achieved complete surprise. The attack, led by the British Fourth Army, broke through the German lines and tanks attacked German rear positions, sowing panic and confusion. By the end of the day, a gap 15 miles long had been punched in the German line south of the Somme. The Allies had taken 17,000 prisoners and captured 330 guns. Total German losses were estimated to be 30,000 on August 8 while the Allies had suffered about 6,500 killed, wounded and missing. Combatants United Kingdom, France, Canada, Australia Germany Commanders Henry Rawlinson Georg von der Marwitz Strength 4 Aus. ... August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The British Fourth Army was a field army of the British Expeditionary Force during the First World War. ...


The advance continued for three more days but without the spectacular results of August 8 as the rapid advance outran the supporting artillery and ran short of supplies. On August 10, the Germans began to pull out of the salient that they had managed to occupy during Operation Michael in March, back towards the Hindenburg Line. August 10 is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The Hindenburg Line was a vast system of defences in Northern France constructed by the Germans during the winter of 1916– 17 during World War I; the Germans called it the Siegfried Line. ...


Somme

On August 15 1918, Haig refused demands from Foch that he continue the Amiens offensive, even though the attack was faltering as the troops outran their supplies and artillery, and German reserves were being moved to the sector. Instead, Haig began to plan for an offensive at Albert, which opened on August 21. The main attack was launched by the British Third Army, with an American corps attached. During the First World War, the Second Battle of the Somme of 1918 was fought on the Western Front from the end of the summer, in the basin of the Somme River. ... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... Albert is a commune of the Somme département, in northern France. ... August 21 is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The British Third Army was a British Army unit. ...


The offensive was a success, pushing the German Second Army back over a fifty-five kilometre front. Albert was captured in August 22. On August 26, the British First Army widened the attack by another twelve kilometers. Bapaume fell on August 29, and Péronne on August 31. By September 2, the Germans had been forced back close to the Hindenburg Line, from which they had launched their offensive in the spring. August 22 is the 234th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (235th in leap years), with 131 days remaining. ... August 26 is the 238th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (239th in leap years). ... The British First Army was a field army that existed during the First and Second World Wars. ... Bapaume is a chief town of canton of northern France, in the département of Pas-de-Calais, arrondissement of Arras. ... August 29 is the 241st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (242nd in leap years), with 124 days remaining. ... Péronne is a commune of the Somme département, in France. ... August 31 is the 243rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (244th in leap years), with 122 days remaining. ... September 2 is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Hindenburg Line was a vast system of defences in Northern France constructed by the Germans during the winter of 1916– 17 during World War I; the Germans called it the Siegfried Line. ...


Breaking the Hindenburg Line

Main articles: Grand Offensive, Meuse-Argonne Offensive, and Battle of the Hindenburg Line

Foch now planned a great concentric attack on the German lines in France, with the various axes of advance converging on Liege in Belgium. Combatants British Empire United Kingdom Canada Australia South Africa New Zealand France United States Belgium German Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Paul von Hindenburg Erich Ludendorff The Grand Offensive is a common, if informal, term for the series of attacks by the Allies and Associated Powers on the Western Front, commencing... Combatants United States German Empire Commanders John J. Pershing Georg von der Marwitz Strength American Expeditionary Force German Fifth Army Casualties 26,277 killed 95,786 wounded 122,066 total 28,000 killed 92,250 wounded 120,250 total The Meuse-Argonne Offensive was the final offensive of World War... Combatants United Kingdom, France, Australia, United States Germany Commanders Ferdinand Foch Georg von der Marwitz Strength 4 British armies 1 French army American Expeditionary Force Defensive forces and gun emplacements of the Hindenburg Line The Battle of the Hindenburg Line, which began September 18, 1918, was a key turning point... Liege or Liège has several meanings: A Liège is a classic sporting car, designed for personal assembly, by Peter Davis in Evesham, UK, and often used in Classic Trials and other long distance motoring events A liege is the person or entity to which one has pledged allegiance. ...


The main German defences were anchored on the Hindenburg Line, a series of defensive fortifications stretching from Cerny on the Aisne River to Arras. Before the Foch's main offensive was launched, the remaining German salients west and east of the line were crushed at Havrincourt and St Mihiel on September 12, Epehy and Canal du Nord on September 18. The Hindenburg Line was a vast system of defences in Northern France constructed by the Germans during the winter of 1916Р17 during World War I; the Germans called it the Siegfried Line. ... Aisne is a river in France, tributary of the river Oise. ... Arras (Dutch: ) is a town and commune in northern France, pr̩fecture (capital) of the Pas-de-Calais d̩partement. ... Combatants United Kingdom New Zealand Germany Commanders Julian Byng Unknown Strength 3 divisions 4 divisions Casualties unknown unknown The Battle of Havrincourt was a World War I battle fought on September 12, 1918, involving the British Third Army (under the command of General Sir Julian Byng) against German troops, including... Combatants United States German Empire Commanders John J. Pershing Georg von der Marwitz Strength American Expeditionary Force German Fifth Army Casualties 7,000 2000 dead and 5500 wounded The Battle of Saint-Mihiel was a World War I battle fought between September 12 - 15, 1918, involving the American Expeditionary Force... September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia Germany Commanders Henry Rawlinson Unknown Strength 12 divisions Unknown Casualties Total: unknown Australian: 1,260 men Total: unknown Captured: 9,000 men The Battle of Ep̩hy was a World War I battle fought on 18 September 1918, involving the British Fourth Army (under the command... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ...


The first attack of Foch's Grand Offensive was launched on September 26 by the American Expeditionary Force in the Meuse-Argonne Offensive. Two days later, the Army Group under Albert I of Belgium (the Belgian Army and the British Second Army under General Herbert Plumer) launched an attack near Ypres in Flanders. Both attacks made good progress initially but were then slowed by logistic problems, particularly in the American sector. Combatants British Empire United Kingdom Canada Australia South Africa New Zealand France United States Belgium German Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Paul von Hindenburg Erich Ludendorff The Grand Offensive is a common, if informal, term for the series of attacks by the Allies and Associated Powers on the Western Front, commencing... September 26 is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Officers of the American Expeditionary Forces and the Baker mission The American Expeditionary Forces or AEF was the United States military force in World War I. The AEF helped the French defend the Western Front during the Aisne Offensive in May. ... Combatants United States German Empire Commanders John J. Pershing Georg von der Marwitz Strength American Expeditionary Force German Fifth Army Casualties 26,277 killed 95,786 wounded 122,066 total 28,000 killed 92,250 wounded 120,250 total The Meuse-Argonne Offensive was the final offensive of World War... Albert I (April 8, 1875 – February 17, 1934) was the third King of the Belgians. ... The British Second Army was extant in both World Wars. ... Herbert Onslow Plumer (1857-1932) was a British colonial official and soldier. ... Ypres municipality and district in the province West Flanders Ypres (French, pronounced generally used in English1) or Ieper (official name in Dutch, pronounced ) is a Belgian municipality located in the Flemish province of West Flanders. ... Flanders (Dutch: ) has several main meanings: the social, cultural and linguistical, scientific and educational, economical and political community of the Flemings; some prefer to call this the Flemish community (others refer to this as the Flemish nation) which is, with over 6 million inhabitants, the majority of all Belgians; a...


Meanwhile, led by the Canadian Corps, the British armies had overrun two lines of the Hindenburg Line near Cambrai. Then on September 30 Haig launched the main attack on the Hindenburg Line. The Australian Imperial Force, with an American corps cooperating, broke through at a point where the main obstacle, the Canal du Nord, ran through a tunnel. Two days later, a British division made a successful amphibious assault across the canal to the south of the tunnel to widen the breach. By October 5, British Fourth Army had broken through the entire depth of the Hidenburg defences. Its commander, General Henry Rawlinson wrote, "Had the Boche [German] not shown marked signs of deterioration during the past month, I should never have contemplated attacking the Hindenburg line. Had it been defended by the Germans of two years ago, it would certainly have been impregnable..." Cambrai (Dutch: Kamerijk) is a French city and commune, in the Nord département, of which it is a sous_préfecture. ... September 30 is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The First Australian Imperial Force (1st AIF) was the main expeditionary force of the Australian Army during World War I. It was formed from August 15, 1914, following Britains declaration of war on Germany. ... October 5 is the 278th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (279th in Leap years). ... Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson (April 11, 1810 – March 5, 1895) was a British soldier, diplomat and orientalist. ...


This collapse forced the German High Command to accept that the war had to be ended. The evidence of failing German morale also convinced many Allied commanders and political leaders that the war could be ended in 1918. (Previously, all efforts had been concentrated on building up forces to mount a decisive attack in 1919.) Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Pursuit

Through October the German armies were forced back through the territory gained in 1914, but their retreat never turned into a rout. Casualties remained heavy in all of the Allied fighting forces, as well as in the retreating German Army. Rearguard actions were fought at Ypres, Kortrijk, Selle, Valenciennes, the Sambre and Mons, with fighting continuing until the last minutes before the Armistice took effect at 11:00 on November 11, 1918. Ypres municipality and district in the province West Flanders Ypres (French, pronounced generally used in English1) or Ieper (official name in Dutch, pronounced ) is a Belgian municipality located in the Flemish province of West Flanders. ... Kortrijk municipality and district in the province West Flanders Kortrijk (French: Courtrai; Latin: Cortoriacum) is a Belgian city and municipality located in the Flemish province West Flanders. ... Valenciennes (Dutch: Valencijn, Latin: Valentianae) is a town and commune in northern France in the Nord département on the Escaut river. ... The Second Battle of the Sambre (November 4, 1918) was part of the final European Allied offensives of World War I. At the front German resistance was falling away, unprecedented numbers of prisoners were taken in the Battle of the Selle, and a new attack was quickly prepared. ... The central square and town hall of Mons Mons (Dutch: Bergen) is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Hainaut, of which it is the capital. ... Front page of the New York Times on Armistice Day, 11 November 1918 The armistice treaty between the Allies and Germany was signed in a railway carriage in Compiègne Forest on November 11, 1918, and marked the end of the First World War on the Western Front. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


Suggested Reading

  • Christie, Norm. For King & Empire, The Canadians at Amiens, August 1918. CEF Books, 1999
  • Christie, Norm. For King & Empire, The Canadians at Arras, August - September 1918. CEF Books, 1997
  • Christie, Norm. For King & Empire, The Canadians at Cambrai, September - October 1918. CEF Books, 1997
  • Dancocks, Daniel G. Spearhead to Victory – Canada and the Great War. Hurtig Publishers, 1987
  • Schreiber, Shane B. Shock Army of the British Empire – The Canadian Corps in the Last 100 Days of the Great War. Vanwell Publishing Limited, 2004
World War I Portal

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Battle of the Last 100 Days (1799 words)
During the next 2 days, the Germans had been pushed back an additional 24 kilometres, 4 German divisions were "on the run" and 10,000 more prisoners taken by the Canadian forces.
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Within 3 days the Canadians were to come up with a plan of attack through the old British and German positions plus the 5 new German defence lines.
Hundred Days Offensive - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (896 words)
The Hundred Days Offensive was the final offensive in World War I by the Allies against the Central Powers on the Western Front from 8 August 1918 to 11 November, 1918.
The offensive was the final straw for the battered German armies which surrendered and deserted in large numbers.
Foch now considered the time had arrived for the Allies to return to the offensive and agreed on a proposal by Field Marshal Douglas Haig, the commander of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF), to strike on the Somme, east of Amiens and southwest of the 1916 battlefield of the Battle of the Somme.
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