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Encyclopedia > Humphrey Gibbs
Sir Humphrey Gibbs, c1965.
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Sir Humphrey Gibbs, c1965.

Rth Hon Sir Humphrey Vicary Gibbs, GCVO KCMG, (1902-1990) was the last but one British Governor of the colony of Southern Rhodesia and the only Governor of Rhodesia prior to Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) (1959-1970). He stood against the Rhodesian Front's UDI. Image File history File links Humphrey-gibbs-c1965. ... Image File history File links Humphrey-gibbs-c1965. ... The Right Honourable (abbreviated The Rt. ... Victoria founded the Royal Victorian Order. ... On the Orders insignia, St Michael is often depicted subduing Satan. ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the year. ... HI A governor is also, a monkey who is smart and can fly like a penguin is a device that regulates the speed of a machine. ... In politics and in history, a colony is a territory under the immediate political control of a geographically-distant state. ... Southern Rhodesia was the name given to the British colony situated immediately to the north of South Africa, known today as Zimbabwe. ... There were two Governors of Rhodesia. ... The Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) was signed on November 11, 1965 by the white minority goverment of Ian Smith, whose Rhodesian Front party opposed rushed moves by the United Kingdom towards black majority rule in the then British colony. ... 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1970 calendar). ... The Rhodesian Front (RF) was a political party in Southern Rhodesia, later known simply as Rhodesia, now called Zimbabwe, when the country was under white minority rule. ...

Contents


Early history

Gibbs was born on 22 November 1902 in England, the third son of the first Baron Hunsdon. He was educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge. He moved to Southern Rhodesia in 1928, buying a farm at Nyamandhlovu near Bulawayo. Gibbs became active in farming administration and helped found the National Farmers Union. As part of the Rhodesian Conservation Movement, he was elected to Rhodesia's Parliament in 1951. November 22 is the 326th day (327th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location (dark green) within the British Isles Languages English (de facto) Capital London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001 Census) – Density Ranked 1st... Eton can refer to several things: Eton, Berkshire, a town in England. ... Full name The College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity Motto Virtus vera nobilitas Virtue is true Nobility Named after The Holy Trinity Previous names Kings Hall and Michaelhouse (until merged in 1546) Established 1546 Sister College(s) Christ Church Master The Lord Rees of Ludlow Location Trinity Street... The University of Cambridge (often called Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Southern Rhodesia was the name given to the British colony situated immediately to the north of South Africa, known today as Zimbabwe. ... 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The City of Bulawayo is highlighted in this map of Zimbabwe. ...


As Governor of Rhodesia

flag of the Governor of Rhodesia
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flag of the Governor of Rhodesia

In 1959, Queen Elizabeth II appointed Gibbs Governor of Southern Rhodesia and was awarded the KCMG in 1960. The Unilateral Declaration of Independence by the Rhodesian Front Government (under Prime Minister Ian Smith) in November 1965 placed Gibbs in a very difficult position: He was intensely loyal to Rhodesia - and was a close friend of Ian Smith, but while understanding what had made Smith's government declare the UDI, he was also equally loyal to his office as the Queen's viceroy. Deciding that final legality rested in the Crown and not Prime Minister Smith, he declared that by its action of the UDI, the Rhodesian Government had established itself as an outlaw regime, and when Ian Smith and Deputy Prime Minister Clifford Dupont called on Gibbs after the UDI was signed, formally dismissed Smith and his cabinet from office (though the Rhodesian Government simply ignored the dismissal, justifying this on the grounds that the UDI and new constitution made Gibbs' position redundant). Image File history File links Rho-gov. ... Image File history File links Rho-gov. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor), (born on 21 April 1926), is Queen of sixteen independent nations known as the Commonwealth Realms. ... On the Orders insignia, St Michael is often depicted subduing Satan. ... The Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) was signed on November 11, 1965 by the white minority goverment of Ian Smith, whose Rhodesian Front party opposed rushed moves by the United Kingdom towards black majority rule in the then British colony. ... The Rhodesian Front (RF) was a political party in Southern Rhodesia, later known simply as Rhodesia, now called Zimbabwe, when the country was under white minority rule. ... Sir Robert Walpole, the first Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... The Rt Hon Ian Smith, Prime Minister of Rhodesia, 1964 (official portrait) The Right Honourable Ian Douglas Smith, GCLM ID, (born April 8, 1919) was the Premier of the British Crown Colony of Southern Rhodesia from April 13, 1964 to November 11, 1965 and the Prime Minister of Rhodesia (now... For the butterfly, see viceroy butterfly. ... A Deputy Prime Minister is the deputy of a Prime Minister, and a member of a nations cabinet. ... Clifford Walter Dupont (1905 - 1978) was a British-Rhodesian political figure. ...


Under Siege

Several high-ranking officers of the Rhodesian Military did go to Gibbs earlier in the day and made a statement of loyalty to him, asking Gibbs to issue a warrant so that they could arrest Smith and Dupont, but Gibbs knew that bulk of the Officer Coprs, as well as the rank and file of the Rhodesian military were solidly behind Smith's government and that such a move would lead to a coup d'etat.


Gibbs announced that despite the UDI, he had no intention of resigning his office or leaving Rhodesia, and that therefore, he would remain in Government House as the sole legal representative of Queen Elizabeth II (thus making Dupont's appointment by Smith as the Officer Administering the Government legally baseless internationally). For the Governor of Maryland residence see Government House (Maryland). ... In the Commonwealth Realms, the Administrator of the Government (often shortened to Administrator) is the person who, though acting in a gubernatorial capacity, is not given the title of Governor (or Governor-General or Lieutenant-Governor). ...


According to Gibbs' biographer (Alan J. Megahey), this action led to four years of harassment and petty afflictions by the Rhodesian Government, resulting in making Gibbs and his wife virtually prisoners in Government House. Megahey further stated that the Smith regime attempted to compel Gibbs to leave several times and isolated him from the people. However, with the assistance of a small staff, led by Sir John Pestell, he managed to remain defiant. In 1969, Gibbs resigned after Smith's government ran and passed a referendum making Rhodesia a republic. Sir John Pestell, KCVO, Private Secretary and Comptroller to the Governor of Southern Rhodesia 1965-1969. ...


Gibbs resigned because as the voters had solidly supported the move towards Rhodesia being a republic, he felt that there was no further point in continuing to represent the Queen at that point. He left Government House and Rhodesia. He was appointed to the Privy Council and was made a GCVO by The Queen. Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... Victoria founded the Royal Victorian Order. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor), (born on 21 April 1926), is Queen of sixteen independent nations known as the Commonwealth Realms. ...


Additional Notes

  • According to Ian Smith's memoir Bitter Harvest, Smith had left instructions immediately after the UDI that Gibbs was not to be harassed or to be forced out of Government House. Smith - in the same memoir - made no mention of Gibbs giving either him or any member of his cabinet a dismissal notice. Indeed, he stated that Gibbs had intended to leave Government House and return to his farm, but the day after the UDI, decided to stay at his post after London instructed him to do so.
  • Clifford Dupont's recollection of metting Gibbs on Nov. 11, 1965 was that he noticed that Gibbs was 'visibly distressed' and said "Gentlemen, you realize that I cannnot agree or condone your decision". Dupont went on to fill Gibb's position (in the eyes of the Rhodesian Government) as Officer Administering the Government, then later when Rhodesia became a Republic, its first president.
  • Gibbs accompanied Smith and his entourage in the 1966 and 1968 Gibraltar conferences at the invitation of British Prime Minister Harold Wilson. According to Bitter Harvest, Gibbs was broadly supportive of Smith's stance in those negotiations.

The article states that Gibbs left Government House and Rhodesia following his resignation. This is incorrect. He did not leave Rhodesia, but returned to his farm near Nyamandhlovu. Some four years later, he sold the farm and moved to Harare (formerly Salisbury). He died in late 1990 in Zimbabwe. Until 1970, the head of state of Rhodesia was the British Monarch, represented by the Governor, Sir Humphrey Gibbs. ... James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, KG, OBE, FRS, PC (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was one of the most prominent and successful British politicians of the 20th Century. ...


External links

  • Peterhouse Nostalgia

References:

  • Megahey, Alan J (Introduction by Robert Mugabe; Foreword by Robert Blake). Humphrey Gibbs, beleaguered Governor: Southern Rhodesia, 1929-69 (St. Martin's Press, New York, 1998).
  • Smith, Ian Douglas (introduction by Professor J.R.T. Wood). Bitter Harvest: The Great Betrayal and the Dreadful Aftermath (Blake Publishing, 2001).
  • Wood, J.R.T. (Foreword by Lord Deedes). So far and no further! Rhodesia's bid for independence during the retreat from empire 1959-1965 (Trafford Publishing, Victoria, 2005).

  Results from FactBites:
 
Humphrey Gibbs at AllExperts (625 words)
Gibbs was born on 22 November, 1902 in England, the third son of the first Baron Hunsdon.
Gibbs announced that despite the UDI, he had no intention of resigning his office or leaving Rhodesia, and that therefore, he would remain in Government House as the sole legal representative of Queen Elizabeth II (thus making Dupont's appointment by Smith as the Officer Administering the Government legally baseless internationally).
Gibbs resigned because as the voters had solidly supported the move towards Rhodesia being a republic, he felt that there was no further point in continuing to represent the Queen at that point.
Humphrey Gibbs: Information from Answers.com (639 words)
Sir Humphrey Vicary Gibbs GCVO KCMG (November 22, 1902 1990) was the last but one Governor of the colony of Southern Rhodesia (1959-1970) who served through, and opposed, the Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) in 1965.
Gibbs announced that despite the UDI, he had no intention of resigning his office or leaving Rhodesia, and that therefore, he would remain in Government House as the sole legal representative of Queen Elizabeth II (thus making Dupont's appointment by Smith as the Officer Administering the Government baseless in international law).
Gibbs accompanied Smith and his entourage in the 1966 and 1968 Gibraltar conferences at the invitation of British Prime Minister Harold Wilson.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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