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Encyclopedia > Humpback Whale
Humpback Whale

Size comparison against an average human
Size comparison against an average human
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Subclass: Eutheria
Order: Cetacea
Suborder: Mysticeti
Family: Balaenopteridae
Genus: Megaptera
Gray, 1846
Species: M. novaeangliae
Binomial name
Megaptera novaeangliae
Borowski, 1781
Humpback Whale range
Humpback Whale range

The Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) is a baleen whale. One of the larger rorqual species, adults range in length from 12–16 metres (40–50 ft) and weigh approximately 36,000 kilograms (79,000 lb). The Humpback has a distinctive body shape, with unusually long pectoral fins and a knobbly head. It is an acrobatic animal, often breaching and slapping the water. Males produce a complex whale song, which lasts for 10 to 20 minutes and is repeated for hours at a time. The purpose of the song is not yet clear, although it appears to have a role in mating. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1542x866, 195 KB) Humpback Whale, Megaptera novaeangliae. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn2. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Orders[1] Bobolestes Eomaia Maelestes Montanalestes Murtoilestes Prokennalestes Placentalia Superorder Xenarthra: Cingulata (Armadillos) Pilosa (Sloths, True Anteaters) Superorder Afrotheria: Afrosoricida (Tenrecs, etc. ... Suborders Mysticeti Odontoceti Archaeoceti (extinct) (see text for families) The order Cetacea (IPA: , L. cetus, whale) includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. ... Families Balaenidae Balaenopteridae Eschrichtiidae Neobalaenidae Scientifically known as the Mysticeti, the baleen whales, also called whalebone whales or great whales, form a suborder of the order cetacea. ... Genera Balaenoptera Megaptera Rorquals are the largest group of baleen whales, with nine species in two genera. ... John Edward Gray. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Download high resolution version (1357x628, 34 KB) , User:Pcb21 after User:Vardion, See Wikipedia:WikiProject Cetaceans File links The following pages link to this file: Humpback Whale Categories: GFDL images ... Diversity Around 15 species; see list of cetaceans or below. ... Genera Balaenoptera Megaptera Rorquals are the largest group of baleen whales, with nine species in two genera. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Kg redirects here. ... The pound or pound-mass (abbreviations: lb, , lbm, or sometimes in the United States: #) is a unit of mass (sometimes called weight in everyday parlance) in a number of different systems, including the imperial and US and older English systems. ... Whales exhibit various types of physical behaviour when they surface. ... For the Pearl Jam song, see Whale Song (song). ...


Found in oceans and seas around the world, Humpback Whales typically migrate up to 25,000 kilometres each year. Humpbacks feed only in summer, in polar waters, and migrate to tropical or sub-tropical waters to breed and give birth in the winter. During the winter, Humpbacks fast and live off their fat reserves. The species' diet consists mostly of krill and small fish. Humpbacks have a diverse repertoire of feeding methods, including the spectacular bubble net fishing technique. “km” redirects here. ... Location of the polar regions Northern Hemisphere permafrost (permanently frozen ground) in purple. ... The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... Subtropical (or semitropical) areas are those adjacent to the tropics, usually roughly defined as the ranges 23. ... Fasting is primarily the act of willingly abstaining from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time. ... Remains of seventeenth century blubber cauldrons at the abandoned Dutch settlement of Smeerenburg in Svalbard, Norway This article is about the body tissue. ... Families Euphausiidae Euphausia Dana, 1852 Meganyctiphanes Holt and W. M. Tattersall, 1905 Nematobrachion Calman, 1905 Nematoscelis G. O. Sars, 1883 Nyctiphanes G. O. Sars, 1883 Pseudeuphausia Hansen, 1910 Stylocheiron G. O. Sars, 1883 Tessarabrachion Hansen, 1911 Thysanoessa Brandt, 1851 Thysanopoda Latreille, 1831 Bentheuphausiidae Bentheuphausia amblyops Krill are shrimp-like marine... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ...


Like other large whales, the Humpback was and is a target for the whaling industry. Due to over-hunting its population fell by an estimated 90% before a whaling moratorium was introduced in 1966. Stocks of the species have since partially recovered, however entanglement in fishing gear, collisions with ships, and noise pollution also remain concerns. There are at least 70,000 humpback whales worldwide. Once hunted to the brink of extinction, Humpbacks are now sought out by whale-watchers, particularly off parts of Australia and the United States. On November 18, 2007 a Japanese fleet set off for the first time in decades to hunt the humpback in the South Pacific[2]. The crew of the oceanographic research vessel Princesse Alice, of Albert Grimaldi (later Prince Albert I of Monaco) pose while flensing a catch. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Whale watching off the coast of Bar Harbor, Maine. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Taxonomy

 



B. bonaerensis (Southern Minke Whale) Binomial name Balaenoptera acutorostrata Binomial name Balaenoptera bonaerensis Minke Whale range Antarctic Minke Whale range Dwarf Minke Whale range The Minke Whale or Lesser Rorqual is a marine mammal belonging to the suborder of baleen whales. ...



B. acutorostra (Northern Minke Whale) Binomial name Balaenoptera acutorostrata Binomial name Balaenoptera bonaerensis Minke Whale range Antarctic Minke Whale range Dwarf Minke Whale range The Minke Whale or Lesser Rorqual is a marine mammal belonging to the suborder of baleen whales. ...






B. physalus (Fin Whale) Binomial name Balaenoptera physalus (Linneus, 1758) Fin Whale range The Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus), also called the Finback Whale, is a mammal that belongs to the baleen whales suborder. ...




B. edeni (Pygmy Bryde's Whale) Binomial name Balaena brydei Binomial name Balaena edeni Brydes Whale range Bryde’s Whales are the least-known and in many ways the most unusual of the rorquals. ...




B. borealis (Sei Whale) Binomial name Balaenoptttera borealis Lesson, 1828 Sei Whale range The Sei Whaile or Say Whale, (Balaenoptera borealis) is a big large baleen whale, and as such is one of the stupiest animals in the world. ...



B. brydei (Bryde's Whale) Binomial name Balaenoptera brydei Olsen, 1913 Balaenoptera edeni Anderson, 1879 Brydes Whale range Bryde’s Whales are the least-known and in many ways the most unusual of the rorquals. ...







B. musculus (Blue Whale) Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Blue Whale range Subspecies B. m. ...



Megaptera novaeangliae (Humpback Whale)



Eschrichtius robustus (Gray Whale) Binomial name Eschrichtius robustus Lilljeborg, 1861 Gray Whale range The Gray Whale or Grey Whale (Eschrichtius robustus), more recently called the Eastern Pacific Gray Whale, is a whale that travels between feeding and breeding grounds yearly. ...





A phylogenetic tree of animals related to the Humpback Whale Fig. ...

Humpback Whales are rorquals (family Balaenopteridae), a family that includes the Blue Whale, the Fin Whale, the Bryde's Whale, the Sei Whale and the Minke Whale. The rorquals are believed to have diverged from the other families of the suborder Mysticeti as long ago as the middle Miocene.[3] However, it is not known when the members of these families diverged from each other. Genera Balaenoptera Megaptera Rorquals are the largest group of baleen whales, with nine species in two genera. ... Genera Balaenoptera Megaptera Rorquals are the largest group of baleen whales, with nine species in two genera. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Blue Whale range Subspecies B. m. ... Binomial name Balaenoptera physalus (Linneus, 1758) Fin Whale range The Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus), also called the Finback Whale, is a mammal that belongs to the baleen whales suborder. ... Binomial name Balaenoptera brydei Olsen, 1913 Balaenoptera edeni Anderson, 1879 Brydes Whale range Bryde’s Whales are the least-known and in many ways the most unusual of the rorquals. ... Binomial name Balaenoptttera borealis Lesson, 1828 Sei Whale range The Sei Whaile or Say Whale, (Balaenoptera borealis) is a big large baleen whale, and as such is one of the stupiest animals in the world. ... Binomial name Lacepede, 1804 Balaenoptera bonaerensis Burmeister, 1867 Minke Whale range Antarctic Minke Whale range Dwarf Minke Whale range The Minke Whale or Lesser Rorqual is a marine mammal belonging to the suborder of baleen whales. ... Families Balaenidae Balaenopteridae Eschrichtiidae Neobalaenidae Scientifically known as the Mysticeti, the baleen whales, also called whalebone whales or great whales, form a suborder of the order cetacea. ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ...


Though clearly related to the giant whales of the genus Balaenoptera, the Humpback has been the sole member of its genus since Gray's work in 1846. More recently though, DNA sequencing analysis has indicated both the Humpback and the Gray Whale are close relatives of the Blue Whale, the world's largest animal. If further research confirms these relationships, it will be necessary to reclassify the rorquals. For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Genera Balaenoptera Megaptera Rorquals are the largest group of baleen whales, with nine species in two genera. ... Binomial name Eschrichtius robustus Lilljeborg, 1861 Gray Whale range The Gray Whale or Grey Whale (Eschrichtius robustus), more recently called the Eastern Pacific Gray Whale, is a whale that travels between feeding and breeding grounds yearly. ...


The Humpback Whale was first identified as "baleine de la Nouvelle Angleterre" by Mathurin Jacques Brisson in his Regnum Animale of 1756. In 1781, Georg Heinrich Borowski described the species, converting Brisson's name to its Latin equivalent, Balaena novaeangliae. Early in the 19th century Lacépède shifted the Humpback from the Balaenidae family, renaming it Balaenoptera jubartes. In 1846, John Edward Gray created the genus Megaptera, classifying the Humpback as Megaptera longpinna, but in 1932, Remington Kellogg reverted the species names to use Borowski's novaeangliae.[4] The common name is derived from their humping motion while swimming. The generic name Megaptera from the Greek mega-/μεγα- "giant" and ptera/πτερα "wing",[5] refers to their large front flippers. The specific name means "New Englander" and was probably given by Brisson due the regular sightings of Humpbacks off the coast of New England.[4] Mathurin Jacques Brisson (April 30, 1723 - June 23, 1806) was a French zoologist and natural philosopher. ... Bernard-Germain-Étienne de Lacépède Bernard-Germain-Étienne de La Ville-sur-Illon, comte de Lacépède or La Cépède (December 26, 1756 – October 6, 1825) was a French naturalist. ... Species  Balaena mysticetus  Eubalaena australis  Eubalaena glacialis  Eubalaena japonica Northern Right Whale range Southern Right Whale range The right whales are marine mammals belonging to the family Balaenidae. ... John Edward Gray. ... Remington Kellogg (5 October 1892 - 8 May 1969) was an American naturalist and a director of the United States National Museum. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ...


Description and lifecycle

A diving Humpback Whale, showing hump and tail fins
A diving Humpback Whale, showing hump and tail fins

Humpback Whales can easily be identified by their stocky bodies with obvious humps and black dorsal colouring. The head and lower jaw are covered with knobs called tubercles, which are actually hair follicles and are characteristic of the species. The tail flukes, which are lifted high in the dive sequence, have wavy rear edges.[6] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Dorsal is an adjective which means, being at the back. ... 1. ... A hair follicle is part of the skin that grows hair by packing old cells together. ...


The long black and white tail fin, which can be up to a third of body length, and the pectoral fins have unique patterns, which enable individual whales to be recognised.[7][8] Several suggestions have been made to explain the evolution of the Humpback's pectoral fins, which are proportionally the longest fins of any cetacean. The two most enduring hypotheses are the higher maneuverability afforded by long fins, or that the increased surface area is useful for temperature control when migrating between warm and cold climates. Suborders Mysticeti Odontoceti (see text) The order Cetacea includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. ...

A Humpback Whale tail has wavy rear edges.
A Humpback Whale tail has wavy rear edges.
A tail from a different individual - the tail of each Humpback Whale is visibly unique.
A tail from a different individual - the tail of each Humpback Whale is visibly unique.

Humpbacks have 270 to 400 darkly coloured baleen plates on each side of the mouth. Ventral grooves run from the lower jaw to the umbilicus about halfway along the bottom of the whale. These grooves are less numerous (usually 16–20) and consequently more prominent than in other rorquals. The stubby dorsal fin is visible soon after the blow when the whale surfaces, but has disappeared by the time the flukes emerge. Humpbacks have a distinctive 3 m (10 ft) bushy blow. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 556 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 695 pixel, file size: 431 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Humpback Whale ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 556 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 695 pixel, file size: 431 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Humpback Whale ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 1536 pixel, file size: 523 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Huampback whale flukes. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 1536 pixel, file size: 523 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Huampback whale flukes. ... Baleen hair is attached to the baleen plate Baleen (also called whalebone) is a substance made of keratin and is therefore stiff but somewhat elastic. ... In zootomy, several terms are used to describe the location of organs and other structures in the body of bilateral animals. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Genera Balaenoptera Megaptera Rorquals are the largest group of baleen whales, with nine species in two genera. ... Dorsal fin of an orca A dorsal fin is a fin located on the backs of fishes, whales, dolphins, and porpoises, as well as the (extinct) ichthyosaurs. ... In biology, a blowhole is the hole at the top of a whales head through which the animal breathes air. ...


Newborn calves are roughly the length of their mother's head. A 50' mother would have a 20' newborn weighing in at 2 tons! They are nursed by their mothers for approximately six months, then are sustained through a mixture of nursing and independent feeding for possibly six months more. Some calves have been observed alone after arrival in Alaskan waters. Females reach sexual maturity at the age of five with full adult size being achieved a little later. According to new research, males reach sexual maturity at approximately 7 years of age. Fully grown the males average 15–16 m (49–52 ft), the females being slightly larger at 16–17 m (52–56 ft), with a weight of 40,000 kg (or 44 tons); the largest recorded specimen was 19 m (62 ft) long and had pectoral fins measuring 6 m (20 ft) each.[9] The largest Humpback on record, according to whaling records, was killed in the Caribbean. She was 88 feet long, weighing nearly 90 tons!


Females have a hemispherical lobe about 15 centimetres (6 in) in diameter in their genital region. This allows males and females to be distinguished if the underside of the whale can be seen, even though the male's penis usually remains unseen in the genital slit. Male whales have distinctive scars on heads and bodies, some resulting from battles over females. A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


Females typically breed every two or three years. The gestation period is 11.5 months, yet some individuals can breed in two consecutive years. Humpback Whales were thought to live 50 - 60 years, but new studies using the changes in amino acids behind eye lenses proved another baleen whale, the Bowhead, to be 211 years old. This was an animal taken by the Inuit off Alaska. More studies on ages are currently being done.


Identification

The varying patterns on the Humpback's tail flukes are sufficient to identify an individual. Unique visual identification is not possible in most cetacean species (exceptions include Orcas and Right Whales), so the Humpback has become one of the most-studied species. A study using data from 1973 to 1998 on whales in the North Atlantic gave researchers detailed information on gestation times, growth rates, and calving periods, as well as allowing more accurate population predictions by simulating the mark-release-recapture technique. A photographic catalogue of all known whales in the North Atlantic was developed over this period and is currently maintained by Wheelock College.[10] Similar photographic identification projects have subsequently begun in the North Pacific by SPLASH (Structure of Populations, Levels of Abundance and Status of Humpbacks), and around the world. Binomial name Orcinus orca Linnaeus, 1758 Orca range (in blue) The orca (Orcinus orca), commonly known as the killer whale, and sometimes called the grampus, is the largest member of the oceanic dolphin family. ... ... Mark and recapture is a method commonly used in ecology to estimate population size and population vital rates (i. ... Wheelock College is an institution of higher learning located in Boston, Massachusetts. ...


Social structure and courtship

Humpbacks frequently breach, throwing two thirds or more of their body out of the water and splashing down on their back.
Humpbacks frequently breach, throwing two thirds or more of their body out of the water and splashing down on their back.
See also: Whale behaviour

The Humpback social structure is loose-knit. Usually, individuals live alone or in small transient groups that assemble and break up over the course of a few hours. Groups may stay together a little longer in summer in order to forage and feed cooperatively. Longer-term relationships between pairs or small groups, lasting months or even years, have been observed, but are rare. Recent studies extrapolate feeding bonds observed with many females in Alaskan waters over the last 10 years. It is possible some females may have these bonds for a lifetime. More studies need to be done on this. The range of the Humpback overlaps considerably with many other whale and dolphin species — whilst it may be seen near other species (for instance, the Minke Whale), it rarely interacts socially with them. Humpback calves have been observed in Hawaiian waters playing with bottlenose dolphin calves. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 453 pixelsFull resolution (1765 × 1000 pixel, file size: 944 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 453 pixelsFull resolution (1765 × 1000 pixel, file size: 944 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Whales exhibit various types of behaviour when they surface. ...


Courtship rituals take place during the winter months, when the whales migrate towards the equator from their summer feeding grounds closer to the poles. Competition for a mate is usually fierce, and female whales as well as mother-calf dyads are frequently trailed by unrelated male whales dubbed escorts by researcher Louis Herman. Groups of two to twenty males typically gather around a single female and exhibit a variety of behaviours in order to establish dominance in what is known as a competitive pod. The displays may last several hours, the group size may ebb and flow as unsuccessful males retreat and others arrive to try their luck. Techniques used include breaching, spy-hopping, lob-tailing, tail-slapping, flipper-slapping, charging and parrying. "Super pods" have been observed numbering more than 40 males, all vying for the same female. (M. Ferrari et. al) Suitor redirects here. ... Louis Herman is a researcher in of dolphin sensory abilities, dolphin cognition, and humpback whales. ...


Whale song is assumed to have an important role in mate selection; however, scientists remain unsure whether the song is used between males in order to establish identity and dominance, between a male and a female as a mating call, or a mixture of the two. All these vocal and physical techniques have also been observed while not in the presence of potential mates. This indicates that they are probably important as a more general communication tool. Recent studies showed singing males attract other males. Scientists are extrapolating possibilities the singing may be a way to keep the migrating populations connected. (Ferrari, Nicklin, Darling, et. al.) Studies on this are ongoing. For the Pearl Jam song, see Whale Song (song). ...


Feeding

A group of 15 whales bubble net fishing near Juneau, Alaska
A group of 15 whales bubble net fishing near Juneau, Alaska

The species feeds only in summer and lives off fat reserves during winter. Humpback Whales will only feed rarely and opportunistically while in their wintering waters. It is an energetic feeder, taking krill and small schooling fish, such as herring (Clupea harengus), salmon, capelin (Mallotus villosus) and sand lance (Ammodytes americanus) as well as Mackerel (Scomber scombrus), pollock (Pollachius virens) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) in the North Atlantic.[11][12][13] Krill and Copepods have been recorded from Australian and Antarctic waters.[14] It hunts fish by direct attack or by stunning them by hitting the water with its flippers or flukes. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 500 pixelsFull resolution (2112 × 1319 pixel, file size: 927 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This is an edited version of Image:Whales Bubble Net Feeding. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 500 pixelsFull resolution (2112 × 1319 pixel, file size: 927 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This is an edited version of Image:Whales Bubble Net Feeding. ... Bold text Location in Juneau City and Borough, Alaska Coordinates: , Country State Borough Juneau City and Borough Founded 1881 Incorporated 1890 Government  - Mayor Bruce Botelho Area  - City  3,255. ... Families Euphausiidae Euphausia Dana, 1852 Meganyctiphanes Holt and W. M. Tattersall, 1905 Nematobrachion Calman, 1905 Nematoscelis G. O. Sars, 1883 Nyctiphanes G. O. Sars, 1883 Pseudeuphausia Hansen, 1910 Stylocheiron G. O. Sars, 1883 Tessarabrachion Hansen, 1911 Thysanoessa Brandt, 1851 Thysanopoda Latreille, 1831 Bentheuphausiidae Bentheuphausia amblyops Krill are shrimp-like marine... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Species Clupea alba Clupea bentincki Clupea caspiopontica Clupea chrysotaenia Clupea elongata Clupea halec Clupea harengus Clupea inermis Clupea leachii Clupea lineolata Clupea minima Clupea mirabilis Clupea pallasii Clupea sardinacaroli Clupea sulcata Herrings are small oily fish of the genus Clupea found in the shallow, temperate waters of the North Atlantic... For other uses, see Salmon (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Mallotus villosus Müller, 1776 This article is about the fish. ... Genera (many, see text) A sand lance or sandlance is a fish belonging to the family Ammodytidae. ... Mackerel is a common name applied to a number of different species of fish, mostly, but not exclusively, from the family Scombridae. ... Species Pollachius pollachius Pollachius virens Pollock (or pollack, pronounced the same and listed first in most UK and US dictionaries) is the common name used for either of the two species of marine fish in the Pollachius genus. ... For other uses, see Haddock (disambiguation). ... Orders Calanoida Cyclopoida Gelyelloida Harpacticoida Misophrioida Monstrilloida Mormonilloida Platycopioida Poecilostomatoida Siphonostomatoida Copepods are a group of small crustaceans found in the sea and nearly every freshwater habitat. ...

A pair of Humpback Whales feeding by lunging.
A pair of Humpback Whales feeding by lunging.

The Humpback has the most diverse repertoire of feeding methods of all baleen whales.[15] Its most inventive technique is known as bubble net fishing: a group of whales blows bubbles while swimming in circles to create a ring of bubbles. The ring encircles the fish, which are confined in an ever-tighter area as the whales swim in a smaller and smaller circles. The whales then suddenly swim upwards through the bubble net, mouths agape, swallowing thousands of fish in one gulp. This technique can involve a ring of bubbles up to 30 m (100 ft) in diameter and the cooperation of a dozen animals. Some of the whales take the task of blowing the bubbles through their blowholes, some dive deeper to drive fish towards the surface, and others herd fish into the net by vocalizing. It is one of the more spectacular acts of collaboration among marine mammals.[16] This image shows a pair of Humpback Whales lunge-feeding. See Humpback Whale for details. ... This image shows a pair of Humpback Whales lunge-feeding. See Humpback Whale for details. ... Diversity Around 15 species; see list of cetaceans or below. ... In biology, a blowhole is the hole at the top of a whales head through which the animal breathes air. ... A Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), a member of Order Cetacea A Leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx), a member of infrafamily Pinnipedia A West Indian Manatee (Trichechus manatus), a member of Order Sirenia A pair of Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris), a member of family Mustelidae A Polar bear (Ursus maritimus), a member...


Humpback Whales are preyed upon by Orcas. The result of these attacks is generally nothing more serious than some scarring of the skin, but it is likely that young calves are sometimes killed.[17] Binomial name Orcinus orca Linnaeus, 1758 Orca range (in blue) The Orca or Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) is the largest species of the oceanic dolphin family (Delphinidae). ...


Song

Main article: Whale song
Humpback swimming on his back in Antarctica
Humpback swimming on his back in Antarctica

Both male and female Humpback Whales can produce sounds, however only the males produce the long, loud, complex "songs" for which the species is famous. Each song consists of several sounds in a low register that vary in amplitude and frequency, and typically lasts from 10 to 20 minutes.[18] Songs may be repeated continuously for several hours; Humpback Whales have been observed to sing continuously for more than 24 hours at a time. As cetaceans have no vocal cords, whales generate their song by forcing air through their massive nasal cavities. For the Pearl Jam song, see Whale Song (song). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 441 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,000 × 551 pixels, file size: 349 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Humpback Whales in Antarctica. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 441 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,000 × 551 pixels, file size: 349 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Humpback Whales in Antarctica. ... In music, a register is the relative height or range of a note, set of pitches or pitch classes, melody, part, instrument or group of instruments. ... It has been suggested that pulse amplitude be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Frequency (disambiguation). ... Suborders Mysticeti Odontoceti (see text) The order Cetacea includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. ...


Whales within an area sing the same song, for example all of the Humpback Whales of the North Atlantic sing the same song, and those of the North Pacific sing a different song. Each population's song changes slowly over a period of years —never returning to the same sequence of notes.[18]


Scientists are still unsure of the purpose of whale song. Only male Humpbacks sing, so it was initially assumed that the purpose of the songs was to attract females. However, many of the whales observed to approach singing whales have been other males, with the meeting resulting in a conflict. Thus, one interpretation is that the whale songs serve as a threat to other males.[19] Some scientists have hypothesized that the song may serve an echolocative function.[20] During the feeding season, Humpback Whales make altogether different vocalizations, which they use to herd fish into their bubble nets.[21] Echolocation, also called Biosonar, is the biological sonar used by several mammals such as bats (although not all species), dolphins and whales (though not baleen whales). ...


Population and distribution

The Humpback whale is found in all the major oceans, in a wide band running from the Antarctic ice edge to 65° N latitude, though is not found in the eastern Mediterranean, the Baltic Sea or the Arctic Ocean. There are at least over 70,000 humpback whales worldwide, with 10,000-25,000 in the North Pacific, nearly 12,000 in the North Atlantic, and over 50,000 in the Southern Hemisphere, down from a pre-whaling population of 125,000[citation needed]. Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... This article is about the geographical term. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... The crew of the oceanographic research vessel Princesse Alice, of Albert Grimaldi (later Prince Albert I of Monaco) pose while flensing a catch. ...


The Humpback is a migratory species, spending its summers in cooler, high-latitude waters, but mating and calving in tropical and sub-tropical waters.[18] An exception to this rule is a population in the Arabian Sea, which remains in these tropical waters year-round.[18] Annual migrations of up to 25,000 kilometres (16,000 statute miles) are typical, making it one of the farthest-travelling of any mammalian species. The Arabian Sea (Arabic: بحر العرب; transliterated: Bahr al-Arab) is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui, the north-east point of Somalia... “km” redirects here. ... A mile is any of several units of distance, or, in physics terminology, of length. ...


A 2007 study identified seven individual whales wintering off the Pacific coast of Costa Rica as those which had made a trip from the Antarctic of around 8,300 km. Identified by their unique tail patterns, these animals have made the longest documented migration by a mammal.[22]


In Australia, two main migratory populations have been identified, off the west and east coast respectively. These two populations are distinct with only a few females in each generation crossing between the two groups.[23] Generation (From the Greek γιγνμαι), also known as procreation, is the act of producing offspring. ...


Whaling

Main article: Whaling

One of the first attempts to hunt the humpback whale was made by John Smith in 1614 off the coast of Maine. Opportunistic killing of the species is likely to have occurred long before, and it continued with increasing pace in the following centuries. By the 18th century, the commercial value of Humpback Whales had been recognized[citation needed], and they became a common target for whalers for many years. The crew of the oceanographic research vessel Princesse Alice, of Albert Grimaldi (later Prince Albert I of Monaco) pose while flensing a catch. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


By the 19th century, many nations (and the United States in particular), were hunting the animal heavily in the Atlantic Ocean — and to a lesser extent in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. However, it was the introduction of the explosive harpoon in the late 19th century that allowed whalers to accelerate their take. This, coupled with the opening-up of the Antarctic seas in 1904, led to a sharp decline in all whale populations. The explosive harpoon is a device used by whalemen to kill whales efficiently and without poison. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


It is estimated that during the 20th century at least 200,000 Humpbacks were taken, reducing the global population by over 90%, with the population in the North Atlantic estimated to have dropped to as low as 700 individuals.[24] To prevent species extinction, a general moratorium on the hunting of Humpbacks was introduced in 1966 and is still in force today. In his book Humpback Whales (1996), Phil Clapham, a scientist at the Smithsonian Institute, said "This wanton destruction of some of the earth's most magnificent creatures [is] one of the greatest of our many environmental crimes." (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ... Look up Moratorium in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Smithsonian castle, as seen through the garden gate. ...


By the time the International Whaling Commission (IWC) members agreed on a moratorium on Humpback hunting in 1966, the whales were so scarce that commercial hunting was no longer worthwhile. At this time, 250,000 were recorded killed. However, the true toll is likely to be significantly higher. It is now known that the Soviet Union was deliberately under-recording its kills; the total Soviet Humpback kill was reported at 2,820 whereas the true number is now believed to be over 48,000.[25] International Whaling Commission Logo The International Whaling Commission (IWC) was set up by the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW)[1] on December 2, 1946 to promote and maintain whale fishery stocks. ...


As of 2004, hunting of Humpback Whales is restricted to a few animals each year off the Caribbean island Bequia in the nation of St. Vincent and the Grenadines.[15] The take is not believed to threaten the local population. 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Admiralty Bay Bequia in 1966 Bequia ( pronounced beck-way ) is the largest island in the Grenadines. ...


2007 Japanese whaling

Starting in November 2007, Japan is planning to kill 50 Humpback Whales a year in the Southern Ocean Whale Sanctuary under its JARPA-II research program. The announcement sparked global protests[26]. Japan has a long history of whaling. ...


In New Zealand, protests have come from Maori and Pacific community leaders. Whales hold a significant place in the tradition and culture of many Pacific countries, according to Melino Maka, chairman of the Tongan Advisory Council. "We have a spiritual connection with our whales in our waters." he said. Te Puni, Māori Chief Māori is the name of the indigenous people of New Zealand, and their language. ...


Protests occurred in 20 centres around Australia as well as Tonga. Many whales known to locals and tourism operators in Australian waters were born after whaling finished, so around humans they're benign. Japan's resumption of whaling may cause the remaining animals to become nervous, agitated or belligerent around humans and vessels. It is feared this will damage tourism. Whale watching is worth an estimated $260 million in Australia. The Australian government has been vocal in its opposition to whaling, but has been criticized for not taking legal action against it.[27] In the lead up to the Federal election, the Australian shadow environment minister, Peter Garrett, has announced a policy whereby Australian navy ships would intercept and board whaling vessels . Peter Robert Garrett AM MP, BA (ANU) LLB (UNSW), (born 16 April 1953), is an Australian musician and politician. ...


Anti-whaling commercials with the slogan "Tell Japan We'll Keep the Ban", narrated by Sir Trevor McDonald, were launched in the Caribbean by Lord Ashcroft, the deputy chairman of the Conservative Party. The Antiguan and Dominican governments have blocked the ad from being shown on their state owned channels, as has the MTV's Tempo network across the Caribbean. The ad is being broadcast in Antigua & Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Kitts & Nevis, Saint Lucia and Saint Vincent & the Grenadines.[28] Sir Trevor McDonald presenting News at Ten, on 5 March 1999. ... West Indies redirects here. ... Michael Anthony Ashcroft, Baron Ashcroft KCMG (born March 4, 1946) is a British businessman and politician who has been a member of the House of Lords since 2000. ... This article is about the original U.S. music television channel. ... West Indies redirects here. ...


There are only around 2,000 humpbacks in the entire South Pacific. The local populations are critically endangered in Fiji and Samoa. Whaling may also cause naturally isolated populations to mix, reducing distinct genetic groups. The South Pacific is an area in the southern Pacific Ocean. ...


Conservation

A dead Humpback washed up near Big Sur, California.
A dead Humpback washed up near Big Sur, California.

Internationally this species is considered vulnerable. Most monitored stocks of Humpback Whales have rebounded well since the end of the commercial whaling era,[1] such as the North Atlantic where stocks are now believed to be approaching pre-hunting levels.[29] However, the species is considered endangered in some countries where local populations have recovered slowly, including the United States.[30] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 336 KB) A dead Humpback Whale washed up near Big Sur, California. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 336 KB) A dead Humpback Whale washed up near Big Sur, California. ... For other uses, see Big Sur (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ...


Today, individuals are vulnerable to collisions with ships, entanglement in fishing gear, and noise pollution.[1] Like other cetaceans, Humpbacks are sensitive to noise and can even be injured by it. In the 19th century, two Humpback Whales were found dead near sites of repeated oceanic sub-bottom blasting, with traumatic injuries and fractures in the ears.[31] In fisheries science, by-catch refers to species caught in a fishery intended to target another species, as well as reproductively-immature juveniles of the target species. ...


The ingestion of saxitoxin, a PSP (paralytic shellfish poison) from contaminated mackerel has been implicated in Humpback Whale deaths.[32] Saxitoxin (STX) is a neurotoxin found in marine dinoflagellates (algae). ... 4 distinct shellfish-poisoning syndromes have been identified: Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) Neurologic shellfish poisoning (NSP) Diarrheal shellfish poisoning (DSP) Amnestic shellfish poisoning (ASP) All 4 syndromes share some common features and primarily are associated with bivalve mollusks (eg, mussels, clams, oysters, scallops). ...


Some countries are creating action plans to protect the Humpback; for example, in the United Kingdom, the Humpback Whale has been designated as a priority species under the national Biodiversity Action Plan, generating a set of actions to conserve the species. The sanctuary provided by National Parks such as Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve and Cape Hatteras National Seashore, among others, have also become a major factor in sustaining the populations of the species in those areas.[33] Diademed Sifaka, an endangered primate of Madagascar Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) is a an internationally recognized programme addressing threatened species or habitats, which is designed to protect and restore biological systems. ... This article is about national parks. ... The area around Glacier Bay in southeastern Alaska was first proclaimed a U.S. National Monument on February 25, 1925. ... Cape Hatteras National Seashore is a United States national park in North Carolina. ...


Although much was known about the Humpback Whale due to information obtained through whaling, the migratory patterns and social interactions of the species were not well known until two separate studies by R. Chittleborough and W. H. Dawbin in the 1960s.[34] Roger Payne and Scott McVay made further studies of the species in 1971.[35] Their analysis of whale song led to worldwide media interest in the species, and left an impression in the public mind that whales were a highly intelligent cetacean species, a contributing factor to the anti-whaling stance of many countries. Roger Payne is a biologist and environmentalist made famous by (together with Scott McVay) in 1967 discovering Whale song among Humpback whales. ... Cetacean intelligence denotes the cognitive capabilities of the cetacean order of mammals and especially the various species of dolphin. ...


Whale-watching

Main article: Whale-watching
Humpback near Hervey Bay, Queensland
Humpback near Hervey Bay, Queensland

Humpback Whales are generally curious about objects in their environment. They will often approach and circle boats. This has become an attraction of whale-watching tourism in many locations around the world since the 1990s. Whale watching off the coast of Bar Harbor, Maine. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1191x753, 691 KB) Summary Author: Fritz Geller-Grimm. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1191x753, 691 KB) Summary Author: Fritz Geller-Grimm. ... Hervey Bay is a rapidly growing city in southeastern Queensland, Australia. ... Whale watching off the coast of Bar Harbor, Maine. ...


Whale-watching locations include the Atlantic coast off the Samaná Province of the Dominican Republic, the Pacific coast off Oregon, Washington, Vancouver, Hawaii and Alaska, the Bay of Biscay to the west of France, Sydney,Byron Bay north of Sydney, Hervey Bay north of Brisbane, the coasts of New England, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, New Zealand, the Tongan islands, the northern St. Lawrence River and the Snaefellsnes peninsula in the west of Iceland. The species is popular because it breaches regularly and spectacularly, and displays a range of other social behaviours. Samaná is a province of the Dominican Republic. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Map of the Bay of Biscay. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... Cape Byron Lighthouse Tallow Beach looking south from the lighthouse Byron Bay (, ) is a town in the state of New South Wales on the eastern most point of the mainland of Australia. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... Hervey Bay is a rapidly growing resort city in south eastern Queensland, Australia. ... For other uses, see Brisbane (disambiguation). ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... The Saint Lawrence River (French fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ...


As with other cetacean species, however, a mother whale will generally be extremely protective of her infant, and will seek to place herself between any boat and the calf before moving quickly away from the vessel. Whale-watching tour operators are asked to avoid stressing the mother.


Famous Humpbacks

Migaloo

A presumably albino Humpback Whale that travels up and down the east coast of Australia has become famous in the local media, on account of its extremely rare all-white appearance. The whale, first sighted in 1991 and believed to be 3-5 years old at that time, is called Migaloo (a word for "white fellow" from one of the languages of the Indigenous Australians). Speculation about the whale's gender was resolved in October 2004 when researchers from Southern Cross University collected sloughed skin samples from Migaloo as he migrated past Lennox Head, and subsequent genetic analysis of the samples proved he is a male. Because of the intense interest, environmentalists feared that the whale was becoming distressed by the number of boats following it each day. In response, the Queensland and New South Wales governments introduce legislation each year to order the maintenance of a 500 m (1,600 ft) exclusion zone around the whale. Recent close up pictures have shown Migaloo to have skin cancer and/or skin cysts as a result of his lack of protection from the sun.[36] Albinism is a genetic condition resulting in a lack of pigmentation in the eyes, skin and hair. ... Language(s) Several hundred Indigenous Australian languages (many extinct or nearly so), Australian English, Australian Aboriginal English, Torres Strait Creole, Kriol Religion(s) Primarily Christian, with minorities of other religions including various forms of Traditional belief systems based around the Dreamtime Related ethnic groups see List of Indigenous Australian group...


Humphrey

Main article: Humphrey the whale

One of the most notable Humpback Whales is Humphrey the whale, who was rescued twice in California by The Marine Mammal Center and other concerned groups.[37][38] The first rescue was in 1985, when he swam into San Francisco Bay and then up the Sacramento River towards Rio Vista.[39] Five years later, Humphrey returned and became stuck on a mudflat in San Francisco Bay immediately north of Sierra Point below the view of onlookers from the upper floors of the Dakin Building. He was pulled off the mudflat with a large cargo net and the help of a Coast Guard boat. Both times he was successfully guided back to the Pacific Ocean using a "sound net" in which people in a flotilla of boats made unpleasant noises behind the whale by banging on steel pipes, a Japanese fishing technique known as "oikami." At the same time, the attractive sounds of Humpback Whales preparing to feed were broadcast from a boat headed towards the open ocean.[40] Since leaving the San Francisco Bay in 1990 Humphrey has been seen only once, at the Farallon Islands in 1991. Humpback whales live in the open ocean. ... Humpback whales live in the open ocean. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Release of rehabilitated pinnipeds into the Pacific Ocean The Marine Mammal Center is a private non-profit organization centered on rescue, rehabilitation, environmental research and education pertaining to certain species within the pinnipedia, carnivora and cetacea biological orders. ... San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, and the Golden Gate San Francisco Bay is a shallow, productive estuary through which water draining approximately forty percent of California, flowing in the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers from the Sierra Nevada mountains, enters the Pacific Ocean. ... Rio Vista is a city located on the eastern end of Solano County, California, on the Sacramento River in the Sacramento River Delta region. ... Richardson Bay mudflats of are exposed layers of bay mud Bay mud consists of thick deposits of soft, unconsolidated silty clay, which is saturated with water; these soil layers are situated at the bottom of certain estuaries, which are normally in temperate regions that have experienced cyclical glacial cycles. ... San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, and the Golden Gate San Francisco Bay is a shallow, productive estuary through which water draining approximately forty percent of California, flowing in the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers from the Sierra Nevada mountains, enters the Pacific Ocean. ... Sierra Point is a small peninsula that extends outward into the San Francisco Bay, located in Brisbane, San Mateo County, California. ... Dakin Building The Dakin Building is an architectural award winning class A office building on the San Francisco Bay in Brisbane, California. ... Farallon Islands, with border of Farallon Islands National Wildlife Refuge Southeast Farallon Islands (from nautical chart of 1957) View of research station at Marine Terrace, with Farallon Island Light above The Farallon Islands are a group of islands and rocks found in the Gulf of the Farallones, off the coast...


Delta and Dawn

A Humpback Whale mother and calf captivated the San Francisco Bay Area in May 2007[41]. This pair appeared to have gotten lost on their Northern migration, swam into the bay and up the Sacramento River as far as the Port of Sacramento. First spotted on May 13, the whales inspired intense news coverage and were named "Delta" and "Dawn". Whale fans became worried as the whales, both injured with what were possibly cuts caused by boat propellers, continued their stay in the brackish waters, despite efforts to get them to return to the sea. Unexpectedly on May 20th, they headed back towards the bay but they tarried near the Rio Vista bridge for 10 days. Finally, on Memorial Day weekend, they left Rio Vista, California; passing Tuesday night May 29th through the Golden Gate Bridge out to the Pacific Ocean. The Port of Sacramento is an inland port located 79 nautical miles northeast of San Francisco, and is centered in one of the richest agricultural and industrial regions in the world. ... Rio Vista is a city located on the eastern end of Solano County, California, on the Sacramento River in the Sacramento River Delta region. ... The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate, the opening into the San Francisco Bay from the Pacific Ocean. ...


In popular culture

  • In Moby-Dick, a novel where the chief whale protagonist is a Sperm Whale, Herman Melville describes the Humpback Whale as "the most gamesome and light-hearted of all the whales, making more gay foam and white water than any other of them".
  • Humpback Whales were a plot element in the film Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home. In the film, an alien probe arrives at 23rd century Earth and attempts to contact the by then extinct whales. The crew of the Enterprise travel back in time to obtain a breeding pair of Humpbacks to communicate with the probe and forestall the Earth's destruction.
  • Judy Collins' 1970 album Whales and Nightingales featured a recording of the traditional song "Farewell To Tarwathie", on which Collins sang to the accompaniment of a recording of a Humpback Whale.

Moby-Dick book cover Moby-Dick - the official title of the first edition - is a novel by Herman Melville. ... A protagonist is the main figure of a piece of literature or drama and has the main part or role. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Sperm whale range (in blue) The sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) is the largest of all toothed whales and is the largest toothed animal alive, measuring up to 18 m (60 ft) long. ... Herman Melville (August 1, 1819 – September 28, 1891) was an American novelist, short story writer, essayist, and poet. ... Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home (Paramount Pictures, 1986; see also 1986 in film) is the fourth feature film based on the popular Star Trek science fiction television series. ... A comparison of the Enterprise with other ships and buildings (see image description for more detail) The USS Enterprise, (NCC-1701) is a fictional starship in the television series Star Trek, which chronicles the vessels mission to explore strange new worlds; to seek out new life and new civilizations... Fantasia 2000 is an animated feature produced by Walt Disney Feature Animation and released by Walt Disney Pictures. ... Elsa and Ottorino Respighi in the 1920s Ottorino Respighi (Bologna, July 9, 1879 - Rome, April 18, 1936) was an Italian composer, musicologist, pianist, violist and violinist. ... Pini di Roma (Italian “Pines of Rome”) is a 1924 work by the Italian composer Ottorino Respighi, and is considered one of the masterpieces of the Roman Trilogy of symphonic poems along with Feste Romane and Fontane di Roma. ... Finding Nemo is an Academy Award-winning computer-animated film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released to theaters by Walt Disney Pictures and Buena Vista Distribution. ... This is about the city of Sydney in Australia. ... Judith Marjorie Collins (born May 1, 1939 in Seattle, Washington) is an American folk and standards singer and songwriter, known for the stunning purity of her soprano; for her eclectic tastes in the material she records (which has included folk, showtunes, pop, and rock and roll); and for her social... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Whales and Nightingales was a 1970 album by Judy Collins. ...

Media

See also: List of whale songs

Whale song is the sound made by whales to communicate. ... Humpback whale moo. ... Image File history File links Humpback whale wheezeblow. ... Image File history File links Akhumphi1x. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c Cetacean Specialist Group (1996). Megaptera novaeangliae. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 11 May 2006. Database entry includes a lengthy justification of why this species is vulnerable
  2. ^ Japanese whalers hunt humpbacks
  3. ^ Gingerich P (2004). "Whale Evolution", McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology. The McGraw Hill Companies. 
  4. ^ a b Martin S (2002). The Whales' Journey. Allen & Unwin Pty., Limited, 251. ISBN 1865082325. 
  5. ^ Liddell & Scott (1980). Greek-English Lexicon, Abridged Edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. ISBN 0-19-910207-4. 
  6. ^ Final Recovery Plan for the Humpback Whale Megaptera novaeangliae (PDF). U.S. Department of Commerce (1991). Retrieved on 10 April 2007.
  7. ^ Katona S.K. and Whitehead, H.P. (1981). "Identifying humpback whales using their mural markings". Polar Record (20): 439–444. 
  8. ^ Kaufman G., Smultea M.A. and Forestell P. (1987). "Use of lateral body pigmentation patterns for photo ID of east Australian (Area V) humpback whales". Cetus 7 (1): 5–13. 
  9. ^ Clapham P. "Humpback Whale", Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals, 589–592. ISBN 0125513402. 
  10. ^ Williamson JM (2005). Whalenet Data Search. Wheelock College. Retrieved on 03 April 2007.
  11. ^ Overholtz W.J. and Nicholas J.R. (1979). "Apparent feeding by the fin whale, Balaenoptera physalus, and humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae, on the American sand lance, Ammodytes americanus, in the Northwest Atlantic". Fish. Bull. (77): 285–287. 
  12. ^ Whitehead H. (1987). "Updated status of the humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae, in Canada". Canadian Field-Naturalist 101 (2): 284–294. 
  13. ^ Meyer T.L., Cooper R.A. and Langton R.W. (1979). "Relative abundance, behavior and food habits of the American sand lance (Ammodytes americanus) from the Gulf of Maine". Fish. Bull 77 (1): 243–253. 
  14. ^ Nemoto T. (1959). "Food of baleen whales with reference to whale movements". Science Report Whales Research Institute Tokyo (14): 149–290. 
  15. ^ a b Prepared by the Humpback Whale Recovery Team for the National Marine Fisheries Service, Silver Spring, Maryland (1991). Recovery Plan for the Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaeangliae). National Marine Fisheries Service, 105. 
  16. ^ Acklin, Deb. "Crittercam Reveals Secrets of the Marine World", National Geographic News, 2005-08-05. Retrieved on 2007-11-01. 
  17. ^ Clapham, P.J. (1996). "The social and reproductive biology of humpback whales: an ecological perspective" (PDF). Mammal Review (26): 27–49. Retrieved on 2007-04-26. 
  18. ^ a b c d American Cetacean Society Fact Sheet. American Cetacean Society. Retrieved on 17 April 2007.
  19. ^ Humpback Whales. Song of the Sea.. Public Broadcasting Station. Retrieved on 2007-04-22.
  20. ^ Mercado E III & Frazer LN (July 2001). "Humpback Whale Song or Humpback Whale Sonar? A Reply to Au et al." (PDF). IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering 26 (3): 406–415 Retrieved on 03 April 2007. 
  21. ^ Mercado E III, Herman LM & Pack AA (2003). "Stereotypical sound patterns in humpback whale songs: Usage and function" (PDF). Aquatic Mammals 29 (1): 37–52 Retrieved on 03 April 2007. 
  22. ^ Rasmussen K, Palacios DM, Calambokidis J, Saborío MT, Dalla Rosa L, Secchi ER, Steiger GH, Allen JM, & Stone GS (2007). "online link Southern Hemisphere humpback whales wintering off Central America: insights from water temperature into the longest mammalian migration". Biology Letters (10.1098/rsbl.2007.0067). ISSN 1744-957X. 
  23. ^ Megaptera novaeangliae in Species Profile and Threats Database. Australian Government: Department of the Environment and Water Resources (2007). Retrieved on 17 April 2007.
  24. ^ Breiwick JM, Mitchell E, Reeves RR (1983) Simulated population trajectories for northwest Atlantic humpback whales 1865–1980. Fifth biennial Conference on Biology of Marine Mammals, Boston Abstract. p14
  25. ^ Prof. Alexey V. Yablokov (1997). "On the Soviet Whaling Falsification, 1947–1972". Whales Alive! 6. Cetacean Society International. 
  26. ^ scoop.co.nz: Leave Humpback Whales Alone Message To Japan 16 May 2007
  27. ^ http://www.news.com.au/travel/story/0,23483,21741734-5012962,00.html
  28. ^ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/main.jhtml;jsessionid=A4S1KQFOYRZLLQFIQMGSFFWAVCBQWIV0?xml=/earth/2007/05/01/eajapan101.xml
  29. ^ Cite error 8; No text given.
  30. ^ Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaeangliae). Division of Wildlife Conservation, Alaska Department of Fish and Game (2006). Retrieved on 19 April 2007.
  31. ^ (1849–1850) "Blast injury in humpback whale ears". Journal of the Acoustic Society of America. 
  32. ^ Dierauf L & Gulland F (2001). Marine Mammal Medicine. CRC Press. ISBN 0849308399. 
  33. ^ Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaeangliae). National Parks Conservation Association. Retrieved on 19 April 2007.
  34. ^ Chittleborough RG. (1965) Dynamics of two populations of the humpback whale. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 16: 33–128.
  35. ^ Payne RS, McVay S. (1971) Songs of humpback whales. Science 173:585–597.
  36. ^ Migaloo, the White Humpback Whale. Pacific Whale Foundation (2004). Retrieved on 03 April 2007.
  37. ^ Tokuda W (1992) Humphrey the lost whale, Heian Intl Publishing Company. ISBN 0-89346-346-9
  38. ^ Callenbach E & Leefeldt C Humphrey the Wayward Whale, ISBN 0-930588-23-1
  39. ^ Jane Kay, San Francisco Examiner Monday, Oct. 9, 1995
  40. ^ Toni Knapp, The Six Bridges of Humphrey the Whale. Illustrated by Craig Brown. Roberts Rinehart, 1993 (1989)
  41. ^ Lee, Henry & Martin, Glen, San Francisco Chronicle, "Whales disappear -- rescuers believe they're back at sea", 2007-03-30,http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2007/05/30/BAG9EQ3TU818.DTL

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... April 3 is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 272 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 3 is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 272 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... April 3 is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 272 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... April 3 is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 272 days remaining. ...

References

Books

  • Clapham, Phil. (1996). Humpback Whales. ISBN 0-948661-87-9
  • Clapham, Phil. Humpback Whale. pp 589–592 in the Encyclopeadia of Marine Mammals. ISBN 0-12-551340-2
  • Reeves, Stewart, Clapham and Powell. Date? National Audubon Society Guide to Marine Mammals of the World. ISBN 0-375-41141-0
  • Dawbin, W. H. The seasonal migratory cycle of humpback whales. In K.S. Norris (ed), Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises. University of California Press.

Journal articles

  • Best, P. B. (1993) Increase rates in severely depleted stocks of baleen whales. ICES Journal of Marine Science 50:169–186.
  • Smith, T.D.; J. Allen, P.J. Clapham, P.S. Hammond, S. Katona, F. Larsen, J. Lien, D. Mattila, P.J. Palsboll, J. Sigurjonsson, P.T. Stevick & N. Oien. (1999) An ocean-basin-wide mark-recapture study of the North Atlantic humpback whale. Marine Mammal Science 15: 1–32.

External links

Cetaceans Portal
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Humpback Whale songs
Conservation

This image shows the fluke of Sperm Whale as it begins a dive into the Gulf of Mexico. ... Image File history File links En-humpback_whale. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikispecies-logo. ... Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that aims to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species (including animalia, plantae, fungi, bacteria, archaea, and protista). ... University at Buffalo, The State University of New York (UB) (also known as SUNY Buffalo) is a coeducational public research university, which has multiple campuses located in Buffalo and Amherst, New York, USA. Offering 84 bachelors, 184 masters and 78 doctoral degrees, it is the largest and most... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Dalhousie University is a university located in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Diversity Around 15 species; see list of cetaceans or below. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Bowhead whale range The Bowhead Whale (Balaena mysticetus), also known as Greenland Right Whale or Arctic Whale, is a baleen whale of the right whale family Balaenidae. ... Species  Balaena mysticetus  Eubalaena australis  Eubalaena glacialis  Eubalaena japonica Northern Right Whale range Southern Right Whale range The right whales are marine mammals belonging to the family Balaenidae. ... Species  Balaena mysticetus  Eubalaena australis  Eubalaena glacialis  Eubalaena japonica Northern Right Whale range Southern Right Whale range The right whales are marine mammals belonging to the family Balaenidae. ... Binomial name Range map. ... Binomial name Balaenoptera physalus (Linneus, 1758) Fin Whale range The Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus), also called the Finback Whale, is a mammal that belongs to the baleen whales suborder. ... Binomial name Balaenoptttera borealis Lesson, 1828 Sei Whale range The Sei Whaile or Say Whale, (Balaenoptera borealis) is a big large baleen whale, and as such is one of the stupiest animals in the world. ... Binomial name Balaenoptera brydei Olsen, 1913 Balaenoptera edeni Anderson, 1879 Brydes Whale range Bryde’s Whales are the least-known and in many ways the most unusual of the rorquals. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Blue Whale range Subspecies B. m. ... Binomial name Lacepede, 1804 Balaenoptera bonaerensis Burmeister, 1867 Minke Whale range Antarctic Minke Whale range Dwarf Minke Whale range The Minke Whale or Lesser Rorqual is a marine mammal belonging to the suborder of baleen whales. ... Binomial name Balaenoptera omurai Wada , 2003 Balaenoptera omurai is a species of whale about which almost nothing is known. ... Binomial name Eschrichtius robustus Lilljeborg, 1861 Gray Whale range The Gray Whale or Grey Whale (Eschrichtius robustus), more recently called the Eastern Pacific Gray Whale, is a whale that travels between feeding and breeding grounds yearly. ... Binomial name Caperea marginata Gray, 1846 Pygmy Right Whale The Pygmy Right Whale (Caperea marginata) is a baleen whale and as such is a marine mammal of the order Cetacea. ... Image File history File links Northatlrightwhale_MMC.jpg North Atlantic Right Whale (Eubalaena glacialis) photo from: Marine Mammal Commission File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Humpback Whale | Cetacean Fact Sheet | American Cetacean Society (1094 words)
The humpback whale is one of the rorquals, a family that also includes the blue whale, fin whale, Bryde's whale, sei whale, and minke whale.
Humpback whales reach sexual maturity at 6-10 years of age or when males reach the length of 35 feet (11.6 m) and females reach 40 feet (12 m).
Whales in the North American Atlantic population sing the same song, and all the whales in the North American Pacific population sing the same song.
HUMPBACK WHALE (1384 words)
Humpbacks are acrobats of the ocean, breaching and slapping the water.
Humpback whales (like all baleen whales) are seasonal feeders and carnivores that filter feed tiny crustaceans (krill - mainly Euphausia superba, copepods, etc.), plankton, and small fish (including herring, mackerel, capelin, and sandeel) from the water.
Humpback whale breeding occurs mostly in the winter to early spring while near the surface and in warm, tropical waters.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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