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Encyclopedia > Humour
Look up humor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Humour or humor (see spelling differences) is the ability or quality of people, objects, or situations to evoke feelings of amusement in other people. The term encompasses a form of entertainment or human communication which evokes such feelings, or which makes people laugh or feel happy. The origin of the term derives from the humoral medicine of the ancient Greeks, which stated that a mix of fluids known as humours (Greek: χυμός, chymos, literally: juice or sap, metaphorically: flavour) controlled human health and emotion. Humour and Humor can refer to: humour as feelings of amusement in people. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Spelling differences redirects here. ... For the Talib Kweli album Quality (album) Quality can refer to a. ... Amusement, Viktor Vasnetsov Amusement is the state of experiencing humorous and usually entertaining events or situations, and is associated with enjoyment, happiness, laughter and pleasure. ... A stilt-walker entertaining shoppers at a shopping centre in Swindon, England Entertainment is an event, performance, or activity designed to give pleasure or relaxation to an audience (although, for example, in the case of a computer game the audience may be only one person). ... For the Bobby Womack album, see Communication (1972 album). ... Laughing Child Laughter is the biological reaction of humans to moments or occasions of humor: an outward expression of amusement. ... For other uses, see Happiness (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Ancient Greece is the term used to describe the Greek_speaking world in ancient times. ... For other uses, see Juice (disambiguation). ... The abbreviation, acronym, or initialism SAP has several different meanings: SAP AG, a German software company, or its various products such as SAP R/3 or SAP Business Information Warehouse second audio program (television) Session Announcement Protocol Soritong audio player Simple As Possible Computer Architecture Structural Adjustment Program of the... This article is about flavor, the sensory impression. ...


A sense of humour is the ability to experience humour, a quality which all people share,[citation needed] although the extent to which an individual will personally find something humorous depends on a host of absolute and relative variables, including geographical location, culture, maturity, level of education, and context. For example, young children (of any background) may possibly favour slapstick, such as Punch and Judy puppet shows or cartoons e.g. Tom and Jerry. Satire may rely more on understanding the target of the humour, and thus tends to appeal to more mature audiences.[citation needed] Non-satirical humour can be specifically termed "recreational drollery".[1][2] In computer science and mathematics, a variable (pronounced ) (sometimes called an object or identifier in computer science) is a symbolic representation used to denote a quantity or expression. ... In geography, location is a position or point in physical space expressed relative to the position of another point or thing. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Slapstick (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Punch and Judy (disambiguation). ... 1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a good deal of satire of the contemporary social and political scene. ...

Smiling often reflects a sense of humour and amusement. Shown here is a painting by Eduard von Grützner.
Smiling often reflects a sense of humour and amusement. Shown here is a painting by Eduard von Grützner.

Contents

Image File history File links Eduard_von_Grützner_Falstaff. ... Image File history File links Eduard_von_Grützner_Falstaff. ... For other uses, see Smile (disambiguation). ... Mönch auf dem weg zur Brotzeit, oil on canvas by Eduard von Grützner. ...

Techniques for composing humour

Humour is a branch of rhetoric, there are hundreds of tropes that can be used to make jokes. Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... A trope is a rhetorical figure of speech that consists of a play on words, i. ...


Verbal

A figure of speech, sometimes termed a rhetoric, or elocution, is a word or phrase that departs from straightforward, literal language. ... Look up Triple in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A paraprosdokian is a figure of speech in which the latter part of a sentence or phrase is surprising or unexpected in a way that causes the reader or listener to reframe the first part. ... An enthymeme is a syllogism (a three-part deductive argument) with an unstated assumption which must be true for the premises to lead to the conclusion. ... Syllepsis is a figure of speech in which one word simultaneously modifies two or more other words such that the modification must be understood differently with respect to each modified word. ... Zeugma (from the Greek word ζεύγμα, meaning yoke) is a figure of speech describing the joining of two or more parts of a sentence with a common verb or noun. ... Not to be confused with Hyperbola. ... Understatement is a form of speech in which a lesser expression is used than what would be expected. ... For the Aarni album, see Bathos (album). ... Some influential comedians have long regarded certain words in the English language as being inherently funny and have used these to enhance the humor of their comic routines. ... Ironic redirects here. ... A joke is a short story or ironic depiction of a situation communicated with the intent of being humorous. ... An adage (IPA ), or adagium (Latin), is a short, but memorable saying, which holds some important fact of experience that is considered true by many people, or it has gained some credibility through its long use. ... For law within legal systems see law. ... For other uses, see Murphys Law (disambiguation). ... Lemon laws are United States state laws that remedies to consumers for cars that repeatedly fail to meet certain standards of quality and performance. ... For the term used in Computing, see Stereotype (computing). ... A joke is a short story or short series of words spoken or communicated with the intent of being laughed at or found humorous by the listener or reader. ... A riddle is a statement or question having a double or veiled meaning, put forth as a puzzle to be solved. ... This article is about Word play. ... Look up oxymoron in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Pun (disambiguation). ...

Non-verbal

For the Aarni album, see Bathos (album). ... // Plot in literature, theatre, movies According to Aristotles Poetics, a plot in literature is the arrangement of incidents that (ideally) each follow plausibly from the other. ... For the phase, see Punch line Punchline is a North American punk rock band from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ... The Larry Sanders Show is a satirical television sitcom that originally aired from 1992 to 1998 on the HBO cable television network in the USA. It starred stand-up comedian Garry Shandling as vain, neurotic talk show host Larry Sanders. ... Curb Your Enthusiasm is an American sitcom starring Seinfeld writer, co-creator, and executive producer Larry David as himself. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Look up ambiguity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Andrew Geoffrey Kaufman (January 17, 1949 – May 16, 1984) was an American entertainer, actor, and performance artist. ... Categories: Stub ... Ed Wood can refer to: The movie director Ed Wood, Jr. ... Plan 9 from Outer Space Not to be confused with Plan Creepy from Outer Space is a science fiction/horror film written, produced and directed by Edward D. Wood, Jr. ... In comedy, a Sight Gag is anything which conveys its humour visually, often without words being used at all. ...

Understanding humour

Humour is when an alternative or surprising answer is given, that still shows relevance and can explain a situation. Some claim that humour cannot or should not be explained. Author F. B. White once said that "Humor can be dissected as a frog can, but the thing dies in the process and the innards are discouraging to any but the pure scientific mind." However, attempts to do just that have been made.


The term "humourific" as formerly applied in comedy, referred to the interpretation of the sublime and the ridiculous. In this context, humour is often a subjective experience as it depends on a special mood or perspective from its audience to be effective. Arthur Schopenhauer lamented the misuse of the term (the German loanword from English) to mean any type of comedy. In aesthetics, the sublime (from the Latin sublimis (exalted)) is the quality of transcendent greatness, whether physical, moral, intellectual or artistic. ... Subject (philosophy) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher who believed that the will to live is the fundamental reality and that this will, being a constant striving, is insatiable and ultimately yields only suffering. ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ...


Language is an approximation of thoughts through symbolic manipulation, and the gap between the expectations inherent in those symbols and the breakfast of those expectations leads to emotions such as laughter.[citation needed]. Irony is explicitly this form of comedy, whereas slapstick takes more passive social norms relating to physicality and plays with them[citation needed]. In other words, comedy is a sign of a 'bug' in the symbolic make-up of language, as well as a self-correcting mechanism for such bugs[citation needed]. Once the problem in meaning has been described through a joke, people immediately begin correcting their impressions of the symbols that have been mocked. This is one explanation why jokes are often funny only when told the first time. Ironic redirects here. ... For other uses, see Slapstick (disambiguation). ...


Another explanation is that humour frequently contains an unexpected, often sudden, shift in perspective. Nearly anything can be the object of this perspective twist. This, however is in the areas of human creativity (science and art being the other two) that use structure mapping (then termed "bisociation" by Koestler) to create novel meanings[3]. He argues that humour results when two different frames of reference are set up and a collision is engineered between them.


Tony Veale, who is taking a more formalised computational approach than Koestler did, has written on the role of metaphor and metonymy in humour[4][5][6], using inspiration from Koestler as well as from Dedre Gentner´s theory of structure-mapping, George Lakoff´s and Mark Johnson´s theory of conceptual metaphor and Mark Turner´s and Gilles Fauconnier´s theory of conceptual blending. Dedre Gentner is a professor in the Department of Psychology at Northwestern University. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Mark Johnson may refer to: Mark Johnson (professor), philosophy professor Mark Johnson (footballer) (born 1978), Australian rules footballer Mark Johnson (film producer) Mark Johnson (umpire), baseball umpire Mark Johnson (hockey player) (born 1957) Mark Johnson (rugby) Mark Johnson (baseball analyst) Mark Johnson (musician) Mark Johnson (football club director), director of... Conceptual metaphor: In cognitive linguistics, metaphor is defined as understanding one conceptual domain in terms of another conceptual domain; for example, using one persons life experience to understand a different persons experience. ... Mark Turner is a cognitive scientist, linguist, and author. ... Gilles Fauconnier (born August 19, 1944) is a linguist, researcher in cognitive science, and author. ... Conceptual Blending is a theory of cognition[1]. According to the Theory of Conceptual Blending, elements and vital relations from diverse scenarios are blended in a subconscious process. ...


Evolution of humour

As with any form of art, the same goes for humor, acceptance depends on social demographics and varies from person to person. Throughout history comedy has been used as a form of entertainment all over the world, whether in the courts of the kings or the villages of the far east. Both a social etiquette and a certain intelligence can be displayed through forms of wit and sarcasm.18th-century German author Georg Lichtenberg said that "the more you know humour, the more you become demanding in fineness." As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800 in the Gregorian calendar. ... Georg Christoph Lichtenberg. ...


Evolution and humor

Sight gags and language-based humour activate the two regions in the human brain known to have von Economo neurons, a specialization in neuron form that has evolved in the last 15 million years. This suggests that humour may have coevolved with the ability of great apes and humans to navigate through a shifting and complex social space.[7] In comedy, a Sight Gag is anything which conveys its humour visually, often without words being used at all. ... Spindle neurons, also called von Economo neurons (VENs), are a specific class of neurons that participate in signal transmission in the nervous system, and are characterized by a large spindle-shaped soma, gradually tapering into a single apical dendrite (axon) in one direction, with only a single dendrite facing opposite. ...


Humour formulae

Root components:

Methods: Look up surprise in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Misdirection is a form of deception in which the attention of an audience is focused on one thing in order to distract its attention from another. ... Broadly speaking, a contradiction is an incompatibility between two or more statements, ideas, or actions. ... Look up ambiguity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up paradox in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Look up Emotion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Reality (disambiguation). ...

Rowan Atkinson explains in his lecture in the documentary Funny Business".[8], that an object or a person can become funny in three different ways. They are: This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ... Not to be confused with Hyperbola. ... In film, reframing is changing the view of a subject. ... Timing refers to how events are spaced in time. ... Rowan Sebastian Atkinson (born 6 January 1955) is an English comedian, actor and writer, famous for his title roles in the British television comedies Blackadder and Mr. ... Funny Business is a documentary about the craft of comedy in which Rowan Atkinson made an appearance. ...

  • By being in an unusual place
  • By behaving in an unusual way
  • By being the wrong size

Most sight gags fit into one or more of these categories. In comedy, a Sight Gag is anything which conveys its humour visually, often without words being used at all. ...


Humour is also sometimes described as an ingredient in spiritual life. Humour is also the act of being funny. Some synonyms of funny or humour are hilarious, knee-slapping, spiritual, wise-minded, outgoing, and amusing. Some Masters have added it to their teachings in various forms. A famous figure in spiritual humour is the laughing Buddha, who would answer all questions with a laugh[citation needed]. Statue of Hotei from Mampuku-ji in Japan For the Japanese musician, see Tomoyasu Hotei. ...


See also

An anecdote is a short tale narrating an interesting or amusing biographical incident. ... Clowning redirects here. ... A comedy is a dramatic performance of a light and amusing character, usually with a happy conclusion to its plot. ... For the documentary about Jerry Seinfeld, see Comedian (film). ... Comedy film is genre of film in which the main emphasis is on humor. ... Comics (or, less commonly, sequential art) is a form of visual art consisting of images which are commonly combined with text, often in the form of speech balloons or image captions. ... A Feghoot is a short story, ending in an atrocious pun. ... One of the more frequent jokes on the internet is to produce a fake or joke web counter. ... Ironic redirects here. ... A joke is a short story or ironic depiction of a situation communicated with the intent of being humorous. ... Anti-jokes subvert audience/reader/listener expectations of well-worn punchlines. ... An in joke is a joke whose humour is clear only to those people who are in a group that has some prior knowledge (not known by the whole population) that makes the joke humorous. ... Meta-joke refers to three somewhat different, but related categories: self-referential jokes, jokes about jokes (see meta-) also known as metahumor, and joke templates. // This kind of meta-joke is a joke in which the joke itself, or, rather, a certain category of joke, is part of the joke. ... This page lists publications in humor research, with brief annotations. ... The Mark Twain Prize for American Humor is awarded by the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts annually since 1998. ... This equation uses mathematical symbols to write Sex is fun. A mathematical joke is a form of humor which relies on aspects of mathematics or a stereotype of mathematicians to derive humor. ... It has been suggested that Open spots be merged into this article or section. ... Political satire is a subgenre of general satire that specializes in gaining entertainment from politics, politicians and public affairs. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Both outside and within a profession such as law there are jokes which serve to poke fun at the absurdities of the profession. ... Ribaldry is a third, and somewhat neglected, genre of sexual entertainment. ... 1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a good deal of satire of the contemporary social and political scene. ... This photograph, a cow with antlers standing on a pole, is an example of surreal humour. ... Toilet humour or scatological humour is a type of off-colour humour dealing with defecation, urination, regurgitation and other bodily functions. ...

References

  1. ^ Seth Benedict Graham A CULTURAL ANALYSIS OF THE RUSSO-SOVIET ANEKDOT 2003 p.13
  2. ^ Bakhtin, Mikhail. Rabelais and His World [1941, 1965]. Trans. Hélène Iswolsky. Bloomington: Indiana University Press p.12
  3. ^ Koestler, Arthur (1964): "The Act of Creation".
  4. ^ Veale, Tony (2003): "Metaphor and Metonymy: The Cognitive Trump-Cards of Linguistic Humor"[1]
  5. ^ Veale, Tony (2006): "The Cognitive Mechanisms of Adversarial Humor"[2]
  6. ^ Veale, Tony (2004): "Incongruity in Humour: Root Cause of Epiphenomonon?"[3]
  7. ^ Watson KK, Matthews BJ, Allman JM (2007). "Brain activation during sight gags and language-dependent humor". Cereb Cortex 17 (2): 314–24. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhj149. PMID 16514105. 
  8. ^ Rowan Atkinson/David Hinton, Funny Business (tv series), Episode 1 - aired 22 November 1992, UK, Tiger Television Productions

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

Further reading

  • Basu, S (December 1999), "Dialogic ethics and the virtue of humor", Journal of Political Philosophy (Blackwell Publishing Ltd) Vol. 7 (No. 4): 378-403, DOI:10.1111/1467-9760.00082, <http://www.anthrosource.net/doi/abs/10.1525/var.2006.22.1.14>. Retrieved on 2007-07-06 (Abstract)
  • Billig, M. (2005). Laughter and ridicule: Towards a social critique of humour. London: Sage. ISBN 1412911435
  • Bricker, Victoria Reifler (Winter, 1980) The Function of Humor in Zinacantan Journal of Anthropological Research, Vol. 36, No. 4, pp. 411-418
  • Buijzen, Moniek & Valkenburg, Patti M. (2004), "Developing a Typology of Humor in Audiovisual Media", Media Psychology Vol. 6 (No. 2): 147-167, DOI:10.1207/s1532785xmep0602_2, <http://www.leaonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/s1532785xmep0602_2?prevSearch=allfield%3A(buijzen)>(Abstract)
  • Carrell, Amy (2000), Historical views of humour, University of Central Oklahoma. Retrieved on 2007-07-06.
  • García-Barriocanal, Elena; Sicilia, Miguel-Angel & Palomar, David (2005), A Graphical Humor Ontology for Contemporary Cultural Heritage Access, Ctra. Barcelona, km.33.6, 28871 Alcalá de Henares (Madrid), Spain,: University of Alcalá, <http://is2.lse.ac.uk/asp/aspecis/20050064.pdf>. Retrieved on 2007-07-06
  • Goldstein, Jeffrey H., et al. (1976) "Humour, Laughter, and Comedy: A Bibliography of Empirical and Nonempirical Analyses in the English Language." It's a Funny Thing, Humour. Ed. Antony J. Chapman and Hugh C. Foot. Oxford and New York: Pergamon Press, 1976. 469-504.
  • Holland, Norman. (1982) "Bibliography of Theories of Humor." Laughing; A Psychology of Humor. Ithaca: Cornell U P, 209-223.
  • Luttazzi, Daniele (2004) Introduction to his Italian translation of Woody Allen's trilogy Side Effects, Without Feathers and Getting Even (Bompiani, 2004, ISBN 88-452-3304-9 (57-65).
  • Martin, Rod A. (2007). The Psychology Of Humour: An Integrative Approach. London, UK: Elsevier Academic Press. ISBN 13: 978-0-12-372564-6
  • McGhee, Paul E. (1984) "Current American Psychological Research on Humor." Jahrbuche fur Internationale Germanistik 16.2: 37-57.
  • Mintz, Lawrence E., ed. (1988) Humor in America: A Research Guide to Genres and Topics. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1988. ISBN 0313245517; OCLC: 16085479.
  • Mobbs, D., Greicius, M.D.; Abdel-Azim, E., Menon, V. & Reiss, A. L. (2003) "Humor modulates the mesolimbic reward centers". Neuron, 40, 1041-1048.
  • Nilsen, Don L. F. (1992) "Satire in American Literature." Humor in American Literature: A Selected Annotated Bibliography. New York: Garland, 1992. 543-48.
  • Pogel, Nancy, and Paul P. Somers Jr. (1988) "Literary Humor." Humor in America: A Research Guide to Genres and Topics. Ed. Lawrence E. Mintz. London: Greenwood, 1988. 1-34.
  • Roth, G., Yap, R, & Short, D. (2006). "Examining humour in HRD from theoretical and practical perspectives". Human Resource Development International, 9(1), 121-127.
  • Smuts, Aaron. "Humor". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  • Wogan, Peter (Spring 2006), "Laughing At First Contact", Visual Anthropology Review Vol. 22 (No. 1): 14-34, online December 12, 2006, DOI:10.1525/var.2006.22.1.14, <http://www.anthrosource.net/doi/abs/10.1525/var.2006.22.1.14>. Retrieved on 2007-07-06 (Abstract)

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Daniele Luttazzi Daniele Luttazzi (born in Santarcangelo di Romagna, Rimini, January 26, 1961), real name Daniele Fabbri, is an Italian comedian, writer, satirist, illustrator and singer/songwriter. ... In an essay or article, an introduction is a beginning section which states the purpose and goals of the following writing. ... Woody Allen (born Allen Stewart Königsberg on December 1, 1935) is a three-time Academy Award-winning American film director, writer, actor, jazz musician, comedian, and playwright. ... A side-effect is any effect other than an intended primary effect. ... Woody Allens Without Feathers is one of his most well-known literary masterpieces. ... Getting Even was a 1993 rock album released by Greg Ginn on Cruz Records, his first full-length solo album. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links


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