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Encyclopedia > Humoral immunity

Humoral immunity is the aspect of immunity that is mediated by secreted antibodies, produced in the cells of the B lymphocyte lineage (B cell). Secreted antibodies bind to antigens on the surfaces of invading microbes, which flags them for destruction. A request has been made on Wikipedia for this article to be deleted in accordance with the deletion policy. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Lymphocyte A lymphocyte is a small white blood cell (leukocyte). ... B cells are lymphocytes that play a large role in the humoral immune response (as opposed to the cell-mediated immune response). ... An antigen is a substance that stimulates an immune response, especially the production of antibodies. ...

Humoral immunity refers to antibody production, and all the accessory processes that accompany it: Th2 activation and cytokine production, germinal center formation and isotype switching, affinity maturation and memory cell generation. It also refers to the effector functions of antibody, which include pathogen and toxin neutralization, classical complement activation, and opsonin promotion of phagocytosis and pathogen elimination. A T helper cell (sometimes also known as effector T cells or TH cells) are a group of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell or leukocyte) that play a cornerstone role in establishing and maximising the ability of the immune system. ... Cytokines are small protein molecules that regulate communication among immune system cells and between immune cells and those of other tissue types. ... Germinal centers (GC) are an important part of the humoral immune response. ... Isotype - the International System of Typographic Picture Education - was developed by the Austrian educator and philosopher Otto Neurath, along with the illustrator Gerd Arntz. ... Memory cell can refer to Memory B cell, a type of biological cell. ... An effector is a small molecule that binds to a protein and thereby alters the activity of that protein. ... The word complement (with an e in the second syllable, not to be confused with a different word, compliment with an i) has a number of uses. ... An opsonin is any molecule that acts as a binding enhancer for the process of phagocytosis, for example, by coating the negatively-charged molecules on the membrane. ... Phagocytosis (literally, cell eating) is a form of endocytosis where large particles are enveloped by the cell membrane of a (usually larger) cell and internalized to form a phagosome, or food vacuole. ...

B cells need two signals to initiate activation. Most antigens are T-dependent, meaning T cell help is required for maximal antibody production. With a T-dependent antigen, the first signal comes from antigen cross linking BCR and the second from the Th2 cell. T dependent antigens contain protein so that peptides can be presented on B cell Class II MHC to Th2 cells, which then provide co-stimulation to trigger B cell proliferation and differentiation into plasma cells. Isotype switching to IgG, IgA, and IgE and memory cell generation occur in response to T-dependent antigens. BCR may stand for one of the following: British Columbia Railway BCR gene Belarusian Central Rada, a puppet government of Belarus under German occupation during World War II Base Curve Radius, a parameter of a contact lens This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that... The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a large genomic region or gene family found in most vertebrates containing many genes with important immune system roles. ... During the activation of T cells, co-stimulation of molecules is often crucial to the development of an effective immune response. ... Plasma cells are B lymphocytes that secrete immunoglobulins (antibodies). ... Schematic of antibody binding to an antigen An antibody is a protein complex used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. ... IGA may stand for: Koji Igarashi, a video game producer Interactive genetic algorithm International Geothermal Association Independent Glass Association International Gothic Association International Gamers Award International Goat Association Irish Games Association Irish Geological Association ImmunoGlobulin A - see IgA nephritis which is a renal disease IGA (supermarkets) Independent Grocers Association or... IGE (Internet Gaming Entertainment) is a MMORPG Services Company. ...

Some antigens are T-independent, meaning they can deliver both the antigen and the second signal to the B cell. Mice without a thymus (nude or athymic mice) can respond to T-independent antigens. Many bacteria have repeating carbohydrate epitopes that stimulate B cells to respond with IgM synthesis in the absence of T cell help. Mice may refer to: Plural of the word mouse An indie band set up in 1995 by All About Eves Julianne Regan. ... In human anatomy, the thymus is a ductless gland located in the upper anterior portion of the chest cavity. ... The word nude may refer to: The state of nudity. ... An epitope is the part of a foreign organism (or its proteins) that is being recognised by the immune system and targeted by antibodies, cytotoxic T cells or both. ...

T-dependent responses require that B cells and their Th2 cells respond to epitopes on the same antigen. T and B cell epitopes are not necessarily identical. (Once virus-infected cells have been killed and unassembled virus proteins released, B cells specific for internal proteins can also be activated to make opsonizing antibodies to those proteins.) Attaching a carbohydrate to a protein can convert the carbohydrate into a T-dependent antigen; the carbohydrate-specific B cell internalizes the complex and presents peptides to Th2 cells, which in turn activate the B cell to make antibodies specific for the carbohydrate.

Graft rejection ususally triggers CMIR; Incompatitable blood transfusion triggers HIR.

Immune system - edit
Humoral immune system | Cellular immune system | Lymphatic system | White blood cells | Antibodies | Antigen (MHC) | Complement system | Inflammation | Clotting factors

  Results from FactBites:
Humoral Immunity (2277 words)
For humoral immunity, the cells which are amplified (increased in number/stimulated to divide) are those which produce antibody, B cells.
Humoral immunity, thus, is not so much "acquired" as amplified and refined in response to exposure to non-self antigens.
The existence of memory cells is the physiological manifestation of the priming of humoral immunity, i.e., for future recognition of specific antigens.
The Immune System (3705 words)
Antibody-mediated immunity (also known as Humoral immunity) functions primarilly to control "extra-cellular" infectious agents; cell-mediated immunity is generally required to kill intra-cellular infectious agents; and mucosal immunity is necessary for mucosal membranes to resist invasion by infectious agents.
The antibodies responsible for humoral immunity (mainly IgG) are found in the blood stream and tissue fluids, including those tissues under the mucosal surfaces; even though they are helpful in controlling disease agents that have penetrated the mucosal membranes, they are not very effective at controlling infection on the mucosal surfaces.
The activated B-lymphocytes respond as described under humoral immunity; however, the T-lymphocytes respond by dividing to produce daughter cells, by destroying the disease-infected tissue cells, or by secreting chemical messenger molecules that signal the invasion of additional susceptible cells by the disease organism or direct and encourage macrophages to destroy the disease-infected cell.
  More results at FactBites »



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