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Encyclopedia > Hummingbird
Hummingbird
A variety of hummingbirds from Ernst Haeckel's 1904 Kunstformen der Natur (Artforms of Nature)
A variety of hummingbirds from Ernst Haeckel's 1904 Kunstformen der Natur (Artforms of Nature)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Subclass: Neornithes
Infraclass: Neognathae
(unranked) Cypselomorphae
Superorder: Neoaves
Order: Apodiformes
Family: Trochilidae
Vigors, 1825
Subfamilies

Phaethornithinae
Trochilinae
Image File history File links Acap. ... Look up hummingbird in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2359x3308, 1982 KB) Summary The 99th plate illustration from Ernst Haeckels Kunstformen der Natur (1904), showing a variety of hummingbirds. ... Ernst Haeckel. ... The 8th print, Discomedusae. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... Phyla Subkingdom Parazoa Porifera (sponges) Subkingdom Agnotozoa Placozoa Orthonectida Rhombozoa Subkingdom Metazoa Radiata Cnidaria Ctenophora - Comb jellies Bilateria Protostomia Acoelomorpha Platyhelminthes - Flatworms Nemertina - Ribbon worms Gastrotricha Gnathostomulida - Jawed worms Micrognathozoa Rotifera - Rotifers Acanthocephala Priapulida Kinorhyncha Loricifera Entoprocta Nematoda - Roundworms Nematomorpha - Horsehair worms Cycliophora Mollusca - Mollusks Sipuncula - Peanut worms Annelida - Segmented... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... Orders Many - see section below. ... Orders Anseriformes, waterfowl Galliformes, fowl Gaviiformes, loons Podicipediformes, grebes Procellariiformes, albatrosses, petrels, and allies Sphenisciformes, penguins Pelecaniformes, pelicans and allies Ciconiiformes, storks and allies Phoenicopteriformes, flamingos Accipitriformes, eagles, hawks and allies Falconiformes, falcons Turniciformes, button-quail Gruiformes, cranes and allies Charadriiformes, plovers and allies Pteroclidiformes, sandgrouse Columbiformes, doves and pigeons... Families Apodidae Hemiprocnidae Traditionally, the bird order Apodiformes contained three families: the swifts, Apodidae, the tree swifts, Hemiprocnidae, and the hummingbirds, Trochilidae. ... Nicholas Aylward Vigors (1785 – October 26, 1840) was an Irish zoologist and politician. ... Genera Phaethornis Ramphodon Eutoxeres Glaucis Threnetes Anopetia The Hermits are tropical hummingbirds in the subfamily Phaethornithinae, comprising about 34 species in six genera. ... Trochilinae is a subfamily of the family Trochilidae, or Hummingbirds. ...


For a taxonomic list of genera, see:

For an alphabetic species list, see: Subfamily Phaethornithinae White-whiskered Hermit, Phaethornis yaruqui Green Hermit, Phaethornis guy White-bearded Hermit, Phaethornis hispidus Western Long-tailed Hermit, Phaethornis longirostris Eastern Long-tailed Hermit, Phaethornis superciliosus Great-billed Hermit, Phaethornis malaris Tawny-bellied Hermit, Phaethornis syrmatophorus Koepckes Hermit, Phaethornis koepckeae Needle-billed Hermit, Phaethornis philippii Straight-billed...


Hummingbirds are birds of the family Trochilidae, and are native only to the Americas. They are known for their ability to hover in mid-air by rapidly flapping their wings 15–80 times per second (depending on the species). Capable of sustained hovering, the hummingbird also has the ability to fly backwards, being the only group of birds able to do so[1]. Hummingbirds may also fly vertically or horizontally, and are capable of maintaining a position while drinking nectar or eating tiny arthropods from flower blossoms. Their English name derives from the characteristic hum made by their wings. This is a complete list of hummingbirds in alphabetical, rather than taxonomic order. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Levitation is the process by which an object is suspended against gravity, in a stable position, by a force without physical contact. ... For other uses, see Wing (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, nectar and ambrosia are the food of the gods. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - Trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - Spiders, Scorpions, etc. ... Alternate meanings: See Blossom (disambiguation) Cherry blossom Blossom is a term given to the flowers of stone fruit trees (Genus Prunus) and of some other small plants with a similar appearance that flower profusely but for a short period of time. ... A hum is a sound made by singing a wordless tone with the mouth completely closed, forcing the sound to emerge from the nose. ...

Contents

Appearance

A hummingbird with its tongue out.
A hummingbird with its tongue out.

Hummingbirds are small birds with long, thin bills. The bill combined with an extendable, bifurcated tongue, has evolved in order to allow the bird to feed upon nectar deep within flowers. The bill can be opened wide, and the lower half (mandible) also has the ability to flex downward to create an even wider opening, facilitating the capture of flying insects in the mouth rather than at the tip of the bill.[2] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1728 × 1152 pixel, file size: 173 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1728 × 1152 pixel, file size: 173 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The beak, bill or rostrum is an external anatomical structure of birds which, in addition to eating, is used for grooming, manipulating objects, killing prey, probing for food, courtship, and feeding their young. ... A forked tongue is a tongue split into two distinct ends at the tip. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... In Greek mythology, nectar and ambrosia are the food of the gods. ... The mandible (from Latin mandibŭla, jawbone) or inferior maxillary bone is, together with the maxilla, the largest and strongest bone of the face. ...

The Bee Hummingbird (Mellisuga helenae) is the smallest bird in the world, weighing 1.8 grams (0.06 ounces) and measuring about 5 cm (2 inches). A typical North American hummingbird, such as the Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus), weighs approximately 3 g (0.106 ounces) and has a length of 10–12 cm (3.5–4 inches). The largest hummingbird is the Giant Hummingbird (Patagona gigas), with some individuals weighing as much as 24 grams (0.85 ounces) and measuring 21.5 cm (8.5 inches). Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1728 × 1152 pixel, file size: 365 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1728 × 1152 pixel, file size: 365 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The iridescence of the Blue Morpho butterfly wings. ... Closeup on a single white feather A feather is one of the epidermal growths that forms the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on a bird. ... Binomial name (Lesson, 1829) The Annas Hummingbird (Calypte anna) is a medium-sized hummingbird. ... Binomial name Mellisuga helenae (Lembeye, 1850) The Bee Hummingbird (Mellisuga helenae) is a hummingbird, and the smallest of all birds (with the male being smaller than the female of the species). ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ... Binomial name Selasphorus rufus (Gmelin, 1788) The Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) is a small hummingbird. ... Binomial name Patagona gigas (Vieillot, 1824) The Giant Hummingbird (Patagona gigas) is the largest member of the hummingbird family, weighing 18-20 g (6/10 - 7/10 of an ounce). ...


Most species exhibit conspicuous sexual dimorphism, with males more brightly colored and females displaying more cryptic coloration. [3] Iridescent plumage is present in both sexes of most species, with green being the most common color. Highly modified structures within certain feathers, usually concentrated on the head and breast, produce intense metallic iridescence in a rainbow of colors. Female (left) and male Common Pheasant, illustrating the dramatic difference in both color and size, between the sexes Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species. ... This article is about protective camouflage used to disguise people, animals, or military targets. ... The iridescence of the Blue Morpho butterfly wings. ... The iridescence of the Blue Morpho butterfly wings. ...


Feeding

Hummingbird at a flower.
Hummingbird at a flower.

Hummingbirds feed on the nectar of plants and are important pollinators, especially of deep-throated, tubular flowers. Like bees, they are able to assess the amount of sugar in the nectar they eat; they reject flower types that produce nectar which is less than 12% sugar and prefer those whose sugar content is around 25%. Nectar is a poor source of nutrients, so hummingbirds meet their needs for protein, amino acids, vitamins, minerals, etc. by preying on insects and spiders, especially when feeding young. Nectar of camellia Nectar, in botany, is a sugar-rich liquid produced by the flowers of plants in order to attract pollinating animals. ... A pollinator is the agent that moves pollen from the male anthers of a flower to the female stigma of a flower to accomplish fertilization or syngamy of the female gamete in the ovule of the flower by the male gamete from the pollen grain. ... Nutrients and the body A nutrient is any element or compound necessary for or contributing to an organisms metabolism, growth, or other functioning. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... In chemistry, an amino acid is any molecule that contains both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups. ... Retinol (Vitamin A) Vitamins are nutrients required in very small amounts for essential metabolic reactions in the body [1]. The term vitamin does not encompass other essential nutrients such as dietary minerals, essential fatty acids, or essential amino acids. ... Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... For other uses, see Spider (disambiguation). ...


Most hummingbirds have bills that are long and straight or nearly so, but in some species the bill shape is adapted for specialized feeding. Thornbills have short, sharp bills adapted for feeding from flowers with short corollas and piercing the bases of longer ones. The Sicklebills' extremely decurved bills are adapted to extracting nectar from the curved corollas of flowers in the family Gesneriaceae. The bill of the Fiery-tailed Awlbill has an upturned tip, as in the Avocets. The male Tooth-billed Hummingbird has barracuda-like spikes at the tip of its long, straight bill. Species Mountain Thornbill, Acanthiza katherina Brown Thornbill, Acanthiza pusilla Inland Thornbill, Acanthiza apicalis Tasmanian Thornbill, Acanthiza ewingii Chestnut-rumped Thornbill, Acanthiza uropygialis Slaty-backed Thornbill, Acanthiza robustirostris Western Thornbill, Acanthiza inornata Buff-rumped Thornbill, Acanthiza reguloides Slender-billed Thornbill, Acanthiza iredalei Yellow-rumped Thornbill, Acanthiza chrysorrhoa Yellow Thornbill, Acanthiza nana... Genera See text. ... Species Recurvirostra avosetta Recurvirostra americana Recurvirostra novaehollandiae Recurvirostra andina The four species of Avocets are waders in the same bird family as the stilts. ...


The two halves of a hummingbird's bill have a pronounced overlap, with the lower half (mandible) fitting tightly inside the upper half (maxilla). When hummingbirds feed on nectar, the bill is usually only opened slightly, allowing the tongue to dart out and into the interior of flowers. The mandible (from Latin mandibÅ­la, jawbone) or inferior maxillary bone is, together with the maxilla, the largest and strongest bone of the face. ... The maxilla (plural: maxillae) is a fusion of two bones along the palatal fissure that form the upper jaw. ...


Hummingbirds do not spend all day flying, as the energy costs of this would be prohibitive. In fact, they spend most of their lives sitting, perching and watching the world. Hummingbirds feed in many small meals, consuming up to their own body weight in nectar and insects per day. They spend an average 10%-15% of their time feeding and 75%-80% sitting, digesting and watching. Obtaining this much food requires a lot of work. Scientists have recorded a Costa's Hummingbirds making 42 feeding flights in 6-5 hours, during which time it visited 1,311 flowers.


Co-evolution with ornithophilous flowers

Hummingbirds are specialized nectarivores (Stiles, 1981) and are tied to the ornithophilous flowers they feed upon. Some species, especially those with unusual bill shapes such as the Sword-billed Hummingbird and the sicklebills, are coevolved with a small number of flower species. A Broad-tailed Hummingbird feeding on nectar In zoology, a nectarivore is an animal which eats the sugar-rich nectar produced by flowering plants. ... Biologists that study plant morphology use a number of different terms to describe plant organs and parts that can be observed with the human eye using no more than a hand held magnifying lens. ... Binomial name Ensifera ensifera (Boissonneau, 1840) Sword-billed Hummingbird (Ensifera ensifera) is a species of hummingbird from South America and the sole member of the genus Ensifera. ... Bumblebees and the flowers they pollinate have co-evolved so that both have become dependent on each other for survival. ...


Many plants pollinated by hummingbirds produce flowers in shades of red, orange, and bright pink, though the birds will take nectar from flowers of many colors. Hummingbirds can see wavelengths into the near-ultraviolet, but their flowers do not reflect these wavelengths as many insect-pollinated flowers do. This narrow color spectrum may render hummingbird-pollinated flowers relatively inconspicuous to most insects, thereby reducing nectar robbing. [4] [5] Hummingbird-pollinated flowers also produce relatively weak nectar (averaging 25% sugars w/w) containing high concentrations of sucrose, whereas insect-pollinated flowers typically produce more concentrated nectars dominated by fructose and glucose.[6] For other uses, see Red (disambiguation). ... The orange, the fruit from which the modern name of the orange colour comes. ... This article is about the color. ... For other uses, see Wavelength (disambiguation). ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ... The optical spectrum (light or visible spectrum) is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye. ... Nectar robbing refers to an insect (or other visitor, such as a bird) visiting a flowering plant and removing nectar without pollinating the plant, for example by drilling a hole in the corolla. ... In Greek mythology, nectar and ambrosia are the food of the gods. ... Flash point N/A Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Sucrose (common name: table sugar, also called saccharose) is a disaccharide (glucose + fructose) with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ... Fructose (also levulose or laevulose) is a simple reducing sugar (monosaccharide) found in many foods and is one of the three most important blood sugars along with glucose and galactose. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ...


Aerodynamics of flight

A trail of wake vorticies generated by a hummingbird's flight. Discovered after training a bird to fly through a cloud of neutrally buoyant helium-filled soap bubbles and recording airflows in the wake with stereo photography.
A trail of wake vorticies generated by a hummingbird's flight. Discovered after training a bird to fly through a cloud of neutrally buoyant helium-filled soap bubbles and recording airflows in the wake with stereo photography.[7]
Female Black-chinned Hummingbird
Female Black-chinned Hummingbird

Hummingbird flight has been studied intensively from an aerodynamic perspective using wind tunnels and high-speed video cameras. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Vortex created by the passage of an aircraft wing, revealed by coloured smoke A vortex (pl. ... Stereoscopy, stereoscopic imaging or 3-D (three-dimensional) imaging is a technique to create the illusion of depth in a photograph, movie, or other two-dimensional image, by presenting a slightly different image to each eye. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1536x1024, 591 KB) Archilochus alexandri en: Black-chinned Hummingbird (female) Other versions Edit to reduce noise for Image:Archilochus-alexandri-002. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1536x1024, 591 KB) Archilochus alexandri en: Black-chinned Hummingbird (female) Other versions Edit to reduce noise for Image:Archilochus-alexandri-002. ... Binomial name Archilochus alexandri (Bourcier & Mulsant, 1846) The Black-chinned Hummingbird, Archilochus alexandri, is a small hummingbird. ... For the Daft Punk song, see Aerodynamic (song). ... Video cameras are used primarily in two modes. ...


Writing in Nature, the biomechanist Douglas Warrick and coworkers studied the Rufous Hummingbird, Selasphorus rufus, in a wind tunnel using particle image velocimetry techniques and investigated the lift generated on the bird's upstroke and downstroke. Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ... Biophysics (also biological physics) is an interdisciplinary science that applies the theories and methods of physics, to questions of biology. ... Douglas Warrick is an assistant professor in biophysics at the zoology department of Oregon State University, working in bird flight, especially hummingbirds and pigeons. ... Binomial name Selasphorus rufus (Gmelin, 1788) The Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) is a small hummingbird. ... NASA wind tunnel with the model of a plane A wind tunnel is a research tool developed to assist with studying the effects of air moving over or around solid objects. ... Particle Image velocimetry (PIV) is an optical method used to measure velocities and related properties in fluids. ...


They concluded that their subjects produced 75% of their weight support during the down-stroke and 25% during the up-stroke: many earlier studies had assumed (implicitly or explicitly) that lift was generated equally during the two phases of the wingbeat cycle, as is the case of insects of a similar size. This finding shows that hummingbirds' hovering is similar to, but distinct from, that of hovering insects such as the hawk moths. [8] The force lift, or simply lift, is a mechanical force generated by solid objects as they move through a fluid. ... Genera Macroglossinae Smerinthinae Sphinginae etc. ...


The Giant Hummingbird's wings beat at 8–10 beats per second, the wings of medium-sized hummingbirds beat about 20–25 beats per second and the smallest beat 70 beats per second.


Metabolism

Anna's Hummingbird, Calypte anna performs personal grooming
Anna's Hummingbird, Calypte anna performs personal grooming

With the exception of insects, hummingbirds while in flight have the highest metabolism of all animals, a necessity in order to support the rapid beating of their wings. Their heart rate can reach as high as 1,260 beats per minute, a rate once measured in a Blue-throated Hummingbird [1]. They also typically consume more than their own weight in nectar each day, and to do so they must visit hundreds of flowers daily. At any given moment, they are only hours away from starving. Binomial name (Lesson, 1829) The Annas Hummingbird (Calypte anna) is a medium-sized hummingbird. ... A domestic cat grooming itself by licking its fur clean Personal grooming, sometimes called preening, or simply grooming, is the art of cleaning, grooming, and maintaining parts of the body. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... Heart rate is the frequency of the cardiac cycle. ... Binomial name Lampornis clemenciae (Lesson, 1829) The Blue-Throated Hummingbird, Lampornis clemenciae, is a species of hummingbird, a family of small passerine birds. ...


However, they are capable of slowing down their metabolism at night, or any other time food is not readily available. They enter a hibernation-like state known as torpor. During torpor, the heart rate and rate of breathing are both slowed dramatically (the heart rate to roughly 50–180 beats per minute), reducing their need for food. Most organisms with very rapid metabolism have short lifespans; however hummingbirds have been known to survive in captivity for as long as 17 years. This article refers to the process of hibernation in biology. ... Torpor is a state of regulated hypothermia in an endotherm lasting for periods ranging from just a few hours to several months. ...


Studies of hummingbirds' metabolism are highly relevant to the question of whether a migrating Ruby-throated Hummingbird can cross 800 km (500 miles) of the Gulf of Mexico on a nonstop flight, as field observations suggest it does. This hummingbird, like other birds preparing to migrate, stores up fat to serve as fuel, thereby augmenting its weight by as much as 100 percent and hence increasing the bird's potential flying time.[9] Flock of Barnacle Geese during autumn migration Bird migration refers to the regular seasonal journeys undertaken by many species of birds. ... Binomial name Archilochus colubris (Linnaeus, 1758) The Ruby-throated Hummingbird, Archilochus colubris, is a small hummingbird. ... “km” redirects here. ... A mile is any of several units of distance, or, in physics terminology, of length. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ...


Range

Hummingbirds are found only in the Americas, from southern Alaska and Canada to Tierra del Fuego, including the Caribbean. The majority of species occur in tropical Central and South America, but several species also breed in temperate areas. Only the migratory Ruby-throated Hummingbird breeds in continental North America east of the Mississippi River and Great Lakes. The Black-chinned Hummingbird, its close relative and another migrant, is the most widespread and common species in the western United States, while the Rufous Hummingbird is the most widespread species in western Canada. [10] World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Tierra del Fuego Cerro Sombrero Village, Chile. ... West Indies redirects here. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Binomial name Archilochus colubris (Linnaeus, 1758) The Ruby-throated Hummingbird, Archilochus colubris, is a small hummingbird. ... North American redirects here. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... Binomial name Archilochus alexandri (Bourcier & Mulsant, 1846) The Black-chinned Hummingbird, Archilochus alexandri, is a small hummingbird. ... Binomial name Selasphorus rufus (Gmelin, 1788) The Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) is a small hummingbird. ...


Most hummingbirds of the U.S. and Canada migrate south in fall to spend the northern winter in Mexico or Central America. A few southern South American species also move to the tropics in the southern winter. A few species are year-round residents in the warmer coastal and interior desert regions. Among these is Anna's Hummingbird, a common resident from southern California inland to southern Arizona and north to southwestern British Columbia. For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Lesson, 1829) The Annas Hummingbird (Calypte anna) is a medium-sized hummingbird. ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944...


The Rufous Hummingbird is one of several species that breed in western North America and are wintering in increasing numbers in the southeastern United States, rather than in tropical Mexico. Thanks in part to artificial feeders and winter-blooming gardens, hummingbirds formerly considered doomed by faulty navigational instincts are surviving northern winters and even returning to the same gardens year after year. Individuals that survive winters in the north may have altered internal navigation instincts that could be passed on to their offspring. The Rufous Hummingbird nests farther north than any other species and must tolerate temperatures below freezing on its breeding grounds. This cold hardiness enables it to survive temperatures well below freezing, provided that adequate shelter and feeders are available. Binomial name Selasphorus rufus (Gmelin, 1788) The Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) is a small hummingbird. ... Binomial name Selasphorus rufus (Gmelin, 1788) The Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) is a small hummingbird. ...


Reproduction

Hummingbird nest with two chicks in Santa Monica, California
Calliope Hummingbird feeding two chicks in Grand Teton National Park

As far as is known, male hummingbirds do not take part in nesting. Most species make a cup-shaped nest on the branch of a tree or shrub. Two white eggs are laid, which despite being the smallest of all bird eggs, are in fact large relative to the hummingbird's adult size. Incubation is typically 12–19 days. The nest varies in size relative to species, from smaller than half of a walnut shell to several centimeters in diameter. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1769 KB) Summary Hummingbird nest with two chicks in Santa Monica, CA. Photo taken June 26, 2006. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1769 KB) Summary Hummingbird nest with two chicks in Santa Monica, CA. Photo taken June 26, 2006. ... For other uses, see Santa Monica (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1365 pixel, file size: 608 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1365 pixel, file size: 608 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Grand Teton National Park is a United States National Park located in western Wyoming, south of Yellowstone National Park. ... The word incubate in the context of birds refers to the development of the chick (embryo) within the egg and the constant temperature required for the development of it over a specific period. ... For other uses, see Walnut (disambiguation). ...


Systematics and evolution

Hummingbird feather
Hummingbird feather

Traditionally, hummingbirds are placed in the order Apodiformes, which also contains the swifts, though some taxonomists have separated them into their own order, Trochiliformes. Hummingbirds' wings are hollow and fragile, making fossilization difficult and leaving their evolutionary history a mystery. Some scientists also believe that the hummingbird evolved relatively recently. Scientists also theorize that hummingbirds originated in South America, where there is the greatest species diversity. Brazil, Peru and Ecuador contain over half of the known species. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 712 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (736 × 620 pixel, file size: 252 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 712 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (736 × 620 pixel, file size: 252 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Families Apodidae Hemiprocnidae Traditionally, the bird order Apodiformes contained three families: the swifts, Apodidae, the tree swifts, Hemiprocnidae, and the hummingbirds, Trochilidae. ... For other uses, see Swift (disambiguation). ... For the Australian jangle pop band, see The Hummingbirds. ...


There are between 325 and 340 species of hummingbird, depending on taxonomic viewpoint, historically divided into two subfamilies, the hermits (subfamily Phaethornithinae, 34 species in six genera), and the typical hummingbirds (subfamily Trochilinae, all the others). However, recent phylogenetic analyses by McGuire et al. (2007) suggest that this division is slightly inaccurate, and that there are nine major clades of hummingbirds: the Topazes, the Hermits, the Mangoes, the Coquettes, the Brilliants, the Giant Hummingbird (Patagonia gigas), the Mountain Gems, the Bees, and the Emeralds. The Topazes (Topaza pella and Florisuga mellivora) have the oldest split with the rest of the hummingbirds. Genera Phaethornis Ramphodon Eutoxeres Glaucis Threnetes Anopetia The Hermits are tropical hummingbirds in the subfamily Phaethornithinae, comprising about 34 species in six genera. ... Genera Ramphodon Eutoxeres Glaucis Threnetes Anopetia Phaethornis The Hermits are tropical hummingbirds in the subfamily Phaethornithinae, comprising about 34 species in six genera. ... Trochilinae is a subfamily of the family Trochilidae, or Hummingbirds. ... Binomial name Florisuga mellivora (Linnaeus, 1758) The White-necked Jacobin (Florisuga mellivora) is a large and attractive hummingbird that ranges from Mexico south to Peru, Bolivia and south Brazil. ...


Genetic analysis[citation needed] has indicated that the hummingbird lineage diverged from their closest relatives some 35 million years ago, in the Late Eocene, but fossil evidence is limited. Fossil hummingbirds are known from the Pleistocene of Brazil and the Bahamas—though neither has yet been scientifically described—and there are fossils and subfossils of a few extant species known, but until recently, older fossils had not been securely identifiable as hummingbirds. hfajhfiudshfas == == == --24. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... [--168. ...


The modern diversity of hummingbirds is thought by evolutionary biologists to have evolved in South America, as the great majority of the species are found there. However, the ancestor of extant hummingbirds may have lived in parts of Europe to what is southern Russia today.


In 2004, Dr. Gerald Mayr of the Senckenberg Museum in Frankfurt am Main identified two 30-million-year-old hummingbird fossils and published his results in Nature.[11] The fossils of this primitive hummingbird species, named Eurotrochilus inexpectatus ("unexpected European hummingbird"), had been sitting in a museum drawer in Stuttgart; they had been unearthed in a clay pit at Wiesloch-Frauenweiler, south of Heidelberg, Germany and, because it was assumed that hummingbirds never occurred outside the Americas, were not recognized to be hummingbirds until Mayr took a closer look at them. T. Rex The Senckenberg Museum in Frankfurt is the largest museum of natural history in Germany. ... Frankfurt am Main [ˈfraŋkfʊrt] is the largest city in the German state of Hessen and the fifth largest city of Germany. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ... For other uses, see Stuttgart (disambiguation). ... Wiesloch is a city in Germany, in northern Baden-Württemberg, it is 13 kilometres in the south of Heidelberg. ... For other uses, see Heidelberg (disambiguation). ...


Fossils of birds not clearly assignable to either hummingbirds or a related, extinct family, the Jungornithidae, have been found at the Messel pit and in the Caucasus, dating from 40–35 mya, indicating that the split between these two lineages indeed occurred at that date. The areas where these early fossils have been found had a climate quite similar to the northern Caribbean or southernmost China during that time. The biggest remaining mystery at the present time is what happened to hummingbirds in the roughly 25 million years between the primitive Eurotrochilus and the modern fossils. The astounding morphological adaptations, the decrease in size, and the dispersal to the Americas and extinction in Eurasia all occurred during this timespan. DNA-DNA hybridization results [12] suggest that the main radiation of South American hummingbirds at least partly took place in the Miocene, some 12–13 mya, during the uplifting of the northern Andes. The Messel Pit is a disused quarry in which bituminous shale was mined. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... For other uses of mya, see mya (disambiguation). ... West Indies redirects here. ... DNA-DNA hybridization is a method in genetics to measure the degree of genetic similarity between DNA sequences. ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ...


Lists of species and genera

This is a complete list of hummingbirds in alphabetical, rather than taxonomic order. ... Subfamily Phaethornithinae White-whiskered Hermit, Phaethornis yaruqui Green Hermit, Phaethornis guy White-bearded Hermit, Phaethornis hispidus Western Long-tailed Hermit, Phaethornis longirostris Eastern Long-tailed Hermit, Phaethornis superciliosus Great-billed Hermit, Phaethornis malaris Tawny-bellied Hermit, Phaethornis syrmatophorus Koepckes Hermit, Phaethornis koepckeae Needle-billed Hermit, Phaethornis philippii Straight-billed...

Hummingbirds and humans

Their relatively small size, brilliant colors, fearless personalities, and remarkable mode of flight have won hummingbirds nearly universal admiration from humans. They do not harm crops or livestock, make loud noises, foul cars or buildings with their droppings, or bite when handled, making them among the most benign of all birds.


Hummingbirds have not always benefited from this admiration. Their beauty and novelty made them popular with commercial and scientific collectors in the 19th century; many fashionable parlors were decorated with glass cases containing preserved specimens of hummingbirds and other colorful tropical species. Their demanding dietary requirements and high metabolism kept them from becoming popular as pets, though many have been imported into Europe and the United States for zoos and private aviaries.


Habitat destruction and climate change are the most pervasive threats to all hummingbirds, but other human-related causes of hummingbird mortality include pesticide poisoning; collisions with windows, cars, utility lines, and transmission towers; predation by domestic cats; electrocution on electric fences; and entanglement in the hooked spines of burdock, an alien weed. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Hummingbirds sometimes fly into buildings, especially garages, possibly while investigating brightly colored objects such as flower arrangements, floral draperies, and emergency release handles for automatic garage doors. Once inside, they may be unable to escape because their natural instinct when threatened or trapped is to fly upward. This is a life-threatening situation for hummingbirds, as they can become exhausted and die in a relatively short period of time, possibly as little as an hour. It is usually difficult to catch a trapped hummingbird until it is exhausted, and handling such small birds requires extreme delicacy of touch. Sometimes a trapped hummingbird will land on a broom or a long branch if it is moved very carefully into a position near the bird. Once relaxed on the perch, the bird may remain long enough to allow itself to be carried outside to safety. A more time-consuming but less traumatic alternative is to place a feeder near where the trapped bird is flying or perching, waiting until it begins using the feeder, then moving the feeder a few feet at a time toward an open door or window. Once the feeder is hanging in the opening, the bird should notice the escape route on its own. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Instinct (disambiguation). ...


Hummingbird Gardens

The diet of hummingbirds requires an energy source (typically nectar) and a protein source (typically small insects). Providing suitable nectar-producing plants in a pesticide-free garden is the safest and most convenient way to provide both the energy and other nutrition that hummingbirds need. In Greek mythology, nectar and ambrosia are the food of the gods. ...


Hummingbirds may visit almost any colorful garden flower in search of nectar, but not all flowers produce the amount or type of nectar that they need. Commonly cultivated ornamental plants that make excellent additions to hummingbird gardens include: For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ...

Large woody plants that attract hummingbirds include red buckeye, trumpet vine, coral trees (Erythrina), and ocotillo. Binomial name Monarda didyma L. Monarda didyma (Bergamot, Scarlet Monarda, Oswego Tea, or Crimson Beebalm) is an aromatic herb in the family Lamiaceae, native to eastern North America from Maine west to Ohio and south to northern Georgia. ... Binomial name Lobelia cardinalis Lobelia cardinalis, the Cardinal Flower, is a perennial that grows 2-4 feet tall and is found in wet places, streambanks, and swamps. ... Species 19 classified species, see list below Canna (or Canna lily, although not a true lily) is a genus of nineteen species of flowering plants, the only genus in the family Cannaceae. ... Binomial name (Pursh) Poir. ... For other things of this name, see Columbine (disambiguation). ... Species see List of Salvia species Salvia is a genus of plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae. ... Binomial name Salvia splendens Sellow ex J.A. Schultes Salvia splendens (Scarlet Sage or Tropical Sage) is a species of sage native to Brazil. ... Binomial name Salvia greggii, commonly known as Autumn Sage, is a species of sage (genus Salvia) native to Texas and Mexico. ... Hummingbird sage is a name applied to at least two species of sages, Salvia spathacea and Salvia guaranitica. ... Species See text. ... Penstemon is a large genus of North American (and East Asian) plants traditionally placed in the Scrophulariaceae family. ... Binomial name Kniphofia uvaria L. Kniphofia uvaria is also known as Torch Lily or Red Hot Poker due to the shape and color of its inflorescence. ... Not to be confused with Fascia. ... For other uses, see Verbena (disambiguation). ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... Species Over 200 species Hibiscus, or rosemallow, is a large genus of about 200–220 species of flowering plants in the family Malvaceae, native to warm temperate, subtropical and tropical regions throughout the world. ... Species Malvaviscus arboreus Malvaviscus penduliflorus The Genus Malvaviscus includes three species of shrubs from tropical America placed in the Family Malvaceae. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Aesculus pavia L. Red Buckeye (Aesculus pavia), is a small deciduous tree or shrub native to the southern and eastern parts of the United States, found from Illinois to Virginia in the north and from Texas to Florida in the south. ... Binomial name Campsis radicans Seem. ... Species Over 100, see text Erythrina is a genus of tropical and subtropical flowering trees in the Family Fabaceae and distributed in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. ... Binomial name Fouquieria splendens The ocotillo, Fouquieria splendens, is a curious desert plant of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. ...


The location, climate, and growing season of the garden will determine the list of plants suitable for attracting hummingbirds. Ideally, the selection should include species and varieties that bloom throughout the season when hummingbirds are present. Placing the plants near windows porches, or patios affords a good view of the birds. Where space is limited, smaller plant species can be grown in pots, window boxes, and hanging baskets.


Feeders and artificial nectar

Hummingbirds will also take sugar water from artificial feeders. Such feeders allow people to observe and enjoy hummingbirds up close while providing the birds with a reliable source of energy, especially when flower blossoms are less abundant. A hummingbird feeder - dye should not be used in the liquid provided Bushtits on a suet feeder An empty bird-seed dispenser A birdfeeder, bird feeder, or bird table is a device placed out-of-doors to supply bird food to birds. ...

Hummingbirds will either hover or perch to feed; red feeders are preferred, but colored liquid is not necessary and may be hazardous to their health.
Hummingbirds will either hover or perch to feed; red feeders are preferred, but colored liquid is not necessary and may be hazardous to their health.
Hummingbird hovering to feed at a red feeder with yellow "flowers"
Hummingbird hovering to feed at a red feeder with yellow "flowers"

Homemade "nectar" can be made by adding 1 part white, granulated table sugar to 3 to 5 parts water. Brief boiling will dissolve the sugar more quickly and may slow spoilage of the solution. Once cooled, the nectar is ready to pour into a clean feeder. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3488 × 2616 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3488 × 2616 pixel, file size: 1. ...


Only white granulated sugar is proven safe to use in hummingbird feeders. Powdered sugars contain corn starch as an anti-caking agent; this additive can contribute to premature fermentation of the solution. Brown, turbinado, and "raw" sugars contain iron, which can be deadly to hummingbirds if consumed over long periods[13]. Honey is made by bees from the nectar of flowers, but it contains sugars that are less palatable to hummingbirds and promotes the growth of microorganisms that may be dangerous to their health.[14] [15] Baker's or caster sugar is extra-fine granulated sugar and is safe to use; it is more expensive than ordinary table sugar but dissolves more quickly. For other uses, see Honey (disambiguation). ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ...


Other things to avoid using in feeders include artificial sweeteners and non-nutritive sweeteners such as saccharin (Sweet'N Low), aspartame (Equal), sucralose (Splenda), and stevia. Though hummingbirds might drink feeder solutions containing these sugar substitutes, they will be starved of the calories they need to sustain their metabolism. Red food dye is often added to homemade solutions, and commercial products sold as "instant nectar" or "hummingbird food" may also contain preservatives and/or artificial flavors as well as dyes. These additives have not been studied for long-term effects on hummingbirds, but studies on laboratory animals indicate the potential to cause disease and premature mortality at high consumption rates.[16]. While it is true that bright colors, especially red, initially attract hummingbirds more quickly than others, it is better to use a feeder that has extensive red on it, rather than coloring the liquid offered in it. Some commercial products contain small amounts of nutritional additives, but hummingbirds get all the nutrients they need from the insects they eat, not from nectar, so the added nutrients also are unnecessary.[17] Authorities on hummingbirds recommend that if you use a feeder, use just plain sugar and water.[18][19] Sugar free redirects here. ... Saccharin[2] is the oldest artificial sweetener. ... Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Aspartame (or APM) (pronounced or ) is the name for an artificial, non-saccharide sweetener, aspartyl-phenylalanine-1-methyl ester; i. ... Sucralose is an artificial sweetener. ... Species About 150 species, including: Stevia eupatoria Stevia ovata Stevia plummerae Stevia rebaudiana Stevia salicifolia Stevia serrata Stevia is a genus of about 150 species of herbs and shrubs in the sunflower family (Asteraceae), native to subtropical and tropical South America and Central America. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


A hummingbird feeder should be easy to refill and keep clean. Prepared sugar water can be refrigerated for 1–2 weeks before being used, but once placed outdoors it will only remain fresh for 2–4 days in hot weather, or 4–6 days in moderate weather, before turning cloudy or developing mold. Sugar water may develop significant growth of yeasts and other microorganisms before turning cloudy, so feeders should be cleaned and refilled on a regular schedule even if there is no visible contamination. If the feeder is in a shady area, the solution will last longer without spoiling.


Maintaining cleanliness of the feeder is essential for the health of the birds. When changing the sugar water, the feeder should be rinsed thoroughly with warm tap water, flushing the reservoir and ports to remove any contamination or sugar build-up. If dish soap is used, it always needs extra rinsing so that no residue is left behind. The feeder can be soaked in diluted chlorine bleach if black specks of mold appear and rinsed with clear water.


Other animals are also attracted to hummingbird feeders. It is a good idea to get a feeder that has very narrow ports, or ports with mesh-like "bee guards", to prevent bees and wasps from getting to the sugar water or crawling inside where they get trapped. Orioles, woodpeckers, bananaquits, and other animals are known to drink from hummingbird feeders, sometimes tipping them and draining the liquid. If this becomes a problem, it is possible to buy feeders which are specifically designed to support their extra weight and which hummingbirds will also use. If ants find your hummingbird feeder, they can be discouraged by the use of an "ant moat", which is available at specialty garden stores and online. Sticky or greasy substances used to repel ants, including petroleum jelly and commercial insect barrier products ("Tree Tanglefoot"), must be used inside an ant moat or other inaccessible location to avoid potentially fatal contamination of the birds' plumage.[20] Genus Icterus The genus Icterus, New World orioles, is a group of birds in the Icterid family Icteridae. ...


Sometimes a large hummingbird drives its smaller brethren away from a feeder. An effective solution is to put out a second feeder that contains a slightly lower sugar concentration. Hummingbirds can detect a feeding source that is denser in sugar by only a few percent, and the more aggressive bird will make that feeder its own. The smaller birds will flock to the remaining feeder.


In myth and culture

Aerial photograph of hummingbird image at Nazca in Peru
Aerial photograph of hummingbird image at Nazca in Peru

Aztec is a term used to refer to certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who achieved political and military dominance over large parts of Mesoamerica in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, a period referred to as the Late post-Classic... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... // Huitzilopochtli, as depicted in the Codex Telleriano-Remensis. ... For the Spanish language as spoken in Mexico, see Mexican Spanish. ... For the supervillain, see Onomatopoeia (comics). ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1736x753, 386 KB) Skildring Drawing of a colibri in the desert outside en:Nazca, photo by BjarteSorensen, taken 25 September 2003 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Nazca Lines ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1736x753, 386 KB) Skildring Drawing of a colibri in the desert outside en:Nazca, photo by BjarteSorensen, taken 25 September 2003 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Nazca Lines ... The Nazca Lines are a series of geoglyphs located in the Nazca Desert, a high arid plateau that stretches 53 miles or more than 80 kilometers between the towns of Nazca and Palpa on the Pampas de Jumana in Peru. ... The Nazca Lines are a series of geoglyphs located in the Nazca Desert, a high arid plateau that stretches 53 miles or more than 80 kilometers between the towns of Nazca and Palpa on the Pampas de Jumana in Peru. ... For the college of the same name, see Ohlone College. ... The National Parks Conservation Association (NPCA) is the only environmental organization devoted exclusively to advocacy on behalf of the National Parks. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... Caribbean Airlines is the national airline of Trinidad and Tobago. ...

See also

Binomial name Macroglossum stellatarum Linnaeus, 1758 The Hummingbird Hawk-moth (Macroglossum stellatarum) is a species of hawk moth with a long proboscis, and is capable of hovering in place, making an audible humming noise. ... species Hemaris affinis Hemaris alaiana Hemaris beresowskii Hemaris croatica Hemaris dentata Hemaris diffinis Hemaris ducalis Hemaris fuciformis Hemaris gracilis Hemaris ottonis Hemaris radians Hemaris rubra Hemaris saundersi Hemaris senta Hemaris staudingeri Hemaris thysbe Hemaris tityus Hemaris is a holarctic genus of moths in the sphingidae family, consisting of about 17... A hummingbird feeder - dye should not be used in the liquid provided Bushtits on a suet feeder An empty bird-seed dispenser A birdfeeder, bird feeder, or bird table is a device placed out-of-doors to supply bird food to birds. ...

References

  1. ^ Robert S. Ridgely and Paul G. Greenfield, "The Birds of Ecuador volume 2- Field Guide", Cornell University Press, 2001
  2. ^ Omara-Otunnu, Elizabeth. Hummingbird's Beaks Bend To Catch Insects. University of Connecticut Advance (2004-07-19).
  3. ^ ADW: Troichilidae: Classification
  4. ^ Rodríguez-Gironés MA, Santamaría L (2004) Why Are So Many Bird Flowers Red? PLoS Biol 2(10): e350 doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0020350
  5. ^ Altschuler, D. L. 2003. Flower Color, Hummingbird Pollination, and Habitat Irradiance in Four Neotropical Forests. Biotropica 35(3): 344–355.
  6. ^ Nicolson, S. W., and P. A. Fleming. 2003. Nectar as food for birds: the physiological consequences of drinking dilute sugar solutions. Plant Syst. Evol. 238: 139–153 (2003) DOI 10.1007/s00606-003-0276-7
  7. ^ Rayner, J.M.V. 1995. Dynamics of vortex wakes of flying and swimming vertebrates. J. Exp. Biol. 49:131–155.
  8. ^ Warrick, D. R.; Tobalske, B.W. & Powers, D.R. (2005): Aerodynamics of the hovering hummingbird. Nature 435: 1094–1097 doi:10.1038/nature03647 (HTML abstract)
  9. ^ Skutch, Alexander F. & Singer, Arthur B. (1973): The Life of the Hummingbird. Crown Publishers, New York. ISBN 0-517-50572-X
  10. ^ Williamson, S. L. 2002. A Field Guide to Hummingbirds of North America (Peterson Field Guide Series). Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. ISBN 0-618-02496-4
  11. ^ Oldest hummingbird fossil found
  12. ^ Bleiweiss, Robert; Kirsch, John A. W. & Matheus, Juan Carlos (1999): DNA-DNA hybridization evidence for subfamily structure among hummingbirds. Auk 111(1): 8–19. fulltextPDF (901 KiB)
  13. ^ http://microvet.arizona.edu/AzVDL/newsletters/Apr05.pdf Arizona Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Newsletter, April 2005
  14. ^ Feeders and Feeding Hummingbirds (The Entire Article)
  15. ^ Hummingbird F.A.Q.s from the Southeastern Arizona Bird Observatory
  16. ^ http://www.trochilids.com/dye.html Trochilids.com: Should I Add Red Dye to My Hummingbird Food?
  17. ^ Williamson, S. L. 2002. A Field Guide to Hummingbirds of North America (Peterson Field Guide Series). Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. ISBN 0-618-02496-4
  18. ^ Shackelford, Clifford Eugene; Lindsay, Madge M. & Klym, C. Mark (2005): Hummingbirds of Texas with their New Mexico and Arizona ranges. Texas A&M University Press, College Station. ISBN 1-58544-433-2
  19. ^ Williamson, S. 2000. Attracting and Feeding Hummingbirds. (Wild Birds Series) T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey. ISBN 0-7938-3580-1
  20. ^ * Williamson, S. 2000. Attracting and Feeding Hummingbirds. (Wild Birds Series) T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey. ISBN 0-7938-3580-1
  • del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A. & Sargatal, J. (editors) (1999): Handbook of Birds of the World, Volume 5: Barn-owls to Hummingbirds. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. ISBN 84-87334-25-3
  • Gerwin, John A. & Zink, Robert M. (1998): Phylogenetic patterns in the Trochilidae. Auk 115(1): 105-118. fulltextPDF (936 KiB)
  • McGuire, J. A., Witt, C. C., Altshuler, D. L., and Remsen Jr., J. V. 2007. Phylogenetic systematics and biogography of hummingbirds: Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses of partitioned data and selection of an appropriate partitioning strategy. Systematic Biology, 56: 837-856.
  • Meyer de Schauensee, Rodolphe (1970): A Guide to Birds of South America. Livingston, Wynnewood, PA.
  • Stiles, Gary. 1981. Geographical Aspects of Bird Flower Coevolution, with Particular Reference to Central America. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 68:323-351.
  • Williamson, S. 2000. Attracting and Feeding Hummingbirds. (Wild Birds Series) T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey. ISBN 0-7938-3580-1
  • Williamson, S. L. 2002. A Field Guide to Hummingbirds of North America (Peterson Field Guide Series). Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. ISBN 0-618-02496-4

Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Auk is a quarterly journal and the official publication of the American Ornithologists Union, having been continuously published by that body since 1884. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Handbook of Birds of the World vol. ... The Auk is a quarterly journal and the official publication of the American Ornithologists Union, having been continuously published by that body since 1884. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...

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