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Encyclopedia > Humanities
The philosopher Plato
The philosopher Plato

The humanities are those academic disciplines which study the human condition using methods that are largely analytic, critical, or speculative, as distinguished from the mainly empirical approaches of the natural and social sciences. Conventionally the humanities include ancient and modern languages and literature, history, philosophy, religion, visual and performing arts (including music). Additional subjects sometimes included in the humanities are anthropology, area studies, communications and cultural studies, although these are often regarded as social sciences. Scholars working in the humanities are sometimes described as "humanists". However, that term also describes the philosophical position of humanism, which some "antihumanist" scholars in the humanities reject. Look up humanities in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Download high resolution version (480x640, 17 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (480x640, 17 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Human condition (disambiguation). ... Analytic may refer to Analytic proposition or analytic philosophy, in philosophy Analytic geometry, analytic function, analytic continuation, analytic set in mathematics. ... A critic (derived from the ancient Greek word krites meaning a judge) is a person who offers a value judgement or an interpretation. ... Speculation is the buying, holding, and selling of stocks, commodities, futures, currencies, collectibles, real estate, or any valuable thing to profit from fluctuations in its price as opposed to buying it for use or for income - dividends, rent etc. ... A central concept in science and the scientific method is that all evidence must be empirical, or empirically based, that is, dependent on evidence or consequences that are observable by the senses. ... The Michelson–Morley experiment was used to disprove that light propagated through a luminiferous aether. ... The social sciences are a group of academic disciplines that study human aspects of the world. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... History studies time in human terms. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... The Mona Lisa is one of the most recognizable artistic paintings in the Western world. ... The performing arts are those forms of art which differ from the plastic arts insofar as the former uses the artists own body, face and presence as a medium, and the latter uses materials such as clay, metal or paint which can be molded or transformed to create some... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... The term communications is used in a number of disciplines: Communications, also known as communication studies is the academic discipline which studies communication, generally seen as a mixture between media studies and linguistics. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... See also the specific life stance known as Humanism For the Renaissance liberal arts movement, see Renaissance humanism Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities... Antihumanism is a term coined by Marxist philosopher Louis Althusser against Marxist humanists, which he considered a revisionist movement. ...

Contents

Humanities fields

Classics

Main article: Classics
Bust of Homer, a Greek classicist
Bust of Homer, a Greek classicist

The classics, in the Western academic tradition, refer to cultures of classical antiquity, namely the Ancient Greek and Roman cultures. Classical study was formerly considered one of the cornerstones of the humanities, but the classics declined in importance during the 20th century. Nevertheless, the influence of classical ideas in humanities such as philosophy and literature remain strong. For other uses, see Classics (disambiguation). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Homere. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Homere. ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


More broadly speaking, the "classics" are the foundational writings of the earliest major cultures of the world. In other major traditions, classics would refer to the Vedas and Upanishads in India, the writings of Lao-tse and Chuang-tzu in China, and writings such as the Hammurabi Code and the Gilgamesh Epic from Mesopotamia, as well as the the Egyptian Book of the Dead. Veda redirects here. ... The Upanishads (उपनिषद्, Upanişad) are part of the Hindu Shruti scriptures which primarily discuss meditation and philosophy and are seen as religious instructions by most schools of Hinduism. ... ... thumb|Zhuang Zi by Japan Zhuāng Zǐ (pinyin), Chuang Tzu (W-G), or Chuang Tse (Chinese 莊子, literally meaning Master Zhuang) was a famous philosopher in ancient China who lived around the 4th century BC during the Warring States Period, corresponding to the Hundred Schools of... An inscription of the Code of Hammurabi. ... The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Babylonia and is among the earliest known literary works. ... This article is about the Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead. ...


History

Main article: History

History is systematically collected information about the past. When used as the name of a field of study, history refers to the study and interpretation of the record of humans, families, and societies. Knowledge of history is often said to encompass both knowledge of past events and historical thinking skills. History studies time in human terms. ... History studies time in human terms. ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... The past is the portion of the timeline that has already occurred; it is the opposite of the future. ... // What is science? There are different theories of what science is. ... This article is about modern humans. ... Family history is the study of multiple generations of people who appear to be related. ... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Historical thinking is defined by many education resources as a set of reasoning skills that students of history should learn as a result of studying history. ...


Traditionally, the study of history has been considered a part of the humanities. However, in modern academia, history is increasingly classified as a social science, especially when chronology is the focus. Academia is a collective term for the scientific and cultural community engaged in higher education and research, taken as a whole. ... The social sciences are groups of academic disciplines that study the human aspects of the world. ... For the novel by Michael Crichton, see Timeline (novel). ...


Languages and literature

Main articles: Language and Literature
Shakespeare wrote some of the greatest works in English literature
Shakespeare wrote some of the greatest works in English literature

The study of individual modern and classical languages form the backbone of modern study of the humanities, while the scientific study of language is known as linguistics and is a social science. Since many areas of the humanities such as literature, history and philosophy are based on language, changes in language can have a profound effect on the other humanities. Literature, covering a variety of uses of language including prose forms (such as the novel), poetry and drama, also lies at the heart of the modern humanities curriculum. College-level programs in a foreign language usually include study of important works of the literature in that language, as well as the language itself (grammar, vocabulary, etc.). Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... Image File history File links First_Folio. ... Image File history File links First_Folio. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. ... The social sciences are groups of academic disciplines that study the human aspects of the world. ... Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to the patterns of everyday speech. ... This article is about the literary concept. ... This article is about the art form. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... A foreign language is a language not spoken by the indigenous people of a certain place: for example, English is a foreign language in Japan. ...


One can equate a literature with a collection of stories, poems, and plays that revolve around a particular topic. In this case, the stories, poems and plays may or may not have nationalistic implications. The Western Canon forms one such literature. The term "literature" has different meanings depending on who is using it and in what context. It could be applied broadly to mean any symbolic record, encompassing everything from images and sculptures to letters. People may perceive a difference between "literature" and some popular forms of written work. The terms "literary fiction" and "literary merit" often serve to distinguish between individual works. Look up Story in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Poetry (ancient Greek: poieo = create) is an art form in which human language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or instead of, its notional and semantic content. ... For other uses, see Play (disambiguation). ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... The Western canon is a canon of books and art (and specifically one with very loose boundaries) that has allegedly been highly influential in shaping Western culture. ... “Sculptor” redirects here. ... Literary fiction is a somewhat uneasy term that has come into common usage since around 1970, principally to distinguish serious fiction from the many types of genre fiction and popular fiction. ... Literary Merit a written text has Liteary Merit if it is a work of quality, that is if it has some aesthetic value. ...


Law

Main article: Law
A trial at a criminal court, the Old Bailey in London
A trial at a criminal court, the Old Bailey in London

Law in common parlance, means a rule which (unlike a rule of ethics) is capable of enforcement through institutions.[1] The study of law crosses the boundaries between the social sciences and humanities, depending on one's view of research into its objectives and effects. Law is not always enforceable, especially in the international relations context. It has been defined as a "system of rules",[2] as an "interpretive concept"[3] to achieve justice, as an "authority"[4] to mediate people's interests, and even as "the command of a sovereign, backed by the threat of a sanction".[5] However one likes to think of law, it is a completely central social institution. Legal policy incorporates the practical manifestation of thinking from almost every social science and humanity. Laws are politics, because politicians create them. Law is philosophy, because moral and ethical persuasions shape their ideas. Law tells many of history's stories, because statutes, case law and codifications build up over time. And law is economics, because any rule about contract, tort, property law, labour law, company law and many more can have long lasting effects on the distribution of wealth. The noun law derives from the late Old English lagu, meaning something laid down or fixed[6] and the adjective legal comes from the Latin word lex.[7] For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (828x626, 120 KB) A trial at the Old Bailey in London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (828x626, 120 KB) A trial at the Old Bailey in London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ... The Old Bailey. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The social sciences are groups of academic disciplines that study the human aspects of the world. ... Politics is the process and method of decision-making for groups of human beings. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... History studies time in human terms. ... A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. ... Not to be confused with torte, an iced cake. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Company law refers to the law of a separate legal entities known as the company and governs the most prevalent legal models for firms, for instance limited companies (Ltd or Pty Ltd), publicly limited companies (plc) or incorporated businesses (Inc. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ...


Performing arts

Main article: Performing arts
Concert in the Mozarteum, Salzburg
Concert in the Mozarteum, Salzburg

The performing arts differ from the plastic arts insofar as the former uses the artist's own body, face, presence as a medium, and the latter uses materials such as clay, metal or paint which can be molded or transformed to create some art object. Performing arts include acrobatics, busking, comedy, dance, magic, music, opera, film, juggling, marching arts, such as brass bands, and theatre. The performing arts are those forms of art which differ from the plastic arts insofar as the former uses the artists own body, face and presence as a medium, and the latter uses materials such as clay, metal or paint which can be molded or transformed to create some... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 895 KB) Mozarteum Salzburg, Austria Great hall, stage Photgraphed by myself File links The following pages link to this file: Music Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 895 KB) Mozarteum Salzburg, Austria Great hall, stage Photgraphed by myself File links The following pages link to this file: Music Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize... Plastic Arts are those visual arts that involve the use of materials that can be moulded or modulated in some way, often in three dimensions. ... Chinese Jade ornament with flower design, Jin Dynasty (1115-1234 AD), Shanghai Museum. ... High wire act Acrobatics (from Greek Akros, high and bat, walking) is one of the performing arts, and is also practiced as a sport. ... Busking is the practice of doing live performances in public places to entertain people, usually to solicit donations and tips. ... The word comedy has a classical meaning (comical theatre) and a popular one (the use of humor with an intent to provoke laughter in general). ... For other uses, see Dance (disambiguation). ... “Illusionist” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... This article is about Opera, the art form. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... Juggling is a form of skillful, often artful, object manipulation. ... The Marching Arts include mainly marching bands and drum corps. ... A brass band a musical group consisting mostly or entirely of brass instruments, often with a percussion section. ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ...


Artists who participate in these arts in front of an audience are called performers, including actors, comedians, dancers, musicians, and singers. Performing arts are also supported by workers in related fields, such as songwriting and stagecraft. Performers often adapt their appearance, such as with costumes and stage makeup, etc. There is also a specialized form of fine art in which the artists perform their work live to an audience. This is called Performance art. Most performance art also involves some form of plastic art, perhaps in the creation of props. Dance was often referred to as a plastic art during the Modern dance era. For other uses, see Actor (disambiguation). ... A comedian, or comic, is an entertainer who amuses an audience by making them laugh. ... A contemporary dancer rehearsing in a dance studio Dance generally refers to human movement either used as a form of expression or presented in a social, spiritual or performance setting. ... “Instrumentalist” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Singer (disambiguation). ... A songwriter is someone who writes either the lyrics or the music for songs. ... Stagecraft (or Technical Theatre) is the art of building, attaching, and rigging scenery for theater and television as well as other technical aspects of performance including sound, costuming, makeup, and lighting. ... Variation in the physical appearance of humans is believed by anthropologists to be an important factor in the development of personality and social relations in particular physical attractiveness. ... Yarkand ladies summer fashions. ... “Make-up” redirects here. ... Fine art refers to arts that are concerned with beauty or which appealed to taste (SOED 1991). ... This article is about Performance art. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Modern dance is often performed in bare feet. ...

Music
Main article: Music

Music as an academic discipline mainly focuses on two career paths, music performance (focused on the orchestra and the concert hall) and music education (training music teachers). Students learn to play instruments, but also study music theory, musicology, history of music and composition. In the liberal arts tradition, music is also used to broaden skills of non-musicians by teaching skills such as concentration and listening. For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Buskers perform in San Francisco A performance, in performing arts, generally comprises an event in which one group of people (the performer or performers) behave in a particular way for another group of people (the audience). ... For the song titled Orchestra, see The Servant (band). ... A Concert hall is a cultural building, which serves as performance venue, chiefly for classical instrumental music. ... Music education is a field of study associated with the teaching and learning of music. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... Music theory is a field of study that investigates the nature or mechanics of music. ... Musicology (Greek: μουσικη = music and λογος = word or reason) is the scholarly study of music. ... For the academic study of history of music, see Music history. ... Musical composition is a phrase used in a number of contexts, the most commonly used being a piece of music. ...

Theatre
Main article: Theatre
Original Turandot poster, a highly successful theatre production

Theatre (or theater) (Greek "theatron", θέατρον) is the branch of the performing arts concerned with acting out stories in front of an audience using combinations of speech, gesture, music, dance, sound and spectacle — indeed any one or more elements of the other performing arts. In addition to the standard narrative dialogue style, theatre takes such forms as opera, ballet, mime, kabuki, classical Indian dance, Chinese opera, mummers' plays, and pantomime. Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... Image File history File links PF_916002~Puccini-Turandot-Posters. ... Image File history File links PF_916002~Puccini-Turandot-Posters. ... For the opera by Ferruccio Busoni, see Turandot (Busoni). ... The performing arts are those forms of art which differ from the plastic arts insofar as the former uses the artists own body, face and presence as a medium, and the latter uses materials such as clay, metal or paint which can be molded or transformed to create some... Acting is the work of an actor or actress, which is a person in theatre, television, film, or any other storytelling medium who tells the story by portraying a character and, usually, speaking or singing the written text or play. ... This article is about Opera, the art form. ... For other uses, see Ballet (disambiguation). ... Look up mime in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The oldest Kabuki theatre in Japan: the Minamiza in Kyoto The Kabukiza in Ginza is one of Tokyos leading kabuki theaters. ... Indian classical dance is a misnomer, and actually refers to Natya, the sacred Hindu musical theatre styles. ... Emperor Xuan-Zong of Tang (left) and his Consort Yang Yuhuan (right) portrayed in a Chinese Opera 19th century Chinese opera Chinese opera costumes Some athletic jump Chinese opera is a popular form of drama in China. ... There are two major branches to the tradition of the Mummers Play: Firstly the folk tradition of troupes of mummers performing street theatre and secondly the more formal Christian Mystery Plays. ... The Christmas Pantomime colour lithograph bookcover, 1890 Pantomime (informally, panto) refers to a theatrical genre, traditionally found in Great Britain, Australia, South Africa, New Zealand and Ireland, which is usually performed around the Christmas and New Year holiday season. ...

Dance
Main article: Dance

Dance (from Old French dancier, perhaps from Frankish) generally refers to human movement either used as a form of expression or presented in a social, spiritual or performance setting. Dance is also used to describe methods of non-verbal communication (see body language) between humans or animals (bee dance, mating dance), motion in inanimate objects (the leaves danced in the wind), and certain musical forms or genres. Choreography is the art of making dances, and the person who does this is called a choreographer. For other uses, see Dance (disambiguation). ... Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300. ... Old Frankish was the language of the Franks. ... This article is about modern humans. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Expression may refer to: (in the vernacular) the act or particular way of expressing something (including an emotion through a facial expression or configuration) (in mathematics) a mathematical expression (in computing) a programming language expression (in computing) a vector graphics software Microsoft Expression (in genetics) the effect produced by a... Social refers to human society or its organization. ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... Buskers perform in San Francisco A performance, in performing arts, generally comprises an event in which one group of people (the performer or performers) behave in a particular way for another group of people (the audience). ... http://members. ... For other uses, see Body language (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Honey bees learn and communicate in order to find food sources and for other means. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Leaves are an Icelandic five-piece alternative rock band who came to prominence in 2002 with their debut album, Breathe, drawing comparisons to groups such as Coldplay and Doves. ... For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ... Dance as a musical form is a smaller musical composition intended for the presentation of dance. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Look up Choreography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Definitions of what constitutes dance are dependent on social, cultural, aesthetic artistic and moral constraints and range from functional movement (such as Folk dance) to codified, virtuoso techniques such as ballet. In sports, gymnastics, figure skating and synchronized swimming are dance disciplines while Martial arts 'kata' are often compared to dances. For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... Aesthetics (or esthetics) (from the Greek word αισθητική) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty. ... The Mona Lisa Although today the word art usually refers to the visual arts, the concept of what art is has continuously changed over centuries. ... A moral is a one sentence remark made at the end of many childrens stories that expresses the intended meaning, or the moral message, of the tale. ... Folk dancers in Prague Folk dance is a term used to describe a large number of dances, mostly of European origin, that tend to share the following attributes: They were originally danced in about the 19th century or earlier (or are, in any case, not currently copyrighted); Their performance is... A virtuoso (from Italian virtuoso, late Latin virtuosus, Latin virtus meaning: skill, manliness, excellence) is an individual who possesses outstanding technical ability at singing or playing a musical instrument. ... For other uses, see Ballet (disambiguation). ... Gymnastics is a sport involving the performance of sequences of movements requiring physical strength, flexibility, balance, endurance, and kinesthetic awareness, such as handsprings, handstands, split leaps, aerials and cartwheels. ... Figure skating is an ice skating sporting event where individuals, mixed couples, or groups perform spins, jumps, and other moves on the ice, often to music. ... Russian synchronized swimming team, May 2007 Synchronized swimming is a hybrid of swimming, gymnastics, and dance. ... Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ... Kata (åž‹ or å½¢) (literally: form) is a Japanese word describing detailed patterns of defense-and-attack movements practiced either solo or in pairs. ...


Philosophy

Main article: Philosophy

Philosophy is ancient Greek for the love of wisdom. It questions life, existence and human reasoning. Philosophy is one of the world's oldest subjects of study, branching and evolving into separate disciplines of physics in the sixteenth century and psychology in the nineteenth century. For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Note: This article contains special characters. ...



In present society, areas such as Cognitive Science have emerged where experts attempt to unravel the nature of intelligent systems and understand thought, speech and reasoning. Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ...


Religion

Main articles: Religious studies and Theology
The compass in this 13th Century manuscript is a symbol of God's act of creation.
The compass in this 13th Century manuscript is a symbol of God's act of creation.

Most historians trace the beginnings of religious belief to the Neolithic Period. Most religious belief during this time period consisted of worship of a Mother Goddess, a Sky Father, and also worship of the Sun and the Moon as deities. (see also Sun worship) Religious studies is the designation commonly used in the English-speaking world for a multi-disciplinary, secular study of religion that dates to the late 19th century in Europe (and the influential early work of such scholars as Friedrich Max Müller, in England, and Cornelius P. Tiele, in the... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Image File history File links God_the_Geometer. ... Image File history File links God_the_Geometer. ... This article is about the navigational instrument. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Creation (theology) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... A Cucuteni culture statuette, 4th millennium BC. A mother goddess is a goddess, often portrayed as the Earth Mother, who serves as a general fertility deity, the bountiful embodiment of the earth. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Sol redirects here. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... A solar deity is a deity who represents the Sun. ...


New philosophies and religions arose in both east and west, particularly around the 6th century BC. Over time, a great variety of religions developed around the world, with Hinduism and Buddhism in India, Zoroastrianism in Persia being some of the earliest major faiths. In the east, three schools of thought were to dominate Chinese thinking until the modern day. These were Taoism, Legalism, and Confucianism. The Confucian tradition, which would attain predominance, looked not to the force of law, but to the power and example of tradition for political morality. In the west, the Greek philosophical tradition, represented by the works of Plato and Aristotle, was diffused throughout Europe and the Middle East by the conquests of Alexander of Macedon in the 4th century BC. For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 6th century BC started on January 1, 600 BC and ended on December 31, 501 BC. // Monument 1, an Olmec colossal head at La Venta The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... “Persia” redirects here. ... Taoism (Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... Legalism, in the Western sense, is an approach to the analysis of legal questions characterized by abstract logical reasoning focusing on the applicable legal text, such as a constitution, legislation, or case law, rather than on the social, economic, or political context. ... Wenmiao Temple, a Confucian Temple in Wuwei, Gansu, Peoples Republic of China. ... PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Bust of Alexander the Great in the British Museum. ... The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ...


Abrahamic religions are those religions deriving from a common ancient Semitic tradition and traced by their adherents to Abraham (circa 1900 BCE), a patriarch whose life is narrated in the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament, and as a prophet in the Quran and also called a prophet in Genesis 20:7. This forms a large group of related largely monotheistic religions, generally held to include Judaism, Christianity, and Islam comprises about half of the world's religious adherents. Abrahamic religions symbols designating the three prevalent monotheistic religions – Judaism, Christianity, and Islam Abrahamic religion is a term commonly used to designate the three prevalent monotheistic religions – Judaism, Christianity, and Islam[1][2] – which claim Abraham (Hebrew: Avraham אַבְרָהָם ; Arabic: Ibrahim ابراهيم ) as a part of their sacred history. ... In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical Shem, Hebrew: שם, translated as name, Arabic: سام) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ... “Abram” redirects here. ... The Patriarchs, known as the Avot in Hebrew, are Abraham, his son Isaac and his grandson Jacob. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum Hebrew Bible is a term that refers to the common portions of the Jewish canon and the Christian canons. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... Prophets of Islam are male human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets chosen by God. ... The Quran (Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


Visual arts

Main article: Visual arts
History
Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong (1107–1187) of Song Dynasty
Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong (1107–1187) of Song Dynasty

The great traditions in art have a foundation in the art of one of the ancient civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome, China, India, Mesopotamia and Mesoamerica. The Mona Lisa is one of the most recognizable artistic paintings in the Western world. ... Image File history File links Quatrain_on_Heavenly_Mountain. ... Image File history File links Quatrain_on_Heavenly_Mountain. ... Emperor Gaozong (June 12, 1107 - November 9, 1187), born Zhao Gou, was the tenth emperor of the Song Dynasty of China, and the first emperor of the Southern Song. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Kaifeng (960–1127) Linan (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960-976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other uses, see Mesopotamia (disambiguation). ... This article is about the culture area. ...


Ancient Greek art saw a veneration of the human physical form and the development of equivalent skills to show musculature, poise, beauty and anatomically correct proportions. Ancient Roman art depicted gods as idealized humans, shown with characteristic distinguishing features (i.e. Zeus' thunderbolt). For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ...


In Byzantine and Gothic art of the Middle Ages, the dominance of the church insisted on the expression of biblical and not material truths. The Renaissance saw the return to valuation of the material world, and this shift is reflected in art forms, which show the corporeality of the human body, and the three-dimensional reality of landscape. The most famous of the surviving Byzantine mosaics of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople - the image of Christ Pantocrator on the walls of the upper southern gallery. ... The Western (Royal) Portal at Chartres Cathedral ( 1145). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ...


Eastern art has generally worked in a style akin to Western medieval art, namely a concentration on surface patterning and local colour (meaning the plain colour of an object, such as basic red for a red robe, rather than the modulations of that colour brought about by light, shade and reflection). A characteristic of this style is that the local colour is often defined by an outline (a contemporary equivalent is the cartoon). This is evident in, for example, the art of India, Tibet and Japan.

An artist's palette
An artist's palette

Religious Islamic art forbids iconography, and expresses religious ideas through geometry instead. The physical and rational certainties depicted by the 19th-century Enlightenment were shattered not only by new discoveries of relativity by Einstein [1] and of unseen psychology by Freud, [2] but also by unprecedented technological development. Increasing global interaction during this time saw an equivalent influence of other cultures into Western art. Image File history File links Pittura-Painting3. ... Image File history File links Pittura-Painting3. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... A KFC franchise in Kuwait. ...

Media types

Drawing is a means of making an image, using any of a wide variety of tools and techniques. It generally involves making marks on a surface by applying pressure from a tool, or moving a tool across a surface. Common tools are graphite pencils, pen and ink, inked brushes, wax color pencils, crayons, charcoals, pastels, and markers. Digital tools which simulate the effects of these are also used. The main techniques used in drawing are: line drawing, hatching, crosshatching, random hatching, scribbling, stippling, and blending. An artist who excels in drawing is referred to as a draftsman or draughtsman. For scale drawings or plans, see Plans (drawings). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into image (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Graphite (disambiguation). ... This article is about the handwriting instrument. ... Pen and ink refers to a technique of drawing or writing, in which colored (this includes black) ink is applied to paper using a pen or other stylus. ... An ink is a liquid containing various pigments and/or dyes used for coloring a surface to render an image or text. ... For other uses, see Brush (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that pencil lead be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Crayon (disambiguation). ... Charcoal is the blackish residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. ... Pastel is an art medium in the form of a stick, consisting of pure powdered pigment and a binder. ... A marker pen, or marker, is a term used to refer to various kinds of pen which have their own ink-source and usually a tip made of some porous material. ... For the crosshatch symbol, see Number sign. ... An example of stippling in a biological illustration. ...

Painting
The Mona Lisa is one of the most recognizable artistic paintings in the Western world.
The Mona Lisa is one of the most recognizable artistic paintings in the Western world.

Painting taken literally is the practice of applying pigment suspended in a carrier (or medium) and a binding agent (a glue) to a surface (support) such as paper, canvas or a wall. However, when used in an artistic sense it means the use of this activity in combination with drawing, composition and other aesthetic considerations in order to manifest the expressive and conceptual intention of the practitioner. Painting is also used to express spiritual motifs and ideas; sites of this kind of painting range from artwork depicting mythological figures on pottery to The Sistine Chapel to the human body itself. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (560x864, 45 KB) MONA LISA 1509 Subject: The Mona Lisa Source: [1] File links The following pages link to this file: Painting Mona Lisa Talk:Mona Lisa Wikipedia:Selected anniversaries/August Wikipedia:Selected anniversaries/August 22 Talk:August 22 Wikipedia:Selected... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (560x864, 45 KB) MONA LISA 1509 Subject: The Mona Lisa Source: [1] File links The following pages link to this file: Painting Mona Lisa Talk:Mona Lisa Wikipedia:Selected anniversaries/August Wikipedia:Selected anniversaries/August 22 Talk:August 22 Wikipedia:Selected... For other uses, see Mona Lisa (disambiguation). ... The term Western world, the West or the Occident (Latin occidens -sunset, -west, as distinct from the Orient) [1] can have multiple meanings dependent on its context (e. ... “Painter” redirects here. ... Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the band, see Adhesive (band). ... An open surface with X-, Y-, and Z-contours shown. ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... Look up Canvas in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For scale drawings or plans, see Plans (drawings). ... Composition is the plan, placement or arrangement of the elements of art in a work. ... The Sistine Chapel (Italian: ) is a chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the Pope, in the Vatican City. ...


Colour is the essence of painting as sound is of music. Colour is highly subjective, but has observable psychological effects, although these can differ from one culture to the next. Black is associated with mourning in the West, but elsewhere white may be. Some painters, theoreticians, writers and scientists, including Goethe, Kandinsky, Isaac Newton, have written their own colour theory. Moreover the use of language is only a generalisation for a colour equivalent. The word "red", for example, can cover a wide range of variations on the pure red of the spectrum. There is not a formalised register of different colours in the way that there is agreement on different notes in music, such as C or C# in music, although the Pantone system is widely used in the printing and design industry for this purpose. Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Sound is a disturbance of mechanical energy that propagates through matter as a wave. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (pronounced [gø tə]) (August 28, 1749–March 22, 1832) was a German writer, politician, humanist, scientist, and philosopher. ... On White II (Kandinsky 1923) Wassily Kandinsky (Russian: Василий Кандинский, first name sometimes spelled as Vasily, Vassily or Vasilii) (December 16, 1866 - December 13, 1944) was a Russian-born painter and art theorist. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... In the arts of painting, and photography, color theory is a set of basic rules for mixing color to achieve a desired result. ... For other uses, see Red (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For the record label, see Pantone Music. ...


Modern artists have extended the practice of painting considerably to include, for example, collage. This began with cubism and is not painting in strict sense. Some modern painters incorporate different materials such as sand, cement, straw or wood for their texture. Examples of this are the works of Jean Dubuffet or Anselm Kiefer. Modern and contemporary art has moved away from the historic value of craft in favour of concept; this has led some to say that painting, as a serious art form, is dead, although this has not deterred the majority of artists from continuing to practise it either as whole or part of their work. For other uses, see Collage (disambiguation). ... Le guitariste by Pablo Picasso, 1910 Portrait of Picasso, 1912, oil on canvas by, Juan Gris Woman with a guitar by Georges Braque, 1913 Still Life with Fruit Dish and Mandolin, 1919, oil on canvas by, Juan Gris Cubist villa in Prague, Czech Republic Cubist House of the Black Madonna... For other uses, see Sand (disambiguation). ... In the most general sense of the word, cement is a binder, a substance which sets and hardens independently, and can bind other materials together. ... Bales of straw bundles of rice straw Pile of straw bales, sheltered under a tarpaulin Straw is an agricultural byproduct, the dry stalk of a cereal plant, after the nutrient grain or seed has been removed. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... Texture in a painting is the feel of the canvas based on the paint used and its method of application. ... Jean Philippe Arthur Dubuffet (July 31, 1901 - May 12, 1985) was a French artist. ... This article should be translated from material at de:Anselm Kiefer. ... For other uses, see Concept (disambiguation). ...


Humanities history

In the West, the study of the humanities can be traced to ancient Greece, as the basis of a broad education for citizens. During Roman times, the concept of the seven liberal arts evolved, involving grammar, rhetoric and logic (the trivium), along with arithmetic, geometry, astronomia and music (the quadrivium).[8] These subjects formed the bulk of medieval education, with the emphasis being on the humanities as skills or "ways of doing." In the history of education, the seven liberal arts comprise two groups of studies, the trivium and the quadrivium. ... For the rules of English grammar, see English grammar and Disputes in English grammar. ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... For any other uses see, see Trivium (disambiguation). ... Arithmetic tables for children, Lausanne, 1835 Arithmetic or arithmetics (from the Greek word αριθμός = number) is the oldest and most elementary branch of mathematics, used by almost everyone, for tasks ranging from simple day-to-day counting to advanced science and business calculations. ... Calabi-Yau manifold Geometry (Greek γεωμετρία; geo = earth, metria = measure) is a part of mathematics concerned with questions of size, shape, and relative position of figures and with properties of space. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... The quadrivium comprised the four subjects taught in medieval universities after the trivium. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ...


A major shift occurred during the Renaissance, when the humanities began to be regarded as subjects to be studied rather than practised, with a corresponding shift away from the traditional fields into areas such as literature and history. In the 20th century, this view was in turn challenged by the postmodernist movement, which sought to redefine the humanities in more egalitarian terms suitable for a democratic society.[9] Postmodernism is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ... Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal or level) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals from birth. ... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation). ...


Humanities today

Humanities in the United States

Main article: Humanities in the United States

Many American colleges and universities believe in the notion of a broad "liberal arts education", which requires all college students to study the humanities in addition to their specific area of study. Prominent proponents of liberal arts in the United States have included Mortimer J. Adler[10] and E.D. Hirsch. Humanities in the United States refers to the study of humanities disciplines, such as literature, history, language, performing and visual arts or philosophy, in the United States of America. ... Mortimer Jerome Adler (December 28, 1902 – June 28, 2001) was an American philosopher and author. ... Eric Donald Hirsch, Jr. ...


The 1980 United States Rockefeller Commission on the Humanities described the humanities in its report, The Humanities in American Life:

Through the humanities we reflect on the fundamental question: What does it mean to be human? The humanities offer clues but never a complete answer. They reveal how people have tried to make moral, spiritual, and intellectual sense of a world in which irrationality, despair, loneliness, and death are as conspicuous as birth, friendship, hope, and reason.

Criticism of the traditional humanities/liberal arts degree program has been leveled by many that see them as both expensive and relatively "useless" in the modern American job market, where several years of specialized study is required in many/most job fields. This is in direct contrast to the early 20th century when approximately 3% to 6% of the public at large had a university degree, and having one was a direct path to a professional life.


After World War II, many millions of veterans took advantage of the GI Bill. Further expansion of federal education grants and loans have expanded the number of adults in the United States that have attended a college. In 2003, roughly 53% of the population had some college education with 27.2% having graduated with a Bachelors degree or higher, including 8% who graduated with a graduate degree.[11] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The G. I. Bill of Rights or Servicemens Readjustment Act of 1944 provided for college or vocational education for returning World War II veterans as well as one-year of unemployment compensation. ... This graph shows the educational attainment since 1947. ... This graph shows the educational attainment since 1947. ... This graph shows the educational attainment since 1947. ...


The digital age

Language and literature are considered to be the central topics in humanities, so the impact of electronic communication is of great concern to those in the field. The immediacy of modern technology and the internet speeds up communication, but may threaten "deferred" forms of communication such as literature and "dumb down" language. The library is also changing rapidly as bookshelves are replaced by computer terminals. Despite the fact that humanities will have to adapt rapidly to these changes, it is unlikely that the traditional forms of literature will be completely abandoned.


See also

The social sciences are groups of academic disciplines that study the human aspects of the world. ... Human Science is a term applied to the investigation of human life and activities by a rational, systematic and verifiable methodology that acknowledges the validity of both data derived externally by impartial observation of sensory experience (objective) and data derived internally by means of impartial observation of psychological experience (subjective). ... The Two Cultures is the title of an influential 1959 Rede Lecture by British scientist and novelist C.P. Snow. ... Contents   Overviews   Academia   Topics   Basic topics   Glossaries   Portals   Categories // This is a list of academic disciplines. ... Public humanities is a term used to describe the work of the federal and state humanities agencies and other organizations that support and present lectures, exhibitions, and other programs for the general public on topics that include history, philosophy, and the arts. ...

References

  1. ^ Robertson, Geoffrey (2006). Crimes Against Humanity. Penguin, 90. ISBN 9780141024639. 
  2. ^ Hart, H.L.A. (1961). The Concept of Law. Oxford University Press. ISBN ISBN 0-19-876122-8. 
  3. ^ Dworkin, Ronald (1986). Law's Empire. Harvard University Press. ISBN ISBN-10: 0674518365. 
  4. ^ Raz, Joseph (1979). The Authority of Law. Oxford University Press. 
  5. ^ Austin, John (1831). The Providence of Jurisprudence Determined. 
  6. ^ see Etymonline Dictionary
  7. ^ see Mirriam-Webster's Dictionary
  8. ^ Levi, Albert W.; The Humanities Today, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 1970.
  9. ^ Walling, Donovan R.; Under Construction: The Role of the Arts and Humanities in Postmodern Schooling Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation, Bloomington, Indiana, 1997.
  10. ^ Adler, Mortimer J.; "A Guidebook to Learning: For the Lifelong Pursuit of Wisdom"
  11. ^ US Census Bureau, educational attainment in 2003. Retrieved on 2007-01-03.

Geoffrey Ronald Robertson QC (born September 30, 1946 in Sydney) is an Australian human rights lawyer, academic, author and broadcaster. ... H. L. A. Hart (Herbert Lionel Adolphus Hart) (1907-1992) is considered one of the most important legal philosophers of the twentieth century. ... The Concept of Law (ISBN 0-19-876122-8) is the most famous work of the legal philosopher H. L. A. Hart. ... Ronald Dworkin (born 1931) is an American legal philosopher, and currently professor of Jurisprudence at University College London and the New York University School of Law. ... Joseph Raz (born 1939) is an influential legal, moral and political philosopher. ... John Austin (1790 - 1859) was a noted British jurist. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
American Humanist Association: Humanism (0 words)
Humanism is a progressive philosophy of life that, without supernaturalism, affirms our ability and responsibility to lead ethical lives of personal fulfillment that aspire to the greater good of humanity.
Humanism and Its Aspirations: Humanist Manifesto III is the latest articulation of what it means to be a Humanist.
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Humanism is a democratic and ethical life stance, which affirms that human beings have the right and responsibility to give meaning and shape to their own lives.
In February 1946, van Praag was one of the principal initiators of establishing the Dutch Humanist League, and became its Chairman from 1946 to 1969.
He is a proponent of the Dutch model of Humanism as a modern social movement that pays much attention to the translation of Humanist principles into education and counselling, and the implementation of the principles into legislation.
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