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Transpersonal Psychological science redirects here. ... Image File history File links Psi2. ... The history of psychology as a scholarly study of the mind and behavior dates, in Europe, back to the Late Middle Ages. ... Abnormal psychology is the scientific study of abnormal behavior in order to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning. ... In psychology, biological psychology or psychobiology[1] is the application of the principles of biology to the study of mental processes and behavior. ... Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Look up Emotion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Experimental psychology is an approach to psychology that treats it as one of the natural sciences, and therefore assumes that it is susceptible to the experimental method. ... Evolutionary psychology (abbreviated EP) is a theoretical approach to psychology that attempts to explain mental and psychological traits—such as memory, perception, or language—as adaptations, i. ... Mathematical Psychology is an approach to psychological research that is based on mathematical modeling of perceptual, cognitive and motor processes, and on the establishment of law-like rules that relate quantifiable stimulus characteristics with quantifiable behavior. ... Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology and neurology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relate to specific psychological processes and overt behaviors. ... Personality psychology is a branch of psychology which studies personality and individual differences. ... Positive psychology is a relatively young branch of psychology that studies the strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive. ... Psychonomics describes an approach to psychology that aims at discovering the laws (Greek: nomos) that govern the workings of the mind (Greek: psyche). The field is directly related to experimental psychology. ... Psychophysics is the branch of cognitive psychology dealing with the relationship between physical stimuli and their perception. ... Social psychology is the scientific study of how peoples thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others (Allport, 1985). ... Transpersonal psychology is a school of psychology that studies the transpersonal, the transcendent or spiritual aspects of the human mind. ...


Sport The basic premise of applied psychology is the use of psychological principles and theories to overcome practical problems in other fields, such as business management, product design, ergonomics, nutrition, law and clinical medicine. ... The Greek letter Psi is often used as a symbol of psychology. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Industrial and organizational psychology (also known as I/O psychology, work psychology, work and organizational psychology, W-O psychology, occupational psychology, personnel psychology or talent assessment) concerns the application of psychological theories, research methods, and intervention strategies to workplace issues. ...


Therapies This is a list of important publications in psychology, organized by field. ... This page aims to list all topics related to psychology. ... This is an alphabetical List of Psychotherapies. ...

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Humanistic psychology is a school of psychology that emerged in the 1950s in reaction to both behaviorism and psychoanalysis. It is explicitly concerned with the human dimension of psychology and the human context for the development of psychological theory. These matters are often summarized by the five postulates of Humanistic Psychology given by James Bugental (1964), mainly that: The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... Behaviorism (also called learning perspective) is a philosophy of psychology based on the proposition that all things which organisms do — including acting, thinking and feeling—can and should be regarded as behaviors. ... Today psychoanalysis comprises several interlocking theories concerning the functioning of the mind. ... Elizabeth & Jim Bugental James Bugental is one of the predominant theorists and advocates of the Existential-Humanistic Therapy movement. ...

  1. Human beings cannot be reduced to components.
  2. Human beings have in them a uniquely human context.
  3. Human consciousness includes an awareness of oneself in the context of other people.
  4. Human beings have choices and non desired responsibilities.
  5. Human beings are intentional, they seek meaning, value and creativity.

The humanistic approach has its roots in existentialist thought (see Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Heidegger, and Sartre). It is also sometimes understood within the concept of the three different forces of psychology; behaviorism, psychoanalysis and humanism. Behaviorism grew out of Ivan Pavlov's work with the conditioned reflex, and laid the foundations for academic psychology in the United States associated with the names of John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner. This school was later called the science of behavior. Abraham Maslow later gave behaviorism the name "the second force". The "first force" came out of Freud's research of psychoanalysis, and the psychologies of Alfred Adler, Erik Erikson, Carl Jung, Erich Fromm, Karen Horney, Otto Rank, Melanie Klein, Harry Stack Sullivan, and others. These theorists focused on the depth of the human psyche, which they stressed, must be combined with those of the conscious mind in order to produce a healthy human personality. Existentialism is the philosophical movement positing that individual human beings create the meaning and essence of their lives as persons. ... Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (IPA: , but usually Anglicized as ;  ) 5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a prolific 19th century Danish philosopher and theologian. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philosopher. ... Martin Heidegger (September 26, 1889 – May 26, 1976) (IPA ) was a highly influential German philosopher. ... Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher and pioneer, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ... Behaviorism (also called learning perspective) is a philosophy of psychology based on the proposition that all things which organisms do — including acting, thinking and feeling—can and should be regarded as behaviors. ... Today psychoanalysis comprises several interlocking theories concerning the functioning of the mind. ... See also the specific life stance known as Humanism For the Renaissance liberal arts movement, see Renaissance humanism Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities... For other uses, see Pavlov (disambiguation). ... John Broadus Watson (January 9, 1878–September 25, 1958) was an American psychologist who established the psychological school of behaviorism, after doing research on animal behavior. ... Burrhus Frederic Skinner (March 20, 1904 _ August 18, 1990) was an American psychologist and author. ... Abraham (Harold) Maslow (April 1, 1908 – June 8, 1970) was an American psychologist. ... Alfred Adler (February 7, 1870 – May 28, 1937) was an Austrian medical doctor and psychologist, founder of the school of individual psychology. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Jung redirects here. ... Erich Fromm Erich Pinchas Fromm (March 23, 1900 – March 18, 1980) was an internationally renowned Jewish-German-American social psychologist, psychoanalyst, and humanistic philosopher. ... Karen Horney Karen Horney (horn-eye), born Danielsen (September 16, 1885 – December 4, 1952) was a German Freudian psychoanalyst of Norwegian and Dutch descent. ... Otto Rank (April 22, 1884 – October 31, 1939) was an Austrian psychologist. ... Melanie Klein Melanie Klein (March 30, 1882 – September 22, 1960) was an Austrian-born British psychoanalyst, who devised therapeutic techniques for children with great impact on contemporary methods of child care and rearing. ... Herbert Harry Stack Sullivan (February 21, 1892, Norwich, New York – January 14, 1949, Paris, France) was a U.S. psychiatrist whose work in psychoanalysis was based on direct and verifiable observation (versus the more abstract conceptions of the unconscious mind favored by Sigmund Freud and his disciples). ...

In the late 1950s, psychologists concerned with advancing a more holistic vision of psychology convened two meetings in Detroit, Michigan. These psychologists; including Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, and Clark Moustakas, were interested in founding a professional association dedicated to a psychology that focused on uniquely human issues, such as the self, self-actualization, health, hope, love, creativity, nature, being, becoming, individuality, and meaning – in short, the understanding of what it means to be human. Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor... Abraham (Harold) Maslow (April 1, 1908 – June 8, 1970) was an American psychologist. ... Carl Ransom Rogers (January 8, 1902 – February 4, 1987) was an influential American psychologist and among the founders of the humanistic approach to psychology. ... Look up self in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Maslows hierarchy of needs. ... For other uses, see Hope (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Love (disambiguation). ... For other uses of Creativity, see Creativity (disambiguation). ... This article is about the physical universe. ... In ontology, a being is anything that can be said to be, either transcendantly or immanently. ... Becoming can refer to: Becoming (song), song by band Pantera Becoming (television show), a television show produced by MTV and also seen on MuchMusic Becoming, Part One, an episode of the TV series Buffy the Vampire Slayer Becoming, Part Two, an episode of the TV series Buffy the Vampire Slayer... Individualism is a term used to describe a moral, political, or social outlook that stresses human independence and the importance of individual self-reliance and liberty. ...

These preliminary meetings eventually led to other developments, which culminated in the description of humanistic psychology as a recognizable "third force" in psychology (along with behaviorism and psychoanalysis). Significant developments included the launch of the Journal of Humanistic Psychology in 1961 and the formation of the Association for Humanistic Psychology (AHP) in 1963. Subsequently, graduate programs in Humanistic Psychology at institutions of higher learning grew in number and enrollment. In 1971, humanistic psychology as a field was recognized by the American Psychological Association (APA) and granted its own division (Division 32) within the APA. Division 32 publishes its own academic journal called The Humanistic Psychologist (Aanstoos, Serlin & Greening, 2000). The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. It has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m. ...

The major theorists considered to have prepared the ground for Humanistic Psychology are Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers and Rollo May. The work of Wilhelm Reich, who postulated an essentially 'good', healthy core self, in contrast to Freud, was an early influence, especially his Character Analysis (1933). Other noteworthy inspirers and leaders of the movement include Roberto Assagioli, Gordon Allport, Medard Boss, Martin Buber, R. D. Laing, Fritz Perls, Anthony Sutich, Erich Fromm, Kurt Goldstein, Clark Moustakas, Lewis Mumford and James Bugental (Aanstoos, Serlin & Greening, 2000). Abraham (Harold) Maslow (April 1, 1908 – June 8, 1970) was an American psychologist. ... Carl Ransom Rogers (January 8, 1902 – February 4, 1987) was an influential American psychologist and among the founders of the humanistic approach to psychology. ... Rollo May (April 21, 1909, Ada, Ohio - October 22, 1994, Tiburon, California) was the best known American existential psychologist, authoring the influential book Love and Will in 1969. ... Wilhelm Reich (March 24, 1897 – November 3, 1957) was an Austrian psychiatrist and psychoanalyst. ... Sigmund Freud His famous couch Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856 - September 23, 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology, a movement that popularized the theory that unconscious motives control much behavior. ... Roberto Assagioli (Venice,February 27, 1888 - Capolona dArezzo, August 23, 1974) was an influential Italian psychiatrist who was the founder of the psychological movement known as Psychosynthesis. ... Gordon Willard Allport (November 11, 1897 - October 9, 1967) was an American psychologist. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Martin Buber (8 February 1878 – 13 June 1965) was an Austrian-Israeli-Jewish philosopher, translator, and educator, whose work centered on theistic ideals of religious consciousness, interpersonal relations, and community. ... R.D.Laing; photo credit Robert E. Haraldsen Ronald David Laing (October 7, 1927–August 23, 1989), was a Scottish psychiatrist who wrote extensively on mental illness and particularly the experience of psychosis. ... Friedrich (Frederick) Salomon Perls (July 8 1893, Berlin - March 14, 1970, Chicago), better known as Fritz Perls, was a noted German-born psychiatrist and psychotherapist of Jewish descent. ... Erich Fromm Erich Pinchas Fromm (March 23, 1900 – March 18, 1980) was an internationally renowned Jewish-German-American social psychologist, psychoanalyst, and humanistic philosopher. ... Kurt Goldstein (1878 - 1965), German neurologist. ... Lewis Mumford (October 19, 1895 – January 26, 1990) was an American historian of technology and science. ... Elizabeth & Jim Bugental James Bugental is one of the predominant theorists and advocates of the Existential-Humanistic Therapy movement. ...



Humanistic psychology usually prefers a qualitative research methods over other epistemological approaches (Clay, 2002). This is part of the field's human science approach to psychology; an emphasis on the actual lived experience of persons (Aanstoos, Serlin & Greening, 2000). Scientifically, the humanistic field views the usage of quantitative methods in the study of the human mind and behaviour as misguided. This is in direct contrast to cognitivism (which aims to apply the scientific method to the study of psychology), an approach of which humanistic psychology has been strongly critical. Instead, the discipline stresses a phenomenological view of human experience, seeking to understand human beings and their behavior by conducting qualitative research. A suggestion is to study Humanistic Psychology using a protocol: 1. identify researchable problem 2. derive hypothesis, 3. literature review of research, 4. develop methodology, 5. data collection and analysis, 6. analysis, 7. falsification, 8. results & conclusions, 9. interpretation. (The Lindblom Protocol) The protocol guides the qualitative research method as a human science approach. From that guideline it is possible to quantify research in psychology as well thus the direct contrast to cognitivism can be mitigated rendering Humanistic Psychology in an expanded position through further use of the scientific method.says I Quantitative psychological research is psychological research which performs statistical estimation or statistical inference. ... In psychology, cognitivism is a theoretical approach to understanding the mind, which argues that mental function can be understood by quantitative, positivist and scientific methods, and that such functions can be described as information processing models. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... This article is about the philosophical movement. ... In the broadest sense qualitative research is research which uses only dichotomous data — that is, data which can take only the values 0 (zero) and 1 (one). ...

Counseling and therapy

Humanistic psychology includes several approaches to counseling and therapy. Among the earliest approaches we find the developmental theory of Abraham Maslow, emphazising a hierarchy of needs and motivations; the existential psychology of Rollo May acknowledging human choice and the tragic aspects of human existence; and the person-centered or client-centered therapy of Carl Rogers, which is centered around the clients' capacity for self-direction and understanding of his/her own development (Clay, 2002). This page has been suggested to meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Person-Centered Therapy (PCT), also knwn as Client-centered therapy, was developed by the humanist psychologist Carl Rogers in the 1940s and 1950s. ...

Other approaches to humanistic counselling and therapy include Gestalt therapy, humanistic psychotherapy, depth therapy, holistic health, encounter groups, sensitivity training, marital and family therapies, body work, and the existential psychotherapy of Medard Boss (Aanstoos, Serlin & Greening (2000). Gestalt Therapy is an existential and experiential psychotherapy that focuses on the individuals experience in the present moment, the therapist-client relationship, the environmental and social contexts in which these things take place, and the self-regulating adjustments people make as a result of the overall situation. ... Holistic health refers to a philosophy of medical care that views physical, mental, and spiritual aspects of life as closely interconnected and equally important approaches to treatment. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Sensitivity Training is a form of training that claims to make people more aware of their own prejudices and sensitive to others, such as homosexuality. ... Relationship counseling may be advertised under several headings: marriage, family, couples, ... . It is usually done by appointment with a face-to-face counsellor. ... Family therapy, also referred to as couple and family therapy and family systems therapy, is a branch of psychotherapy that works with families and couples in intimate relationships to nurture change and development. ... In alternative medicine, body work or massage therapy refers to any treatment which involves some form of touching or physical manipulation. ... Existential psychotherapy is partly based on the existential belief that human beings are alone in the world. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...

Self-help is also included in humanistic psychology. Ernst & Goodison (1981) describe using some of the main humanistic approaches in self-help groups. Co-counselling, which is a purely self-help approach, is regarded as coming within humanistic psychology (see John Rowan's Guide to Humanistic Psychology). Humanistic theory has had a strong influence on other forms of popular therapy, including Harvey Jackins' Re-evaluation Counselling and the work of Carl Rogers. Though the term self-help can refer to any case whereby an individual or a group betters themselves economically, intellectually or emotionally, the connotations of the phrase have come to apply particularly to psychological or psychotherapeutic nostrums, often purveyed through the popular genre of the self-help book. ... ‹ The template below (Mind-body interventions) is being considered for deletion. ... Co-counselling (spelled co-counseling in US English) is a grass-roots, low-cost method of personal change based on reciprocal peer counselling. ... John Rowan is an author, counselor, psychotherapist and clinical supervisor who practices Primal integration in England. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Re-evaluation Counseling, or RC is the worlds major organization for Co-counseling. ... Carl Ransom Rogers (January 8, 1902 – February 4, 1987) was an influential American psychologist and among the founders of the humanistic approach to psychology. ...

As mentioned by Clay (2002) Humanistic psychology tends to look beyond the medical model of psychology in order to open up a nonpathologizing view of the person. This usually implies that the therapist downplays the pathological aspects of a person's life in favour of the healthy aspects. A key ingredient in this approach is the meeting between therapist and client and the possibilities for dialogue. The aim of much humanistic therapy is to help the client approach a stronger and more healthy sense of self, also called self-actualization (Aanstoos, Serlin & Greening, 2000; Clay, 2002). All this is part of Humanistic psychology's motivation to be a science of human experience, focusing on the actual lived experience of persons (Aanstoos, Serlin & Greening (2000). It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Maslows hierarchy of needs. ...

Criticism and debate

Criticism of the field has come from Isaac Prilleltensky (1992) who argues that humanistic psychology - inadvertently - is affirming the social and political status quo, and therefore has remained fairly silent about social change.

Further, in their review of different approaches to positive psychology, Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi (2000) note that the early incarnations of humanistic psychology lacked a cumulative empirical base, and that some directions encouraged self-centeredness. However, according to mainstream humanistic thinkers, humanistic psychology must not be understood to promote such ideas as narcissism, egotism, or selfishness (Bohart & Greening, 2001).

The association of humanistic discourse with narcissistic and overly optimistic worldviews is a misreading of humanistic theory. In their response to Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi (2000), Bohart & Greening (2001) note that along with pieces on self-actualization and individual fulfillment, humanistic psychologists have also published papers on a wide range of social issues and topics, such as the promotion of international peace and understanding, awareness of the holocaust, the reduction of violence, and the promotion of social welfare and justice for all.

Humanistic Psychology has been criticised because its theories are impossible to falsify (Popper, 1969) and lacks predictive power and therefore is not a science. The attempt of many humanistic and positive psychologies to explain all of human behaviour often means that these theories can actually never be proved wrong, which does not mean that they are correct. For instance the psychology of Adler could describe almost any action as a sign that an individual has overcome their feelings of inferiority or alternatively that same behaviour could be described as a failure in this respect. These theories are the scientific equivalent of saying 'either it is raining or it is not'. A good scientific theory should be falsifiable and have predictive power (Chalmers, 1999); therefore humanistic psychology is not a science. Nonetheless, it remains to be determined whether the study of the human psyche is the exclusive domain of science, as psychology broke off from philosophy only as recently as the early twentieth century for reasons that "can be summed up briefly as the application, to certain topics, of empirical and mathematical methods, resulting in widespread acceptance of particular theories and research programs" as opposed to philosophy's characteristic "lack of agreement, among its practitioners, on any of the questions with which they deal" [1].

See also

Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center, a San Francisco, California based distance learning institution (originally founded in 1971 as the Humanistic Psychology Institute), is geared to providing a personalized, mentored educational experience for graduate students. ... Personal development (also known as self-development, self-improvement or personal growth) comprises the development of the self. ... Organismic theories in psychology are a family of holistic psychological theories which tend to stress the organization, unity, and integration of human beings expressed through each individuals inherent growth or developmental tendency. ...


  • Aanstoos, C. Serlin, I., & Greening, T. (2000). History of Division 32 (Humanistic Psychology) of the American Psychological Association. In D. Dewsbury (Ed.), Unification through Division: Histories of the divisions of the American Psychological Association, Vol. V. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Bohart, Arthur C. & Greening, Thomas (2001) Comment: Humanistic Psychology and Positive Psychology. American Psychologist. Jan, Vol 56(1) 81-82.
  • Bugental, J.F.T (1964) The Third Force in Psychology. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 19-25
  • Clay, Rebecca A. (2002) A renaissance for humanistic psychology. The field explores new niches while building on its past. American Psychological Association Monitor, Volume 33, No. 8 September
  • Ernst, Sheila & Goodison, Lucy (1981) In Our Own Hands, A Book of Self Help Therapy. London: The Women's Press
  • Mouladoudis, G. (2001). Dialogical and Person-Centered approach to therapy: Beyond correspondences and contrasts toward a fertile interconnection. The Person-Centered Journal. 8(1).
  • Prilleltensky, Isaac (1992) Humanistic Psychology, Human Welfare and the Social Order. The Journal of Mind And Behaviour, Autumn, Volume 13, Number 4 ps 315-327
  • Rowan, John (1976) Ordinary Ecstasy: The Dialectics of Humanistic Psychology Brunner-Routledge (1 Mar 2001) ISBN 0-415-23633-9
  • Seligman, Martin E. P. & Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly (2000) Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist. Jan, Vol 55(1) 5-14
  • Kirk J. Schneider, James F.T. Bugental, J. Fraser Pierson (eds.) (2001) The handbook of humanistic psychology : leading edges in theory, research, and practice Thousand Oaks, Calif. : Sage Publications, ISBN 0-7619-2121-4

  Results from FactBites:
Association for Humanistic Psychology (2489 words)
Humanistic psychology acknowledges that the mind is strongly influenced by determining forces in society and in the unconscious, and that some of these are negative and destructive.
Humanistic psychology is best known as a body of theory and systems of psychotherapy, but it is also an approach to scholarship and research, to inquiry informed by a strong sense of purpose.
Humanistic psychology is strongly supportive of phenomenological and clinical approaches to the study of the human position in the order of life.
The Roots and Geneology of Humanistic Psychology - Association For Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback (6084 words)
Humanistic psychologists criticized the mainstream psychological schools of the first half of the twentieth century for proclaiming a diminished model of human nature.
The concern in humanistic psychology over inadequate scientific and philosophical models was not merely a matter of achieving a better understanding for the sake of understanding.
Psychology as a science and profession will need to be reminded in each generation of humanistic priorities and of the full breadth of human nature and human potential.
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