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Encyclopedia > Human voice

The human voice consists of sound made by a human using the vocal folds for talking, singing, laughing, crying and screaming. The vocal folds, in combination with the lips, the tongue, the lower jaw, and the palate, are capable of producing highly intricate arrays of sound. Sound is a disturbance of mechanical energy that propagates through matter as a longitudinal wave, and therefore is a mechanical wave. ... Voice production is the generation of sound in the human speech organs. ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) in the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... // Bold textItalic text The vocal folds, also known popularly as vocal cords, are composed of twin infoldings of mucous membrane stretched horizontally across the larynx. ... Speech: (n. ... Harry Belafonte singing, photograph by C. van Vechten Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice, which is often contrasted with speech. ... A young child laughing Laughter is an expression or appearance of merriment or amusement. ... Tears trickling down the cheeks Lacrimation is the bodys process of producing tears, which are a liquid to clean and lubricate the eyes. ... Scream may be: Look up scream in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The tone of voice may be modulated to suggest emotions such as anger, surprise, or happiness. For other uses, see Emotion (disambiguation). ... Anger may be a (physiological and psychological) response to a perceived threat to self or important others, present, past, or future. ... Look up surprise in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “Happy” redirects here. ...


Singers use the human voice as an instrument for creating music. A singer is a musician who uses his or her voice to produce music. ... Voice instrumental music is the term used for compositions and improvisations for the human voice. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Voice types and the cords themselves

Main article: Vocal folds
A labeled anatomical diagram of the vocal folds or cords.
A labeled anatomical diagram of the vocal folds or cords.

Men and women have different vocal cord sizes; adult male voices are usually lower-pitched and have larger cords. The male vocal cords (which would be measured vertically in the opposite diagram), are between 17 mm and 25 mm in length.[1] // Bold textItalic text The vocal folds, also known popularly as vocal cords, are composed of twin infoldings of mucous membrane stretched horizontally across the larynx. ... Image File history File links Gray1204. ... Image File history File links Gray1204. ... // Bold textItalic text The vocal folds, also known popularly as vocal cords, are composed of twin infoldings of mucous membrane stretched horizontally across the larynx. ...


Matching the female body, which on the whole has less muscle than the male, females have smaller cords. The female vocal cords are between 12.5 mm and 17.5 mm in length.[1]


As seen in the illustration, the cords are located just above the trachea (the windpipe which travels from the lungs). Food and drink does not pass through the cords but is instead taken through the esophagus, an unlinked tube. Both tubes are separated by the epiglottis, a "flap" that covers the opening of the trachea while swallowing. When food goes down through the cords and trachea(usually happens when the person inhales while swallowing) it causes choking. The trachea, or windpipe, is a tube that has an inner diameter of about 12mm and a length of about 10-16cm. ... The esophagus (also spelled oesophagus/Å“sophagus, Greek ), or gullet is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. ... The epiglottis is a lid-like flap of fibrocartilage tissue covered with a mucus membrane, attached to the root of the tongue. ... Choking is the obstruction of the flow of air into a persons lungs by a foreign object, commonly food. ...


Cords in both sexes are ligaments within the larynx. They are attached at the back (side nearest the spinal cord) to the arytenoid cartilages, and at the front (side under the chin) to the thyroid cartilage. Their outer edges, as shown in the illustration, are attached to muscle in the larynx while their inner edges or "margins" are free (the hole). They are constructed from epithelium, but they have a few muscle fibers on them, namely the vocalis muscle which tightens the front part of the ligament near to the thyroid cartilage. They are flat triangular bands and are pearly white in colour—whiter in females than they are in males. Above both sides of the vocal cord (the hole and the ligament itself) is the vestibular fold or false vocal cord, which has a small sac between its two folds (not illustrated).[1] A ligament is a short band of tough fibrous connective tissue composed mainly of long, stringy collagen fibres. ... Voicebox redirects here. ... Arytenoid can refer to: Arytenoid cartilage Arytenoid muscle Category: ... Cartilage is a type of dense connective tissue. ... Types of epithelium This article discusses the epithelium as it relates to animal anatomy. ... The Thyreoarytænoideus (Thyroarytenoid) is a broad, thin, muscle which lies parallel with and lateral to the vocal fold, and supports the wall of the ventricle and its appendix. ... The vestibular fold (ventricular fold, superior or false vocal cord) is one of two thick folds of mucous membrane, each enclosing a narrow band of fibrous tissue, the ventricular ligament which is attached in front to the angle of the thyroid cartilage immediately below the attachment of the epiglottis, and... SAC can mean: S-Allyl cysteine, a chemical constituent of garlic SAC Capital Partners, a hedge fund managed by Steven A. Cohen SAC programming language St. ...


The difference in vocal cord size between men and women means that they have differently pitched voices. Additionally, genetics also causes variances amongst the same sex, with men and women's singing voices being categorized into types. For example, among men, there are basses, baritones and tenors, and altos, mezzo-sopranos and sopranos among women. There are additional categories for operatic voices, see voice type. Harry Belafonte singing, photograph by C. van Vechten Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice, which is often contrasted with speech. ... A bass (or basso in Italian) is a male singer who sings in the deepest vocal range of the human voice. ... Baritone (French: ; German: ; Italian: ) is most commonly the type of male voice that lies between bass and tenor. ... This article or section seems to contain too many examples (or examples of poor quality) for an encyclopedia entry. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A mezzo-soprano (meaning medium soprano in Italian) is a female singer with a range usually extending from the A below middle C to the F an eleventh above middle C. Mezzo-sopranos generally have a darker (or lower) vocal tone than sopranos, and their vocal range is between that... Look up soprano in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Teatro alla Scala in Milan, Italy. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Vocal registration

Main article: vocal registration

The human voice is capable in most cases of being a complex instrument. Humans have vocal folds which can loosen or tighten or change their thickness and over which breath can be transferred at varying pressures. The shape of chest and neck, the position of the tongue, and the tightness of otherwise unrelated muscles can be altered. Any one of these actions results in a change in pitch, volume, timbre, or tone of the sound produced. Vocal registration is the term used to denote various theories of how the human voice changes, both subjectively and objectively, as it moves through its pitch range. ... // Bold textItalic text The vocal folds, also known popularly as vocal cords, are composed of twin infoldings of mucous membrane stretched horizontally across the larynx. ... Pitch is the perceived fundamental frequency of a sound. ... The horizontal axis shows frequency in Hz Loudness is the quality of a sound that is the primary psychological correlate of physical intensity. ... In music, timbre, also timber (from Fr. ...


One important categorization that can be applied to the sounds singers make relates to the register or the "voice" that is used. Singers refer to these registers according to the part of the body in which the sound most generally resonates, and which have correspondingly different tonal qualities. There are widely differing opinions and theories about what a register is, how they are produced and how many there are. The distinct change or break between registers is called a passaggio or a ponticello.[2] The following definitions refer to the different ranges of the voice. Passaggio is a singing term used to describe the pitch range at which a singers voice breaks or switches over from ones chest voice (natural singing voice) to ones head voice or falsetto (generally for males). ...


Speaking Voice (Chest)

Main articles: speech, chest register, and belt (music)

The chest voice is the register typically used in everyday speech. The first recorded mention of this register was around the 13th century, when it was distinguished from the throat and the head voice (pectoris, guttoris, capitis -- at this time it is likely head voice referred to the falsetto register, see falsetto article) by the writers Johannes de Garlandia and Jerome of Moravia.[3] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The chest register is generalized to be the range of vocal notes below middle C (C4). ... Belting (or vocal belting) refers to a specific technique of singing by which a singer uses his or her chest voice in order to produce high and powerful pitches. ... The chest register is generalized to be the range of vocal notes below middle C (C4). ... Falsetto (IPA: Italian , General American , RP ) is a singing technique that produces sounds that are pitched higher than the singers normal range. ... Jerome of Moravia or Hieronymus de Moravia ( 1271) was a medieval music theorist. ...


The speaking voice is named as "the chest voice" in the Speech Level Singing method. It is so called because it can produce the sensation of the sound coming from the upper chest. This is because lower frequency sounds have longer wavelengths, and resonate mostly in the larger cavity of the chest. A person uses the chest voice when singing in the majority of his or her lower range.


It was discovered via stroboscope that during ordinary phonation, or speaking in a man that the vocal folds contact with each other completely during each vibration closing the gap between them fully, if just for a small length of time. This closure cuts off the escaping air. When the air pressure in the trachea rises as a result of this closure, the folds are blown apart, while the vocal processes of the arytenoid cartilages remain in apposition. This creates an oval shaped gap between the folds and some air escapes, lowering the pressure inside the trachea. Rhythmic repetition of this movement a certain number of times a second creates a pitched note. This is how the chest voice is created.[3] A stroboscope , also known as a strobe, is an instrument used to make a cyclically moving object appear to be slow-moving or stationary. ... In phonetics, phonation is the use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... Speech: (n. ... // Bold textItalic text The vocal folds, also known popularly as vocal cords, are composed of twin infoldings of mucous membrane stretched horizontally across the larynx. ... Apposition is a figure of speech, in which two elements are placed side by side, with the second element serving to define or modify the first (ex: My wife, a nurse by training. ...


The tonal qualities of the chest voice are usually described as being rich or full, but can also be belted or forced to make it sound powerful by shouting or screaming. Belting (or vocal belting) refers to a specific technique of singing by which a singer uses his or her chest voice in order to produce high and powerful pitches. ...


Use of overly strong chest voice in the higher registers in an attempt to hit higher notes in the chest can lead to forcing. Forcing can lead consequently to vocal deterioration.[2]


Falsetto

Main article: falsetto

In falsetto, the vocal folds, or cords when viewed with a stroboscope are seen to be blown apart and a permanent oval orifice is left in the middle between the edges of the two folds through which a certain volume of air escapes continuously as long as the register is engaged (the singer is singing using the voice). The arytenoid cartilages are held in firm apposition in this voice register also. The length or size of the oval orifice or separation between the folds can vary, but it is known to get bigger in size as the pressure of air pushed out is increased.[3] Falsetto (IPA: Italian , General American , RP ) is a singing technique that produces sounds that are pitched higher than the singers normal range. ...


The folds are made up of elastic and fatty tissue. The folds are covered on the surface by laryngeal mucous membrane which is supported deeper down underneath it by the innermost fibres of the thyro-arytenoid muscle. In falsetto the extreme membranous edges, ie the edges furthest away from the middle of gap between the folds appear to be the only parts vibrating. The mass corresponding to the innermost part of the thyro-arytenoid muscle remains still and motionless.[3]


Some singers feel a sense of muscular relief when they change from chest voice to falsetto.[3]


In women, the falsetto voice refers to the whistle register. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Generally when singers describe their range they exclude the falsetto voice. A classical male singer who routinely sings using the falsetto is called a countertenor. Countertenors tend to count this range. If a singer makes frequent use of their falsetto it may be counted as part of their vocal range. Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... A countertenor is an adult male who sings in an alto or soprano range, often through use of falsetto. ...


Head register

Main article: head register

The head register is used in singing to describe the resonance of singing something feeling to the singer as if it is occurring in their head. It's mentioned in the Speech Level Singing method used in some singing. All voices have a head register, whether bass or soprano.[4] It is not associated with any particular musical pitch, but rather with the resonance of the voice in the head. The head register is generalized to be the range of vocal notes above middle C (C4). ... A basso (or bass) is a male singer who sings in the lowest vocal range of the human voice. ... Look up soprano in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Often explanations for the physiological mechanisms behind the head voice alter from voice teacher to voice teacher. This is because, according to Clippinger: "In discussing the head voice it is the purpose to avoid as much as possible the mechanical construction of the instrument".[5]


Influences of the human voice

Main articles: Voice projection and Evolution

The twelve tone musical scale, upon which most of the world's music is based, may have its roots in the sound of the human voice during the course of evolution, according to a study published by the New Scientist. Analysis of recorded speech samples found peaks in acoustic energy that mirrored the distances between notes in the twelve-tone scale.[1] Voice projection is a strength of speaking or singing whereby the voice is used loudly and clearly. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... The chromatic scale is a scale with twelve pitches, each a semitone or half step apart. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Publishing is the activity of putting information in the public arena. ... New Scientist is a weekly international science magazine covering recent developments in science and technology for a general English-speaking audience. ...


Voices that project well are said to have emotional effects on a listener. It is said that Hitler's loud voice during speeches helped him gain support from Germany prior to World War 2. Speech: (n. ... German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ...


Voice disorders

Main articles: vocal loading and Voice disorders

There are many disorders which affect the human voice; these include speech impediments, and growths and lesions on the vocal cords. Talking for long periods of time causes vocal loading which is stress inflicted on the speech organs. When vocal damage is done, often a ENT specialist must be seen. Vocal loading is the stress inflicted on the speech organs when speaking for long periods. ... Voice disorders are medical conditions affecting the production of speech. ... Voice disorders are medical conditions affecting the production of speech. ... Speech disorders are a type of communication disorders where normal speech is disrupted. ... Vocal loading is the stress inflicted on the speech organs when speaking for long periods. ... Speech organs produce the many sounds needed for language. ...


Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c Page 15, Yehudi Menuhin Music Guides - Voice, Edited by Sir Keith Falkner, ISBN 0-356-09099-X
  2. ^ a b The OXFORD DICTIONARY OF OPERA. JOHN WARRACK AND EWAN WEST, ISBN 0-19-869164-5
  3. ^ a b c d e THE NEW GROVE Dictionary of MUSIC & MUSICIANS. Edited by Stanley Sadie, Volume 6. Edmund to Fryklund. ISBN 1-56159-174-2, Copyright Macmillan 1980.
  4. ^ Clippinger, David A. (1917). The Head Voice and Other Problems: Practical Talks on Singing. Oliver Ditson Company, Page 12. 
  5. ^ Clippinger, David A. (1917). The Head Voice and Other Problems: Practical Talks on Singing. Oliver Ditson Company, Page 14. 

Yehudi Menuhin album cover Yehudi Menuhin, Baron Menuhin, OM, KBE (April 22, 1916 – March 12, 1999) was a Jewish-born, American violinist and conductor who spent most of his performing career in the United Kingdom and eventually became a British citizen. ...

Further reading

  • Puts, D. A., Gaulin, S. J. C., & Verdolini, K. (2006). Dominance and the evolution of sexual dimorphism in human voice pitch. Evolution and Human Behavior, 27: 283-296. Full text

See also

Look up voice, vocal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikibooks
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of
singing

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Speech synthesis is the artificial production of human speech. ... Voice pedagogy, or vocal pedagogy, is the study of the teaching of singing. ... Speaker recognition, or voice recognition is the task of recognizing people from their voices. ... In computer science, speaker verification or voice authentication (see also speaker identification and speaker recognition) is the problem of verifying a persons identity solely by their voice. ... In phonetics, phonation is the use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... Vocal loading is the stress inflicted on the speech organs when speaking for long periods. ... Voice analysis is the study of speech sounds for purposes other than linguistic content, such as in speech recognition. ... A voice frequency (VF) or voice band is one of the frequencies, within part of the audio range, that is used for the transmission of speech. ... Puberty refers to the process of physical changes by which a childs body becomes an adult body capable of reproduction. ... Voice disorders are medical conditions affecting the production of speech. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Phonation. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound, voice) is the study of the sounds of human speech. ... Belting (or vocal belting) refers to a specific technique of singing by which a singer uses his or her chest voice in order to produce high and powerful pitches. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Voice projection is a strength of speaking or singing whereby the voice is used loudly and clearly. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Human voice - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1698 words)
Humans have vocal folds which can loosen or tighten or change their thickness and over which breath can be transferred at varying pressures.
Head voice is different from falsetto in that it is possible to connect it to the chest voice.
The mix voice, also known as the "blend," is a term used in the Speech Level Singing method to describe the range of notes which marks a combination of notes in the chest and head registers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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