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Encyclopedia > Human trafficking
Period and context

History of slavery
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Human trafficking
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Servitude Human Trafficking may refer to: Trafficking in human beings Human Trafficking (TV miniseries) Category: ... Slave redirects here. ... The history of slavery covers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures throughout human history. ... Slavery as an institution in Mediterranean cultures of the ancient world comprised a mixture of debt-slavery, slavery as a punishment for crime, and the enslavement of prisoners of war. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... The Atlantic slave trade, also known as the transatlantic slave trade, was the trade of African people supplied to the colonies of the New World that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean. ... The slave trade in Africa has existed for thousands of years. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islam and slavery. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      // Both... 13th century slave market in Yemen The major juristic schools of Islam traditionally accepted the institution of slavery. ... The history of slavery covers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures throughout human history. ... Sexual slavery is a special case of slavery which includes various different practices: forced prostitution single-owner sexual slavery ritual slavery, sometimes associated with traditional religious practices slavery for primarily non-sexual purposes where sex is common or permissible In general, the nature of slavery means that the slave is... This article is about the abolition of slavery. ... Involuntary servitude is the condition of a person laboring to benefit another against his will due to coercive influence directed toward him. ...


Unfree labour
Debt bondage
Indentured servant
List of slaves
Legal status
Nikolai Getman Moving out. ... Serf redirects here. ... Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will by the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), or other extreme hardship to themselves, or to members of their families. ... Debt bondage or bonded labor is a means of paying off a familys loans via the labor of family members or heirs. ... An indentured servant (also called a bonded laborer) is a labourer unde from the employer in exchange for an extension to the period of their indenture, which could thereby continue indefinitely. ... . ... In law legal status refers to the concept of individuals having a particular place in society, relative to the law, as it determines the laws which affect them. ...


Category: Slavery
Category: Slave trade

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Human trafficking is the recruitment, transportation, harbouring, or receipt of people for the purpose of exploitation. It is estimated to be a $5 to $9 billion-a-year industry.[1] Trafficking victims typically are recruited using coercion, deception, fraud, the abuse of power, or outright abduction. Threats, violence, and economic leverage can often make a victim consent to exploitation. For other uses, see Coercion (disambiguation). ... This article or section includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Look up abduction in Wiktionary, the free dictionary In logic, abduction is a method of reasoning; see abductive reasoning. ...

Exploitation includes forcing people into prostitution or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs. For children, exploitation may also include forced prostitution, illicit international adoption, trafficking for early marriage, or recruitment as child soldiers, beggars, for sports (such as child camel jockeys or football players), or for religious cults.[2] Exploitation means many different things. ... Whore redirects here. ... Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for forms of work, especially in modern or early modern history, in which adults and/or children are employed without wages, or for a minimal wage. ... Slave redirects here. ... Organ theft is the supposed practice of stealing peoples organs (presumably while they are under the influence of drugs or alcohol) via amateur surgery, and then selling them on a supposed black market for use in organ transplants. ... International adoption refers to adopting a child from a foreign country. ... A Chinese Nationalist soldier, age 10, member of a Chinese division boarding planes in Myitkyina (Burma) bound for China, May 1944. ... Beggars in Samarkand, 1905 Begging is the practice whereby a person obtains money, food, shelter or other things from people they encounter by request. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ...

Overviews Human trafficking differs from people smuggling. In the latter, people voluntarily request smuggler's service for fees and there may be no deception involved in the (illegal) agreement. On arrival at their destination, the smuggled person is usually free. On the other hand, the trafficking victim is enslaved, or the terms of their debt bondage or highly exploitative. The trafficker takes away the basic human rights of the victim. [3] [4] People smuggling is a term which is used to describe the illegal and organised smuggling of people across international boundaries, usually for financial gain. ... Debt bondage or bonded labor is a means of paying off a familys loans via the labor of family members or heirs. ...

Victims are sometimes tricked and lured by false promises or physically forced.[5] Some traffickers use coercive and manipulative tactics including deception, intimidation, feigned love, isolation, threat and use of physical force, debt bondage, other abuse, or even force-feeding with drugs to control their victims.[6] People who are seeking entry to other countries may be picked up by traffickers, and misled into thinking that they will be free after being smuggled across the border. In some cases, they are captured through slave raiding, although this is increasingly rare. For other uses, see Temptation (disambiguation). ... This article or section includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Intimidation is generally used in the meaning of criminal threatening. ... Debt bondage or bonded labor is a means of paying off a familys loans via the labor of family members or heirs. ... Slave raiding is a crime sometimes seen as a normal part of warfare. ...

Trafficking is a fairly lucrative industry. In some areas, like Russia, Eastern Europe, Hong Kong, Japan, and Colombia, trafficking is controlled by large criminal organizations. [7] However, the majority of trafficking is done by networks of smaller groups that each specialize in a certain area, like recruitment, transportation, advertising, or retail. This is very profitable because little startup capital is needed, and prosecution is relatively rare.[8] Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR...

Trafficked people are usually the most vulnerable and powerless minorities in a region. They often come from the poorer areas where opportunities are limited, they often are ethnic minorities, and they often are displaced persons such as runaways or refugees (though they may come from any social background, class or race). It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with forced migration. ... A runaway is a minor who has left the home of his or her parent or legal guardian without permission or has been thrown out by his or her parent. ...

Trafficking of children often involves exploitation of the parents' extreme poverty. The latter may sell children to traffickers in order to pay off debts or gain income or they may be deceived concerning the prospects of training and a better life for their children. In West Africa, trafficked children have often lost one or both parents to the African AIDS crisis.[9] Trafficking is a term to define the recruiting, harboring, obtaining, transportation of a person by use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjecting them to involuntary acts, such as acts related to commercial sexual exploitation (including prostitution) or involuntary labor. ...

The adoption process, legal and illegal, results in cases of trafficking of babies and pregnant women between the West and the developing world. In David M. Smolin’s papers on child trafficking and adoption scandals between India and the United States,[10][11] he cites there are systemic vulnerabilities in the intercountry adoption system that makes adoption scandals predictable. David M. Smolin David Mark Smolin is a professor of law at Cumberland School of Law in Birmingham, Alabama. ...

Women, who form over 80% of trafficking victims, are particularly at risk to become involved in sex trafficking. Potential kidnappers exploit lack of opportunities, promise good jobs or opportunities for study, and then force the victims to become prostitutes, participate in pornography[citation needed] or escort services. Through agents and brokers who arrange the travel and job placements, women are escorted to their destinations and delivered to the employers. Upon reaching their destinations, some women learn that they have been deceived about the nature of the work they will do; most have been lied to about the financial arrangements and conditions of their employment; and all find themselves in coercive and abusive situations from which escape is both difficult and dangerous.

The main motive of a woman (in some cases an underage girl) to accept an offer from a trafficker is better financial opportunities for herself or her family. In many cases traffickers initially offer ‘legitimate’ work or the promise of an opportunity to study. The main types of work offered are in the catering and hotel industry, in bars and clubs, modeling contracts, or au pair work. Traffickers sometimes use offers of marriage, threats, intimidation and kidnapping as means of obtaining victims. In the majority of cases, the women end up in prostitution. Also some (migrating) prostitutes become victims of human trafficking. Some women know they will be working as prostitutes, but they have an inaccurate view of the circumstances and the conditions of the work in their country of destination.[12] [13]

Men are also at risk of being trafficked for unskilled work predominantly involving hard labor. Other forms of trafficking include bonded and sweatshop labor, forced marriage, and domestic servitude. Children are also trafficked for both labor exploitation and sexual exploitation. On a related issue, children are forced to be child soldiers.

Many women are forced into the sex trade after answering false advertisements, and others are simply kidnapped. Thousands of children from Asia, Africa, and South America are sold into the global sex trade every year. Often they are kidnapped or orphaned, and sometimes they are actually sold by their own families.[14]



According to United States State Department data, an "estimated 600,000 to 820,000 men, women, and children [are] trafficked across international borders each year, approximately 70 percent are women and girls and up to 50 percent are minors. The data also illustrates that the majority of transnational victims are trafficked into commercial sexual exploitation."[15] Due to the illegal nature of trafficking and differences in methodology, the exact extent is unknown. The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ...

Since the fall of the Iron Curtain, the impoverished former Eastern bloc countries such as Albania, Moldova, Romania, Bulgaria, Russia, Belarus and Ukraine have been identified as major trafficking source countries for women and children.[16][17] Young women and girls are often lured to wealthier countries by the promises of money and work and then reduced to sexual slavery.[18] It is estimated that 2/3 of women trafficked for prostitution worldwide annually come from Eastern Europe, three-quarters have never worked as prostitutes before.[19][20] The major destinations are Western Europe (Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, UK, Greece), the Middle East (Turkey, Israel, the United Arab Emirates), Asia, Russia and the United States.[21][22] An estimated 500,000 women from Central and Eastern Europe are working in prostitution in the EU alone.[23] Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: European Union The European Union On-Line Official EU website, europa. ...

An estimated 14,000 people are trafficked into the United States each year, although again because trafficking is illegal, accurate statistics are difficult.[24] According to the Massachusetts based Trafficking Victims Outreach and Services Network (project of the nonprofit MataHari: Eye of the Day) in Massachusetts alone, there were 55 documented cases of human trafficking in 2005 and the first half of 2006 in Massachusetts.[25] In 2004, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) estimated that 600-800 persons are trafficked into Canada annually and that additional 1,500-2,200 persons are trafficked through Canada into the United States.[26] This article is about the U.S. state. ...

In the United Kingdom, 71 women were known to have been trafficked into prostitution in 1998 and the Home Office recognized that the scale is likely greater as the problem is hidden and research estimates that the actual figure could be up to 1,420 women trafficked into the UK during the same period.[27] Trafficking in people is increasing in Africa, South Asia and into North America. The modern concept of Small Office and Home Office or SoHo , or Small or Home Office deals with the category of business which can be from 1 to 10 workers. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ...

Russia is a major source of women trafficked globally for the purpose of sexual exploitation, Russian women are in prostitution in over 50 countries.[28][29] Annually, thousands of Russian women end up as prostitutes in Israel, China, Japan or South Korea.[30] Russia is also a significant destination and transit country for persons trafficked for sexual and labor exploitation from regional and neighboring countries into Russia, and on to the Gulf states[31], Europe, Asia, and North America. It has been suggested that Arab states of the Persian Gulf be merged into this article or section. ...

In poverty-stricken Moldova, where the unemployment rate for women ranges as high as 68% and one-third of the workforce live and work abroad, experts estimate that since the collapse of the Soviet Union between 200,000 and 400,000 women have been sold into prostitution abroad — perhaps up to 10% of the female population.[32][33] In Ukraine, a survey conducted by the NGO La Strada Ukraine in 2001-2003, based on a sample of 106 women being trafficked out of Ukraine found that 3% were under 18, and the US State Department reported in 2004 that incidents of minors being trafficked was increasing. It is estimated that half million Ukrainian women were trafficked abroad since 1991 (80% of all unemployed in Ukraine are women).[34][35] A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... CIA figures for world unemployment rates, 2006 Unemployment is the state in which a person is without work, available to work, and is currently seeking work. ... La Strada Program is an international network working on the prevention of trafficking in women from Central and Eastern Europe. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ...

The ILO estimates that 20 percent of the five million illegal immigrants in Russia are victims of forced labor, which is a form of trafficking. However even citizens of Russian Federation have become victims of human trafficking. They are typically kidnapped and sold by police to be used for hard labor, being regularly drugged and chained like dogs to prevent them from escaping. [36] There were reports of trafficking of children and of child sex tourism in Russia. The Government of Russia has made some effort to combat trafficking but has also been criticized for not complying with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking.[37] [38]

The majority of child trafficking cases are in Asia, although it is a global problem.

In Asia, Japan is the major destination country for trafficked women, especially from the Philippines and Thailand. The US State Department has rated Japan as either a ‘Tier 2’ or a ‘Tier 2 Watchlist’ country every year since 2001 in its annual Trafficking in Persons reports. Both these ratings implied that Japan was (to a greater or lesser extent) not fully compliant with minimum standards for the elimination of human trafficking trade. There are currently an estimated 300,000 women and children involved in the sex trade throughout Southeast Asia.[39] It is common that Thai women are lured to Japan and sold to Yakuza-controlled brothels where they are forced to work off their price.[40][41] For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... For other uses, see Yakuza (disambiguation). ...

Many of the Iraqi women fleeing the Iraq War are turning to prostitution, while others are trafficked abroad, to countries like Syria, Jordan, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Turkey, and Iran.[42] In Syria alone, an estimated 50,000 Iraqi refugee girls and women, many of them widows, are forced into prostitution.[43] Cheap Iraqi prostitutes have helped to make Syria a popular destination for sex tourists. The clients come from wealthier countries in the Middle East - many are Saudi men.[44] High prices are offered for virgins.[45] The Republic of Iraq is a Middle Eastern country in southwestern Asia encompassing the ancient region of Mesopotamia at the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Whore redirects here. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...

As many as 200,000 Nepali girls, many under 14, have been sold into the sex slavery in India. Nepalese women and girls, especially virgins, are favored in India because of their light skin.[46][47] Motto:  (Sanskrit) Mother and motherland are dearer than the heavens Anthem: Sayaun Thunga Phool Ka Capital (and largest city) Kathmandu (Nepal Bhasa: येँ) Official languages Nepali Recognised regional languages Nepal Bhasa, Maithili, Bhojpuri, Tharu, Tamang, Magar, Awadhi, and other indiginous languages Demonym Nepali Government Interim government  -  King Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah... Sexual slavery is a special case of slavery which includes various different practices: forced prostitution (which can include religious prostitution) single-owner sexual slavery slavery for primarily non-sexual purposes where sex is common or permissible In general, the nature of slavery means that the slave is de facto available...

In parts of Ghana, a family may be punished for an offense by having to turn over a virgin female to serve as a sex slave within the offended family.[48] In this instance, the woman does not gain the title of "wife". In parts of Ghana, Togo, and Benin, shrine slavery persists, despite being illegal in Ghana since 1998. In this system of slavery of ritual servitude, sometimes called trokosi (in Ghana) or voodoosi in Togo and Benin, young virgin girls are given as slaves in traditional shrines and are used sexually by the priests in addition to providing free labor for the shrine.[49] Ritual servitude is practiced in Ghana, Togo, and Benin where traditional religious shrines take young girls in payment for services, or in religious atonement for alleged misdeeds of a family member —almost always a male. ...

Reporters have witnessed a rapid increase in prostitution in Cambodia, Bosnia, and Kosovo after UN and, in the case of the latter two, NATO peacekeeping forces moved in. Peacekeeping forces have been linked to trafficking and forced prostitution. Proponents of peacekeeping argue that the actions of a few should not incriminate the many participants in the mission, yet NATO and the UN have come under criticism for not taking the issue of forced prostitution linked to peacekeeping missions seriously enough. [50] [51][52] [53] This article is about the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... UN redirects here. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ...

In the western world, Canada in particular has a major problem with modern-day sexual slavery. In a 2006 report the Future Group, a Canadian humanitarian organization dedicated to ending human trafficking, ranked eight industrialized nations and gave Canada an F for its "abysmal" record treating victims. The report, titled "Falling Short of the Mark: An International Study on the Treatment of Human Trafficking Victims", concluded that Canada "is an international embarrassment" when it comes to combating this form of slavery.[54] Occident redirects here. ... Sexual slavery is a special case of slavery which includes various different practices: forced prostitution single-owner sexual slavery ritual slavery, sometimes associated with traditional religious practices slavery for primarily non-sexual purposes where sex is common or permissible In general, the nature of slavery means that the slave is... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... There are a number of meanings for humanitarianism: humanitarianism, humanism, the doctrine that peoples duty is to promote human welfare. ...

The report's principal author Benjamin Perrin wrote, "Canada has ignored calls for reform and continues to re-traumatize trafficking victims, with few exceptions, by subjecting them to routine deportation and fails to provide even basic support services."

In the report, the only other country to flunk was the United Kingdom, which received a D, while the United States received a B+ and Australia, Norway, Sweden, Germany and Italy all received grades of B or B-. The report criticizes former Liberal Party of Canada cabinet ministers Irwin Cotler, Joe Volpe and Pierre Pettigrew for "passing the buck" on the issue. The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ...

Commenting on the report, the then Minister of Citizenship and Immigration, Monte Solberg told Sun Media Corporation, "It's very damning, and if there are obvious legislative or regulatory fixes that need to be done, those have to become priorities, given especially that we're talking about very vulnerable people."[55] ГĶηΒαΒŕθ Hon. ... Monte Kenton Solberg PC, MP (born September 17, 1958 in Calgary, Alberta) is a Canadian Member of Parliament, representing the riding of Medicine Hat in the Canadian House of Commons as a member of the Conservative Party of Canada. ... Sun Media Corporation is the owner of several widely read Canadian tabloid newspapers. ...

Causes of trafficking

Some causes of trafficking include:

  • lack of employment opportunities
  • organized crime and presence of organized criminal gangs
  • regional imbalances
  • economic disparities
  • social discrimination
  • corruption in government
  • political instability
  • armed conflict
  • uprooting of communities because of mega projects without proper Resttlement and Rehabilitation packages.
  • Profitability
  • Growing deprivation and marginalization of the poor
  • Insufficient penalties against traffickers
  • According to the UN a major factor that has allowed the growth of sexual trafficking is "Governments and human rights organizations alike have simply judged the woman guilty of prostitution and minimized the trafficker's role."[56]
  • Driven by demand; demand is high for prostitutes and other forms of labor in host countries; therefore there is a very profitable market available to those who wish to become handlers.[opinion needs balancing]

Trafficking in people has been facilitated by porous borders and advanced communication technologies, it has become increasingly transnational in scope and highly lucrative. Unlike drugs or arms, people can be "sold" many times. The opening up of Asian markets, porous borders, the end of the Soviet Union and the collapse of the former Yugoslavia have contributed to this globalization. The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state that existed from 1945 to 1992. ...

Human trafficking and other vulnerability issues

Human trafficking is not a stand alone issue. It is closely related other issues that threaten security well being of the victims. Victims are exposed to continuous threats of physical violence by traffickers to ensure compliance. Many are held in bondage and beaten to suppress resistance. Other threats include absolute poverty due to wage deprivation. They are unprotected by labor laws,long working hours and lack of holiday is common. For example, 15 is the standard working hours per day among Chinese victims in France. In Japan, Thai trafficking victims also complained of breach of work contracts, non-payment of wages, mandatory night work and poor accommodation [65].

Human trafficking is also closely related to sexual exploitation. In Japan the prosperous entertainment market had created huge demand for commercial sexual workers, and such demand is being met by trafficking women and children from the Philippines, Columbia and Thailand. Women are forced into street prostitution, based stripping and live sex acts. Victims of human trafficking are exposed to sexually transmittable diseases including HIV/AIDS. It is believed that human trafficking and forced sex work is one of the causes for prevalence of HIV/AIDS in some countries. On one hand HIV/AIDS increases the number of children trafficked because that they are perceived to be HIV negative, and on the other hand trafficking increases HIV/AIDS transmission because of victims inability to negotiate the use and access of condoms. Multiple sexual partners and injury received during sex increase their chances of infection (MAPODE in its Research Report on Children in Prostitution, Pornography, and Trafficking for Commercial Sexual Exploitation, Labour and Crime in Zambia). In Bangladesh, there is a correlation between ages of those infected with HIV/AIDS ( 15-24 years) with the victims of trafficking [66] , suggesting the linkage between human trafficking and HIV/AIDS.

Trafficking victims are also exposed to different psychological problems. They suffer social alienation in the host and home countries. Stigmatization, social exclusion and intolerance make reintegration into local communities difficult. The governments offer little assistance and social services to trafficked victims upon their return. As the victims are also pushed into drug trafficking, many of them face criminal sanctions.

Efforts to reduce human trafficking

Governments, international associations, and nongovernmental organizations have all tried to end human trafficking with various degrees of success.

Government actions

A human trafficking awareness poster from the Canadian Department of Justice.
A human trafficking awareness poster from the Canadian Department of Justice.

Actions taken to combat human trafficking vary from government to government. Some have introduced legislation specifically aimed at making human trafficking illegal. Governments can also develop systems of co-operation between different nation’s law enforcement agencies and with non-government organisations (NGOs). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (750x967, 89 KB) Summary Human trafficking awareness poster from the Canadian Department of Justice http://canada. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (750x967, 89 KB) Summary Human trafficking awareness poster from the Canadian Department of Justice http://canada. ...

Other actions governments could take is raise awareness. This can take on three forms. Firstly in raising awareness amongst potential victims, in particular in countries where human traffickers are active. Secondly, raising awareness amongst police, social welfare workers and immigration officers. And in countries where prostitution is legal or semi-legal, raising awareness amongst the clients of prostitution, to look out for signs of a human trafficking victim.

Laws against trafficking in the United States are prosecuted at the federal level. The overwhelming majority of states do not have laws against human trafficking. For example, in Maryland it is a felony to have sex with a minor, but only a misdemeanour for making it available to those who wish to have sex with a minor.

Raising awareness can take on different forms. One method is through the use of awareness films [57] or through posters [58].

International law

In 2000 the United Nations adopted the Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, also called the Palermo Convention, and two Palermo protocols there to: In 2000 the United Nations adopted the Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, also called the Palermo Convention and two protocols thereto: Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children; and Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air. ... There are two protocols that are referred to jointly as the Palermo Protocols, or are sometimes incorrectly referred to individually as the Palermo Protocol. ...

All of these instruments contain elements of the current international law on trafficking in human beings. The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children, supplementing the Convention against Transnational Organised Crime, also referred to as the Trafficking protocol, was adopted in 2000. ... The Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, supplementing the Convention against Transnational Organised Crime, was adopted by the United Nations in Palermo, Italy in 2000. ...

Council of Europe

The Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings [59] was adopted by the Council of Europe on 16 May 2005. The aim of the convention is to prevent and combat the trafficking in human beings. The Convention entered into force on 1 February 2008. Of the 47 member states of the Council of Europe, so far 21 have signed the convention and 17 have ratified it.[60] Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

United States Federal law

The United States federal government has taken a firm stance against human trafficking both within its borders and beyond. Domestically, human trafficking is prosecuted through the Civil Rights Division, Criminal Section of the United States Department of Justice. Older statutes used to protect 13th Amendment rights within United States borders are Title 18 U.S.C., Sections 1581 and 1584. Section 1584 makes it a crime to force a person to work against his will. This compulsion can be effected by use of force, threat of force, threat of legal coercion or by "a climate of fear", that is, an environment wherein individuals believe they may be harmed by leaving or refusing to work. Section 1581 similarly makes it illegal to force a person to work through "debt servitude". Amendment XIII in the National Archives The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution officially abolished, and continues to prohibit slavery and, with limited exceptions (those convicted of a crime), prohibits involuntary servitude. ...

New laws were passed under the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000. The new laws responded to a changing face of trafficking in the United States. It allowed for greater statutory maximum sentences for traffickers, provided resources for protection of and assistance for victims of trafficking and created avenues for inter-agency cooperation in the field of human trafficking. It also allows many trafficking victims to remain in the United States and apply for permanent residency under a T-1 Visa.[61]. This law also attempted to encourage efforts to prevent human trafficking internationally, by creating annual country reports on trafficking, as well as by tying financial non-humanitarian assistance to foreign countries to real efforts in addressing human trafficking. A T visa is a type of visa allowing certain victims of Human trafficking to remain in the United States if they agree to assist law enforcement in testifying against the perpetrators. ...

The U.S. State Department has a high-level official whose duties are dedicated to fighting human trafficking: the Director, Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (colloquially, anti-trafficking "czar"). The current office holder is Mark P. Lagon.[2]

International NPOs, such as Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International, have called on the United States to improve its measures aimed at reducing trafficking. They recommend that the United States more fully implement the "United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children" and the "United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime" and for immigration officers to improve their awareness of trafficking and support the victims of trafficking. [62][63] A non-profit organization (abbreviated NPO, or non-profit or not-for-profit) is an organization whose primary objective is to support an issue or matter of private interest or public concern for non-commercial purposes, without concern for monetary profit. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience...

United States State Law on Trafficking Several states have also written laws to address human trafficking in their borders. Florida has written trafficking statutes criminalizing forced labor, sex trafficking, and document servitude. Florida also provides for mandatory law enforcement trainings and victim services.

On May 8, 2006, Connecticut passed an act addressing human trafficking that criminalized coerced work, and made trafficking a violation of the Connecticut RICO Act. is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Nongovernmental Organizations

Several nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have been formed to combat human trafficking:


In her 2007 book Sex at the Margins: Migration, Labour Markets and the Rescue Industry, sociologist Laura María Agustín has criticized what she calls the "rescue industry" for viewing all migrant sex workers as victims of trafficking that need to be saved, with the effect of severely restricting international freedom of movement.[64] A sex worker is anyone who earns their living by providing sexual services. ...

Human trafficking in popular culture

Lilya 4-ever, a film based loosely on the real life of Dangoule Rasalaite, portrays a young woman from the former Soviet Union who is deceived into being trafficked for exploitation in Sweden. Human trafficking has also been portrayed in the Canadian/UK TV drama Sex Traffic. Lilya 4-ever (or Lilja 4-ever) is a 2002 drama film. ... Dangoule Rasalaite was a 16 year old girl who came to Sweden from Lithuania with her boyfriend during the autumn of 1999 looking for work. ... Sex Traffic, a British and Canadian TV production about the trafficking of women first shown in the UK and Canada in October 2004 Directed by David Yates and starring Anamaria Marinca and John Simm Internet Movie Database page official site related campaign link A production for US television Human Trafficking...

Based on true events, Svetlana's Journey by Michael Cory Davis depicts the trials of a 13-year-old who loses her family and is sold to human traffickers by her adoptive family. Drugged, raped, and forced to endure continuous abuse by her 'clients' and traffickers, she attempts to commit suicide, but survives.

A Movie by Dzmitry Vasilyeu, about Human-trafficking in Eastern Europe

Holly (2006) is a movie about a little girl, sold by her poor family and smuggled across the border to Cambodia to work as a prostitute in a red light village. The Virgin Harvest is a feature length documentary that was filmed at the same time.[3]

The 2007 film Trade deals with human trafficking out of Mexico and a brother's attempt to rescue his kidnapped and trafficked young sister. It is based on Peter Landesman's article about sex slaves, which was featured as the cover story in the January 24, 2004 issue of New York Times Magazine. Trade is a 2007 film produced by Roland Emmerich and Rosilyn Heller, directed by Marco Kreuzpaintner and starring Kevin Kline. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

The film The Transporter deals with the hero, Frank Martin, played by Jason Statham, trying to stop a container full of men and women being illegally transported. The Transporter is an action/crime movie released in the United States on October 11, 2002. ... Jason Statham (born on 12 September 1972, in Sydenham, Lewisham, London) is an English actor, known for his roles in the Guy Ritchie crime films Lock, Stock and Two Smoking Barrels, Revolver and Snatch. ...

Human Trafficking (2005) (TV) by Christian Duguay stars Mira Sorvino, Donald Sutherland, and Robert Carlyle. A sixteen-year-old girl from the Ukraine, a single mother from Russia, an orphaned seventeen-year-old girl from Romania, and a twelve-year-old American tourist become the victims of international sex slave traffickers. Sorvino and Sutherland are the Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) agents who struggle to save them. Human Trafficking is a television mini-series about an agent going undercover to stop an organization from trafficking human beings. ...

Ghosts (2006 film) a documentary by independent film maker Nick Broomfield, follows the story of the victims of the 2004 Morecambe Bay cockling disaster, in which smuggled immigrants are forced in to hard labour. Ghosts (鬼佬) is a 2006 drama film directed by Nick Broomfield, based on the 2004 Morecambe Bay cockling disaster. ... Nick Broomfield with his famous sound boom and half-on headphones. ... The Morecambe Bay cockling disaster occurred on the evening of the 5 February 2004 in North West England, United Kingdom when at least 21 cockle pickers were drowned by the incoming tide off the coast of Lancashire/ Cumbria in Morecambe Bay. ...

The Jammed, an Australian film about human trafficking in Australia. [4]

The new film The Sugar Babies (2007) by Amy Serrano is a documentary that highlights the plight of Haitian victims of human trafficking in the Dominican Republic. It was produced by Thor Halvorssen and funded by the Human Rights Foundation. The Sugar Babies is a feature-length documentary film about human trafficking in Haiti and the Dominican Republic. ... Amy Serrano (born in Havana, Cuba) is a Cuban-American writer, director, cinematographer and producer. ... Thor Halvorssen (born 1976) [1] is a human rights advocate and film producer with contributions in the field of public policy, public interest advocacy, individual rights and civil liberties, and pro-democracy advocacy in his native Venezuela. ... Human Rights Foundation logo. ...

The song Kill The Pimps. On December 10, 2006, (International Human Rights Day) The Blood produced their first major work of the 21st century. Their song, criticizes governments that turn a blind eye to human trafficking. is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cover of The Bloods False Gestures for a Devious Public The Blood are a London-based punk rock band, formed in 1982. ...

The European series Matroesjka's deals with girls from ex-soviet countries, who have been deceived into sex slavery in Belgium. This article is about a Belgian television series. ...

The video game Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas features a mission in which the main character helps free refugees trafficked onboard a container ship travelling from Vietnam to the United States. Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas is the fifth video game in the Grand Theft Auto series. ... Container ship in Istanbul Container ships are cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size containers, in a technique called containerization. ...

In the Tom Clancy novel Debt of Honor there is an American woman who has been kidnapped and used as a sex slave by a wealthy Japanese businessman. She is murdered before two CIA operatives sent to rescue her can perform an extraction.

The 2007 film Eastern Promises by David Cronenberg deals with a British midwife who unravels a gang of Russian slavers when she seeks relatives to a baby of a sex slave named Tatiana. Eastern Promises is a 2007 drama and thriller feature film directed by David Cronenberg. ... David Paul Cronenberg OC, FRSC (born March 15, 1943[2]) is a Canadian film director and occasional actor. ...

In the Punisher story arc "The Slavers" by Garth Ennis and Leandro Fernandez, the punisher saves a fugitive sex slave from Moldavia from thugs who were after her and decides to bring down the slavers who trafficked her to the U.S. This article is about the Marvel Comics character. ... Garth Ennis (born January 16, 1970 in Holywood, Northern Ireland) is a Northern Irish comics writer, best known for the DC/Vertigo series Preacher, co-created with artist Steve Dillon. ... Leandro Fernández (born January 30, 1983) is an Argentinian soccer player who currently plays for Newells Old Boys. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ...


  1. ^ Economic Roots of Trafficking in the UNECE Region - Regional Prep. Meeting for Beijing+10 - pr2004/04gen_n03e.htm
  2. ^ uefa.com
  3. ^ http://www.unodc.un.or.th/material/document/Distinguishing.pdf UN Office on Drugs and Crime - Distinguishing between Human Trafficking and People Smuggling
  4. ^ http://action.amnesty.org.au/refugees/comments/people_smuggling/ Amnesty International - People smuggling
  5. ^ Local women fall prey to sex slavery abroad
  6. ^ - Trafficking in Human Beings
  7. ^ http://www.iom.int/jahia/page748.html International Organization for Migration - Counter-Trafficking
  8. ^ HumanTrafficking.com ~ The Online Research and Training Center
  9. ^ http://hrw.org/english/docs/2003/04/01/togo5489.htm] [http://hrw.org/reports/2003/togo0403/
  10. ^ "The Two Faces of Intercountry Adoption: The Significance of the Indian Adoption Scandals" by David M. Smolin, Seton Hall Law Review, 35:403–493, 2005.
  11. ^ "Child Laundering: How the Intercountry Adoption System Legitimizes and Incentivizes the Practices of Buying, Trafficking, Kidnapping, and Stealing Children" by David M. Smolin, bepress Legal Series, Working Paper 749, August 29, 2005.
  12. ^ http://www.prostitutie.nl/studie/documenten/mensenhandel/researchcasestraffick.pdf
  13. ^ http://www.solidaritycenter.org/files/IndoTraffickingFactSheetCauses.pdf Causes of Human Trafficking
  14. ^ UNICEF - Child protection from violence, exploitation and abuse - Trafficking and sexual exploitation
  15. ^ I. Introduction
  16. ^ Eastern Europe Exports Flesh to the EU
  17. ^ Local women fall prey to sex slavery abroad
  18. ^ Crime gangs 'expand sex slavery into shires'
  19. ^ Eastern Europe - Coalition Against Trafficking of Women
  20. ^ A modern slave's brutal odyssey
  21. ^ Moldova: Lower prices behind sex slavery boom and child prostitution
  22. ^ The Russian Mafia in Asia
  23. ^ For East Europe’s Women, a Rude Awakening
  24. ^ Attorney General's Annual Report to Congress on U.S. Government Activities to Combat Trafficking in Persons Fiscal Year 2005
  25. ^ http://www.patriotledger.com/articles/2006/03/27/news/news04.txt
  26. ^ Human Trafficking & Modern-day Slavery - Canada
  27. ^ Stopping Traffic: Exploring the extent of, and responses to, trafficking in women for sexual exploitation in the UK
  28. ^ Russia: With No Jobs At Home, Women Fall Victim To Trafficking
  29. ^ Court acquits brothers in assault and detention case
  30. ^ Police bring home 3 sex slaves from China
  31. ^ Sex worker on trial for abortion
  32. ^ Sold as a sex slave in Europe
  33. ^ Jana Costachi, "Preventing Victimization in Moldova" Global Issues, June 2003
  34. ^ The "Natasha" Trade - The Transnational Shadow Market of Trafficking in Women
  35. ^ Poverty, crime and migration are acute issues as Eastern European cities continue to grow
  36. ^ Correspondent's hour by RFE/RL
  37. ^ [1][dead link]
  38. ^ Human Trafficking & Modern-day Slavery - Russia
  39. ^ Sex-slave trade flourishes in Thailand
  40. ^ "Woman's Dying Wish: to punish traffickers who ruined her life" The Nation, January 23, 2006
  41. ^ A modern form of slavery: Trafficking of Burmese Women and Girls into Brothels in Thailand
  42. ^ Iraqi sex slaves recount ordeals
  43. ^ '50,000 Iraqi refugees' forced into prostitution
  44. ^ Iraqi refugees forced into prostitution
  45. ^ Desperate Iraqi Refugees Turn to Sex Trade in Syria
  46. ^ Millions Suffer in Sex Slavery
  47. ^ Fair skin and young looks: Nepalese victims of human trafficking languish in Indian brothels
  48. ^ Slavery in Ghana. The Trokosi Tradition
  49. ^ Ghana's trapped slaves, By Humphrey Hawksley in eastern Ghana, 8 February 2001. BBC News
  50. ^ http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,,1211214,00.html Nato force 'feeds Kosovo sex trade'
  51. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/3686173.stm Kosovo UN troops 'fuel sex trade'
  52. ^ http://www.refugeesinternational.org/content/article/detail/4146?PHPSESSID=8cd9d5b0df1ae0bbae8d3ddf647ec715 Conflict, Sexual Trafficking, and Peacekeeping
  53. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/4313617.stm UN troops cautioned on sex abuse
  54. ^ ottawasun.com - National/World - Canada's sex-slave shame
  55. ^ Canada an “International Embarrassment” on Sex Trafficking
  56. ^ Treaty to Combat "Sex Slavery"
  57. ^ http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/trafficking_tv_campaign_2002.html
  58. ^ Trafficking in Persons - Poster (English version)
  59. ^ http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/EN/Treaties/Html/197.htm
  60. ^ http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/Commun/ChercheSig.asp?NT=197&CM=1&DF=4/24/2008&CL=ENG
  61. ^ http://www.usdoj.gov/opa/pr/2002/January/02_crt_038.htm
  62. ^ U.S.: Efforts to Combat Human Trafficking and Slavery (Human Rights Watch, 7-7-2004)
  63. ^ Stop Traffiking
  64. ^ Brendan O'Neill, The myth of trafficking, New Statesman, 27 March 2008

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a radio and communications organization which is funded by the United States Congress. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The New Statesman is a left-of-centre political weekly published in London. ...

See also

This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Coalition Against Trafficking in Women (CATW) was founded 1988 as the outcome of an conference on Trafficking in Women organised by several American feminist groups including Women Against Pornography and WHISPER. CATW was the first international non-governmental organisation (NGO) working against trafficking and gained consultative status with ECOSOC (UN... The term comfort women (慰安婦 ian-fu) is a euphemism for women serving in military brothels in Japanese-occupied countries during World War II. Many surviving women have testified to being tricked, coerced or forced into serving the Imperial Japanese Army during its occupation of Korea, China, and much of... The commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) has been defined as one of the worst forms of child labour by the Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention (Convention No 182) of the International Labour Organization (ILO). ... Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women (GAATW) was founded 1994 by several feminist activist, partly in opposition to the Coalition Against Trafficking in Women. ... John Bowe (born 1964 in Minnesota) is an author who has contributed to The New Yorker, The American Prospect, GQ and This American Life,[1] and has published two books with Random House. ... La Strada Program is an international partnership working to prevent trafficking in women from Central and Eastern Europe. ... Whore redirects here. ... Prostitution of children refers to the use of children as prostitutes. ... Slave redirects here. ... VISAYAN FORUM is a non-profit, non-stock and tax-exempt non-government organization in the Philippines established in 1991. ...

External links

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ...

Articles and Resources

  • 'Slavery in the 21st century - BBC
  • 'Asia's sex trade is 'slavery' - BBC
  • Asia's child sex victims ignored – BBC
  • 'Race to break camel slavery - Scotland on Sunday
  • 'Sex trade's reliance on forced labour - BBC
  • 'A modern slave's brutal odyssey - BBC
  • 'Child traffic victims 'failed'- BBC
  • Europe warned over trafficking - BBC
  • 'Balkans urged to curb trafficking - BBC
  • 5,000 child sex slaves in UK - The Independent
  • People trafficking: upholding rights and understanding vulnerabilities, Forced Migration Review, University of Oxford.
  • People trafficking: upholding rights & understanding vulnerabilities - special issue of Forced Migration Review
  • 'Coalition Against Trafficking in Women Factbook
  • International Organization for Migration Data and Research on Human Trafficking 2005
  • HumanTrafficking.com is a program of the Polaris Project. The website is a sizable web-based resource of news articles, journal articles, books and country-specific resources
  • 'Sex Trafficking of Women in the United States: International and Domestic Trends - Coalition Against Trafficking in Women
  • Fears of rising child sex trade – The Guardian
  • Women and Children First: The Economics of Sex Trafficking. Lydersen, Kari. LiP Magazine, April 2002
  • Human Trafficking, Fourth report of the Dutch National Rapporteur
  • 'Kidnapped children sold into slavery as camel racers' - Guardian
  • Amnesty International UK trafficking/forced prostitution
  • Amnesty International USA - Human Trafficking
  • Amnesty International - Council of Europe: Protect victims of people trafficking
  • Gergana Danailova-Trainor, Patrick Belser, Globalization and the illicit market for human trafficking: an empirical analysis of supply and demand , ILO, 2006.
  • WomanStats Database Provides current information on trafficking practice, law, and prevalence disaggregated by country

Logo. ... The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... LiP: Informed Revolt is an alternative magazine that has taken on various incarnations since it was founded by former Britannica. ...

Government and international governmental organizations

  • UN.GIFT - Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking
  • Council of Europe - Slaves at the heart of Europe
  • European Union: European Commission - Documentation Centre
  • European Union: Eurojust and Human Trafficking
  • U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report, 2005
  • US State Department - Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons
  • US Department of Justice Human Trafficking Website
  • US Department of Labor, Bureau of International Labor Affairs
  • Report on US government activities combatting trafficking in 2005
  • United States Department of Homeland Security, Immigration and Customs Enforcement
  • United States Federal Bureau of Investigation
  • International Organization for Migration - Counter-Trafficking Programme
  • United Nations - Trafficking in Human Beings (This site is an excellent source for international legislation and multi-media video files)
  • Trafficking in Minors - United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute
  • OSCE Special Representative on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings
  • International Labour Organization - Human Trafficking in Asia reports
  • Diplomacy Monitor - Human Trafficking
  • The ILO Special Action Programme to combat Forced Labour (SAP-FL)
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  Results from FactBites:
Facts About Human Trafficking (871 words)
Human trafficking is a multi-dimensional threat: it deprives people of their human rights and freedoms, it is a global health risk, and it fuels the growth of organized crime.
Human trafficking has a devastating impact on individual victims, who often suffer physical and emotional abuse, rape, threats against self and family, passport theft, and even death.
Because human trafficking is transnational in nature, partnerships between countries are critical to win the fight against modern-day slavery.
Encyclopedia: Human trafficking in Saudi Arabia (1741 words)
Trafficking in human beings includes recruiting, harbouring, obtaining, and transporting persons by use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjecting them to involuntary acts, such as commercial sexual exploitation (including prostitution) or involuntary labour, i.
Saudi Arabia is a destination for men and women from South and East Asia and East Africa trafficked for the purpose of labor exploitation, and for children from Yemen, Afghanistan, and Africa trafficking for forced begging.
Despite reports of trafficking and abuses of domestic and other unskilled workers and children, there is evidence of only one Saudi Government prosecution of a Saudi employer for a trafficking-related offense during the reporting period.
  More results at FactBites »



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