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Encyclopedia > Human spaceflight
Edward White on a spacewalk during the Gemini 4 mission.
Edward White on a spacewalk during the Gemini 4 mission.

A human spaceflight is a spaceflight with a human crew, and possibly passengers. This makes it unlike robotic space probes or remotely-controlled satellites. Human spaceflight is sometimes called manned spaceflight, a term now deprecated by major space agencies in favor of its gender-neutral alternative. Image File history File links Gemeni4_EVA.jpg‎ Source: http://images. ... Image File history File links Gemeni4_EVA.jpg‎ Source: http://images. ... Edward Higgins White, II (Lt. ... Astronaut Bruce McCandless on an untethered EVA Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) is work done by an astronaut away from the Earth and outside of his or her spacecraft. ... Gemini 4 (officially Gemini IV) was a 1965 manned space flight in NASAs Gemini program. ... The curvature of Earth seen from orbit provides one of the main attractions for tourists paying to go into space Space tourism is the recent phenomenon of individuals paying for space travel, primarily for personal satisfaction. ... ISS in earth orbit. ... Astronaut Bruce McCandless II using a manned maneuvering unit outside the U.S. Space Shuttle Challenger in 1984. ... An artists interpretation of the MESSENGER spacecraft at Mercury A robotic spacecraft is a spacecraft with no humans on board, that is usually under telerobotic control. ... Technicians work on the Ulysses space probe. ... For other uses, see Satellite (disambiguation). ... Gender-neutral language is a description of language usages which are aimed at minimizing assumptions regarding the biological sex of human referents. ...


As of 2007, only the Space Shuttle program and the Soyuz programme are actively launching human spaceflights. The Shenzhou program last launched a human spaceflight in 2005. 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... NASAs Space Shuttle, officially called Space Transportation System (STS), is the United States governments current manned launch vehicle. ... Soyuz spacecraft from the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project The Soyuz human spaceflight programme was initiated in the early 1960s as part of the manned lunar programme that was intended to put a Soviet cosmonaut on the Moon. ... Shenzhou redirects here. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

History

The first manned spaceflight was undertaken on April 12, 1961, when cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin made one orbit around the Earth aboard the Vostok 1 spacecraft launched by the Soviet Union. Valentina Tereshkova became the first woman in space on board Vostok 6 on June 16, 1963. Both spacecraft were launched by Vostok 3KA launch vehicles. Alexei Leonov made the first spacewalk when he left the Voskhod 2 on March 8, 1965. Svetlana Savitskaya became the first woman to do so on July 25, 1984. is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... U.S. Space Shuttle astronaut Bruce McCandless II using a manned maneuvering unit. ... “Gagarin” redirects here. ... Vostok 1 (Russian: , meaning Orient-1 or East-1) was the first human spaceflight. ... 1963 USSR postage stamp depicting Valentina Tereshkova Valentina Vladimirovna Tereshkova (Russian: ; born March 6, 1937), is a retired Soviet cosmonaut and was the first woman to fly in space, aboard Vostok 6 on the 16th of June 1963. ... A joint flight with Vostok 5, Vostok 6 carried the first woman into space, cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Vostok (Russian: Восток, translated as East) was a type of spacecraft built by the Soviet Unions space programme for human spaceflight. ... Aleksei Leonov Aleksei Arkhipovich Leonov (Cyrillic: Алексе́й Архи́пович Лео́нов; born May 30, 1934 in Listvyanka) is a retired cosmonaut who, on March 18, 1965 became the first person... Astronaut Bruce McCandless on an untethered EVA Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) is work done by an astronaut away from the Earth and outside of his or her spacecraft. ... Voskhod 2 (Russian: Восход 2) was a Soviet manned space mission. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Svetlana Yevgeniyena Savitskaya - first woman to perform a space-walk Svetlana Yevgenyevna Savitskaya (Russian: ; born August 8, 1948, in Moscow, Russia) was a Soviet female cosmonaut who flew the Soyuz T-7 in 1982, becoming the second woman in space some 19 years after Valentina Tereshkova. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...


The United States became the second nation to achieve manned spaceflight with the suborbital flight of astronaut Alan Shepard aboard Freedom 7, carried out as part of Project Mercury. The spacecraft was launched on May 5, 1961 on a Redstone rocket. The first U.S. orbital flight was that of John Glenn aboard Friendship 7, which was launched February 20, 1962 on an Atlas rocket. Since April 12, 1981 the U.S. has conducted all its manned spaceflight missions with reusable Space Shuttles. Sally Ride became the first American woman in space in 1983. Eileen Collins was the first female Shuttle pilot, and with Shuttle mission STS-93 in July of 1999 she became the first woman to command a U.S. spacecraft. Astronaut Bruce McCandless II using a manned maneuvering unit outside the U.S. Space Shuttle Challenger in 1984. ... Alan Bartlett Shepard, Jr. ... // Crew Alan Shepard (flew on Mercury 3 & Apollo 14) Backup Crew John Glenn Mission parameters Mass: 1,295 kg (apogee) Maximum Altitude: 187. ... Project Mercury was the first human spaceflight program of the United States. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... First launched in 1953, the American Redstone rocket was a direct descendant of the German V-2. ... For other persons named John Glenn, see John Glenn (disambiguation). ... Crew John Glenn Backup Crew M. Scott Carpenter Mission Parameters Mass: 1,352 kg Perigee: 159 km Apogee: 265 km Inclination: 32. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mercury Atlas 9 rocket and capsule on pad The Atlas is a venerable line of space launch vehicles built by Lockheed Martin. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the space vehicle. ... Sally Kristen Ride (born May 26, 1951) is an American former astronaut who in 1983 became the first American woman to reach outer space. ... Eileen Marie Collins (b. ... STS-93 marked the 95th launch of the Space Shuttle, the 26th launch of Columbia, and the 21st night launch of a Space Shuttle. ...


The People's Republic of China became the third nation with manned spaceflight when astronaut Yang Liwei launched into space on a Chinese-made vehicle, the Shenzhou 5, on October 15, 2003. This flight made China the third nation capable of launching its own manned spacecraft using its own launcher. Previous European (Hermes) and Japanese (HOPE-X) domestic manned programs were abandoned after years of development, as was the first Chinese attempt, the Shuguang spacecraft. In 1989, Iraq declared its intent to develop manned space facilities, but these plans were soon abandoned.[citation needed] This is a Chinese name; the family name is Yang Yáng Lìwěi (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ) (born June 21, 1965) is an astronaut of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Shenzhou 5 (神舟五号) was the first manned space mission launched by the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) on October 15, 2003. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Artists impression of the Hermes Shuttle A cutaway view of the Hermes Shuttle Hermes was a proposed mini-shuttle designed by the European Space Agency which was superficially similar to the US X-20. ... HOPE = H-II Orbiting Plane HOPE-X = HOPE-Experimental A joint venture between NASDA and NAL (both now part of JAXA), started in the 1980s as part of the Japanese contribution to the International Space Station, was cancelled in 2003. ... Shuguang, also known as Project 714 was a manned spacecraft proposed by the Peoples Republic of China during the late 1960s and early 70s that was never built. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...


The furthest destination for manned spaceflight missions have been the Moon, and as of 2007 the only missions to the Moon have been those conducted by NASA as part of the Apollo program. The first such mission, Apollo 8, orbited the Moon but did not land. The first Moon landing mission was Apollo 11, during which -- on July 20, 1969 -- Neil Armstrong became the first man to set foot on the Moon. Six missions landed in total, numbered Apollo 11–17, excluding Apollo 13. Altogether twelve men reached the Moon's surface, the only men to have been on an extraterrestrial body. The Soviet Union discontinued its program for lunar orbiting and landing of human spaceflight missions on June 24, 1974 when Valentin Glushko became General Designer of NPO Energiya.[1] This article is about Earths moon. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the American space agency. ... This article is about the series of human spaceflight missions. ... Apollo 8 was the second successful manned mission of the Apollo space program, in which Commander Frank Borman, Command Module Pilot James Lovell and Lunar Module Pilot William Anders became the first humans to orbit around the Moon. ... The Apollo 11 mission was the first manned mission to land on the Moon. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... This article is about the former American astronaut. ... Apollo 17 was the eleventh manned space mission in the NASA Apollo program. ... Original crew photo. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Valentin Petrovich Glushko (born September 2, 1908 in Odessa, Ukraine, died January 10, 1989) was a Russian engineer and rocketry pioneer. ... S.P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia (Russian: ), also known as RKK Energiya, is a Russian manufacturer of spacecraft and space station components. ...


The longest single manned spaceflight is that of Valeriy Polyakov, who left earth on January 8, 1994, and didn't return until March 22, 1995. Sergei Krikalyov has spent the most time of anyone in space, 803 days, 9 hours, and 39 seconds altogether. Man has had a presence in space for as long as 3,644 days in a row, eight days short of 10 years, spanning the launch of Soyuz TM-8 on September 5, 1989 to the landing of Soyuz TM-29 on August 28, 1999. Valeriy Vladimirovich Polyakov (Russian: , Valeriy Vladmirovič Poljakov) (born April 27, 1942) is the Russian cosmonaut holding the record for the longest spaceflight in human history, staying aboard the Mir space station for more than 14 months during one trip. ... Roskosmos photo. ... Crew Alexander Viktorenko (2) Aleksandr Serebrov (3) Mission parameters Mass: 7150 kg Perigee: 390 km Apogee: 392 km Inclination: 51. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Crew Launched: Viktor Afanasyev (3) Jean-Pierre Haigneré (2) - France Ivan Bella(1) - Slovakia Landed: Viktor Afanasyev (3) Sergei Avdeyev (3) Jean-Pierre Haigneré (2) Mission Parameters Mass: 7150 kg Perigee: 188 km Apogee: 273 km Inclination: 51. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...


For many years beginning in 1961, only two countries, the USSR (later Russia) and United States, had their own astronauts. Later, cosmonauts and astronauts from other nations flew in space, beginning with the flight of Vladimir Remek, a Czech, on a Soviet spacecraft on March 2, 1978. As of 2007, citizens from 33 nations (including space tourists) have flown in space aboard Soviet, American, Russian, and Chinese spacecraft. Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Categories: MEP stubs | 1948 births | Czech astronauts | Communists | Members of the European Parliament from the Czech Republic ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The curvature of Earth seen from orbit provides one of the main attractions for tourists paying to go into space Space tourism is the recent phenomenon of individuals paying for space travel, primarily for personal satisfaction. ...


Safety concerns

See also: Space habitat
See also: Human adaptation to space

Planners of human spaceflight missions face a number of safety concerns. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A pair of ONeill cylinders Interior of a Torus (doughnut-shaped) station A space habitat, also called space colony or orbital colony, is a space station intended as a permanent settlement rather than as a simple waystation or other specialized facility. ... Human physiological adaptation to the conditions of space is a challenge faced in the development of human spaceflight. ...


Life support

Main article: Life support system

The immediate needs for breathable air and drinkable water are addressed by the life support system of the spacecraft. In human spaceflight, the life support system is a group of devices that allow a human being to survive in outer space. ... In human spaceflight, the life support system is a group of devices that allow a human being to survive in outer space. ...

See also: Astronautical hygiene

Astronautical hygiene is the application of science and technology to the study of the recognition and evaluation of the hazards and the prevention or control of the risks to health while working in a low gravity environment. ...

Adverse effects of radiation

NASA is using the International Space Station (ISS) to investigate questions like, "What happens to food and medicine exposed to six-plus months of space travel?"[2] Even in its low-Earth orbit, where the ISS is largely protected from the solar wind by the Earth's magnetic field, researchers suspect reduced nutritional value of foods and reduced potency of medicines, "Could be a sign of radiation at work." “ISS” redirects here. ... A low Earth orbit (LEO) is generally defined as an orbit within the locus extending from the Earth’s surface up to an altitude of 2,000 km. ... The plasma in the solar wind meeting the heliopause The solar wind is a stream of charged particles (i. ... The magnetosphere shields the surface of the Earth from the charged particles of the solar wind. ...


Adverse effects of the microgravity environment

Medical data from ISS astronauts show several adverse effects of a microgravity environment: loss of bone density, decreased muscle strength and endurance, postural instability, and reductions in aerobic capacity. Over time these deconditioning effects can impair astronauts’ performance or increase their risk of injury.[3]


Launch safety

See also: Space launch
See also: Pad abort test

Rockets (including missiles) can be launched from the following: for a launch into an orbital spaceflight and beyond: a launch pad, including a floating platform (see San Marco platform, Sea Launch) for the launch into a suborbital flight also: a missile silo a mobile launcher vehicle a submarine air launch... A Pad abort test is a test of a launch escape system to determine how well the system could get the crew of a spacecraft to safety in an emergency on the launch pad. ...

Reentry safety

See also: Atmospheric reentry

“Reentry” redirects here. ...

Reliability

See also: Reliability engineering

Reliability engineering is the discipline of ensuring that a system (or a device in general) will perform its intended function(s) when operated in a specified manner for a specified length of time. ...

Space programs

As of 2007, human spaceflight missions have been conducted by the Soviet Union, the United States, Russia, the People's Republic of China and by the private spaceflight company Scaled Composites. Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Scaled Composites (often abbreviated as Scaled), formerly the Rutan Aircraft Factory, is located at the Mojave Spaceport, Mojave, California, United States and is headed by aircraft designer Burt Rutan. ...


Several other countries and space agencies have announced and begun human spaceflight programs by their own technology, including Japan(JAXA), India(ISRO), Iran(ISA), Malaysia(MNSA) and Turkey. The Japan Aerospace eXploration Agency (JAXA) is Japans aerospace agency. ... The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is Indias national space agency. ... The Iranian Space Agency (ISA) is a governmental space agency. ... The Malaysian National Space Agency (MNSA) or in Malay, Agensi Angkasa Negara (ANGKASA) is a Malaysian space program established in the year 2002. ...


Currently the following spacecraft (and spaceports) are used for human spaceflight: The Space Shuttle Discovery as seen from the International Space Station. ... A spaceport is a site for launching spacecraft, by analogy with airport for aircraft. ...

Historically, the following spacecraft (and spaceports) have also been used for human spaceflight: Soyuz (Russian: Союз, pronounced sah-YOUS, meaning union) is a series of spacecraft designed by Sergey Korolyov for the Soviet Unions space program. ... Soyuz rocket on launch pad. ... Map showing the location of Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan The Baikonur Cosmodrome (Kazakh: Байқоңыр ғарыш айлағы, Bayqoñır ÄŸarış aylağı; Russian: Космодром Байконур, Kosmodrom Baykonur), also called Tyuratam, is the worlds oldest and largest operational space launch facility. ... This article is about the space vehicle. ... Merritt Island and Kennedy Space Center (shown in white). ... “ISS” redirects here. ... Shenzhou (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a spacecraft from the Peoples Republic of China which first carried a Chinese astronaut into orbit on October 15, 2003. ... CZ-2F rocket A Long March rocket (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is any rocket in a family of expendable launch systems operated by the Peoples Republic of China. ... Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center (酒泉卫星发射中心) is a Peoples Republic of China space vehicle launch facility (spaceport) in the Gobi desert in Gansu Province located about 1,600 km from Beijing. ... The Space Shuttle Discovery as seen from the International Space Station. ... A spaceport is a site for launching spacecraft, by analogy with airport for aircraft. ...

Numerous private companies attempted human spaceflight programs in an effort to win the $10 million Ansari X Prize. The first private human spaceflight took place on June 21, 2004, when SpaceShipOne conducted a suborbital flight. With its second flight within one week, SpaceShipOne captured the prize on October 4, 2004. The Vostok (Восток, translated as East) was a type of spacecraft built by the Soviet Unions space program for human spaceflight. ... Map showing the location of Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan The Baikonur Cosmodrome (Kazakh: Байқоңыр ғарыш айлағы, Bayqoñır ÄŸarış aylağı; Russian: Космодром Байконур, Kosmodrom Baykonur), also called Tyuratam, is the worlds oldest and largest operational space launch facility. ... Project Mercury was the first human spaceflight program of the United States. ... Merritt Island and Kennedy Space Center (shown in white). ... The Voskhod (Восход, Voschod, or Wosschod, translated as Rising) was a spacecraft built by the Soviet Unions space program for human spaceflight (see Voskhod programme). ... Map showing the location of Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan The Baikonur Cosmodrome (Kazakh: Байқоңыр ғарыш айлағы, Bayqoñır ÄŸarış aylağı; Russian: Космодром Байконур, Kosmodrom Baykonur), also called Tyuratam, is the worlds oldest and largest operational space launch facility. ... Description Role: Research Aircraft Crew: one, pilot Dimensions Length: 50. ... Edwards Air Force Base (IATA: EDW, ICAO: KEDW) is a United States Air Force airbase located on the border of Kern County and Los Angeles County, California in the Antelope Valley, 7 miles (11 km) due east of Rosamond. ... Project Gemini was the second human spaceflight program of the United States of America. ... Merritt Island and Kennedy Space Center (shown in white). ... Apollo Spacecraft: Command Module, Service Module, Lunar Module. ... Merritt Island and Kennedy Space Center (shown in white). ... The Salyut (Russian: Салют, Salute or Firework) program was a series of space stations launched by the Soviet Union in the 1970s. ... Map showing the location of Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan The Baikonur Cosmodrome (Kazakh: Байқоңыр ғарыш айлағы, Bayqoñır ÄŸarış aylağı; Russian: Космодром Байконур, Kosmodrom Baykonur), also called Tyuratam, is the worlds oldest and largest operational space launch facility. ... The Almaz (Алмаз - Diamond) program was a series of military space stations launched by the Soviet Union under cover of the Salyut program. ... Map showing the location of Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan The Baikonur Cosmodrome (Kazakh: Байқоңыр ғарыш айлағы, Bayqoñır ÄŸarış aylağı; Russian: Космодром Байконур, Kosmodrom Baykonur), also called Tyuratam, is the worlds oldest and largest operational space launch facility. ... For other uses, see Skylab (disambiguation). ... Merritt Island and Kennedy Space Center (shown in white). ... This article is about Mir, the Soviet space station. ... Map showing the location of Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan The Baikonur Cosmodrome (Kazakh: Байқоңыр ғарыш айлағы, Bayqoñır ÄŸarış aylağı; Russian: Космодром Байконур, Kosmodrom Baykonur), also called Tyuratam, is the worlds oldest and largest operational space launch facility. ... Scaled Composites SpaceShipOne SpaceShipOnes patch The Scaled Composites Model 316 SpaceShipOne is an experimental air-launched suborbital spaceplane that uses a hybrid rocket motor. ... SpaceShipOne and White Knight during a captive carry test flight The Scaled Composites Model 318 White Knight is a jet-powered carrier aircraft used to launch the SpaceShipOne experimental spacecraft. ... The Mojave Spaceport (IATA: MHV, ICAO: KMHV) , also known as the Mojave Airport and Civilian Aerospace Test Center, is located in Mojave, California, at an elevation of 2,791 feet. ... For other uses, see X Prize (disambiguation). ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... SpaceShipOne is small, having a three-person cabin and short but wide wings. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Most of the time, the only humans in space are those aboard the ISS, whose crew of three spends up to six months at a time in low Earth orbit. A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit in which objects such as satellites are below intermediate circular orbit (ICO) and far below geostationary orbit, but typically around 350 - 1400 km above the Earths surface. ...


NASA and ESA now use the term "human spaceflight" to refer to their programs of launching people into space. Traditionally, these endeavors have been referred to as "manned space missions". This article is about the American space agency. ... This article is about the European Space Agency. ...


National spacefaring attempts

Country National term First launched astronaut Date Spacecraft Launcher
Flag of the Soviet Union
USSR
cosmonaut (Russian: космонавт) Yuri Gagarin April 12, 1961 Vostok 1 Vostok
Flag of the United States
USA
astronaut Alan Shepard May 5, 1961 Mercury-Redstone 3 Redstone
Flag of the People's Republic of China
China
yǔhángyuán, hángtiānyuán (in press releases in English: astronaut) ... (1973), abandoned Shuguang 1 Long March 2
Flag of the People's Republic of China
China
yǔhángyuán, hángtiānyuán (in press releases in English: astronaut) ... (1981), abandoned Piloted FSW Long March 2
Flag of Europe
ESA
astronaut, cosmonaut ... (1999), abandoned Hermes Ariane V
Flag of the People's Republic of China
China
yǔhángyuán, hángtiānyuán (English: astronaut, Russian: космонавт) Yang Liwei October 15, 2003 Shenzhou 5 Long March 2F
Flag of Iraq
Iraq
... ... (?), abandoned ... Al Abid 2
Flag of Japan
Japan
... ... (2003), abandoned HOPE-X H-II
Flag of India
India
gaganaut, brahmanaut, antariksha-yaatri ... (2014), planned ... GSLV-Mk II
Flag of Europe
ESA
astronaut ... (2020), planned CSTS or Hopper Ariane V
Flag of Japan
Japan
... ... (2020), planned ... ...
Flag of Turkey
Turkey
... ... (2020), planned ... ...
Flag of Iran
Iran
... ... (?), planned ... Shahab 6 or 7

Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... “Gagarin” redirects here. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Vostok 1 (Russian: , meaning Orient-1 or East-1) was the first human spaceflight. ... The Vostok rocket (Russian Восток, translated as East) was a derivative of the Soviet R-7 ICBM designed for the human spaceflight programme but later used for other satellite launches. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Alan Bartlett Shepard, Jr. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... // Alan Shepard (1) *Number in parentheses indicates number of spaceflights by each individual prior to and including this mission. ... First launched in 1953, the American Redstone rocket was a direct descendant of the German V-2. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Shuguang, also known as Project 714 was a manned spacecraft proposed by the Peoples Republic of China during the late 1960s and early 70s that was never built. ... Long March 2 rocket family is an expendable launch system operated by Peoples Republic of China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Fanhui Shi Weixing, or Recoverable Test Satellite, is a series of Chinese reconnaissance satellites. ... Long March 2 rocket family is an expendable launch system operated by Peoples Republic of China. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the European Space Agency. ... This article is about the year. ... Artists impression of the Hermes Shuttle A cutaway view of the Hermes Shuttle Hermes was a proposed mini-shuttle designed by the European Space Agency which was superficially similar to the US X-20. ... Ariane 5 lifts off with the Rosetta probe on 2 March 2004. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Yang Yáng LìwÄ›i (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ) (born June 21, 1965) is an astronaut of the Peoples Republic of China. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Shenzhou 5 (神舟五号) was the first manned space mission launched by the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) on October 15, 2003. ... The Long March family of rockets (長征火箭, Chang Zheng) is an expendable launch system designed and operated by the Peoples Republic of China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... HOPE = H-II Orbiting Plane HOPE-X = HOPE-Experimental A joint venture between NASDA and NAL (both now part of JAXA), started in the 1980s as part of the Japanese contribution to the International Space Station, was cancelled in 2003. ... The H-II (H2) rocket was a Japanese satellite launch system, which flew seven times between 1994 and 1999, with five successes. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... 2014 (MMXIV) will be a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The GSLV or Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle was developed by India (Indian Space Research Organization) to launch satellites into geostationary orbit. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the European Space Agency. ... 2020 (MMXX) will be a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the trade union, see Confederation of Cameroon Trade Unions CSTS or ACTS (Crew Space Transportation System and Advanced Crew Transportation System respectively) is a crew transportation system which is jointly studied by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Russian Space Agency (Roskosmos) with the objective to design a... Hopper is a proposed European Space Agency orbital craft. ... Ariane 5 lifts off with the Rosetta probe on 2 March 2004. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... 2020 (MMXX) will be a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... 2020 (MMXX) will be a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Shahab is a common Persian name. ...

References

  1. ^ Siddiqi, Asif. Challenge To Apollo The Soviet Union and The Space Race, 1945-1974. NASA, p. 832. 
  2. ^ First Steps to Mars. NASA.
  3. ^ Exploration Systems Human Research Program - Exercise Countermeasures. NASA.
  4. ^ X-15 Hypersonic Research Program. NASA.

See also

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Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Astronaut Bruce McCandless II using a manned maneuvering unit outside the U.S. Space Shuttle Challenger in 1984. ... Astronautical hygiene is the application of science and technology to the study of the recognition and evaluation of the hazards and the prevention or control of the risks to health while working in a low gravity environment. ... “Reentry” redirects here. ... Human physiological adaptation to the conditions of space is a challenge faced in the development of human spaceflight. ... By definition, interplanetary travel is travel between bodies in a given star system; especially the solar system. ... Sam the rhesus monkey flew to an apogee of 88 km in 1959. ... This article is about the American space agency. ... The National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA) is the national space agency of Nigeria. ... The Russian Federal Space Agency, formerly the Russian Aviation and Space Agency (RKA) (Федеральное космическое агентство in Russian: Российское авиационно-космическое агентство) is the government agency responsible for Russias space science program and general aerospace research. ... Soviet Soyuz rockets like the one pictured above were the first reliable means to transport objects into Earth orbit. ... Space and survival is the relationship between space and the long-term survival of the human species and civilization. ... Artists conception of a space habitat called the Stanford torus, by Don Davis Space colonization (also called space settlement, space humanization, space habitation, etc. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... SpaceShipOne is small, having a three-person cabin and short but wide wings. ... Map of countries whose citizens have flown in space Since the first human spaceflight by the Soviet Union, citizens of 37 countries have flown in space. ... This is a timeline of first orbital launches by nationality. ... Description Role: Research Aircraft Crew: one, pilot Dimensions Length: 50. ... This is an alphabetical list of astronauts, people who trained to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft. ... These chronological lists include all crewed spaceflights that reached an altitude of at least 100 km (the FAI definition of spaceflight), or were launched with that intention but failed. ... List of human spaceflights: // Apollo Missions Apollo 7 Apollo 8 - first human flight around the moon Apollo 9 Apollo 10 Apollo 11 - first human moon landing Apollo 12 Apollo 13 - explosion en route to Moon forced emergency return to Earth by using free return trajectory Apollo 14 Apollo 15 Apollo... This is a partial list of manned spacecraft (excluding space stations) sorted by manufacturer/operator and series in chronological order. ... Test pilot Stuart Present ejects safely from the Lunar Landing Training Vehicle. ... Related article Mir extra-vehicular activity (just an excerpt from the table above) List of ISS spacewalks (just an excerpt from the table above) External link NASA JSC Oral History Project: See link near page end to Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology PDF document. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
The Space Review: Sagan's rationale for human spaceflight (1007 words)
The relationship between human spaceflight and the survival of the human species was explained by the spaceflight pioneers Konstantin Tsiolkovsky and Robert Goddard, and has since been expressed by Stephen Hawking, Carl Sagan, and many others.
In medieval times, some people kept a human skull in their home to remind themselves of mortality, and to view their priorities against the big picture of life and death.
Human spaceflight and the survival of the human species are ideal subjects for the screen.
A&G Spaceflight Paper (3446 words)
In the future, powerful sociopolitical reasons for human space flight are likely to include the demands of the world economy for extraterrestrial raw materials, and the continuing need for high-profile international projects as aids in building a stable geopolitical environment here on Earth (Crawford 1995).
As the complex motivations for human space flight are not primarily scientific, it follows that they are not, and indeed cannot be, financed primarily from scientific budgets.
While recognizing that many of the driving forces behind human space flight are social and political, rather than narrowly scientific, it seems clear that science has been, and will continue to be, a major beneficiary of having people in space.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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