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Encyclopedia > Human sacrifice
Homicide
Murder

Assassination
Child murder
Consensual homicide
Contract killing
Felony murder
Honor killing
Human sacrifice
Lust murder
Lynching
Mass murder
Murder-suicide
Negligent homicide
Proxy murder
Ritual murder
Serial killer
Spree killer
Torture murder
Vehicular homicide
Homicide (Latin homicidium, homo human being + caedere to cut, kill) refers to the act of killing another human being. ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... Note: for practices of systematically killing very young children, see infanticide. ... Consensual homicide refers to a killing in which the victim wants to die. ... In most countries with judicial systems, a contract to kill a person is unenforceable by law (in the sense that the customer cannot sue for specific performance and the contract killer cannot sue for his pay). ... The felony murder rule is a legal doctrine according to which anyone who commits, or is found to be involved in, a serious crime (a felony), during which any person dies, is guilty of murder. ... Honour killings are often perpetrated in Muslim-majority areas, especially in countries of the Middle East. ... A lust murder is a homicide in which the offender searches for erotic satisfaction by taking away the victims life. ... Lynching is a form of violence, usually execution, conceived of by its perpetrators as extrajudicial punishment for offenders or as a terrorist method of enforcing social domination. ... Mass murder (massacre) is the act of murdering a large number of people, typically at the same time, or over a relatively short period of time. ... A murder suicide is an act in which an individual kills one or more other persons immediately before, or while killing himself. ... Negligent homicide is a charge brought against persons, who by inaction, allow others under their care to die. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ritual murder is murder performed in a ritualistic fashion or on a basis of rituals. ... Serial killers are individuals who have a history of multiple slayings of victims who were usually unknown to them beforehand. ... A spree killer, also known as a rampage killer, is someone who embarks on a murderous assault on his victims in a short time in multiple locations. ... Torture murder is a loosely defined legal term to describe the process used by murderers who kill their victims by slowly torturing them. ... In most states in the United States, vehicular homicide is a crime. ...

Manslaughter

In English law For a discussion of the law in other countries, see manslaughter In the English law of homicide, manslaughter is a less serious offence than murder with the the law differentiating between levels of fault based on the mens rea (Latin for a guilty mind). Manslaughter may be either: Voluntary where...

Non-criminal homicide

Justifiable homicide
Capital punishment The concept of justifiable homicide in criminal law stands on the dividing line between an excuse and an exculpation. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ...

Other types of homicide

Democide
Familicide
Femicide
Feticide
Filicide
Fratricide
Gendercide
Genocide
Infanticide
Mariticide
Matricide
Parricide
Patricide
Prolicide
Sororicide
Suicide
Regicide
Tyrannicide
Uxoricide
Viricide
Vivicide
Democide is a term coined by political scientist R. J. Rummel for the murder of any person or people by a government, including genocide, politicide, and mass murder. Rummel created the term as an extended concept to include forms of government murder that are not covered by the legal definition... A familicide is a type of murder or murder-suicide in which at least one spouse and one or more children are killed. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Abortion, in its most common usage, refers to the voluntary or induced termination of pregnancy, generally through the use of surgical procedures or drugs. ... Filicide is the deliberate act of a parent killing his or her own son or daughter. ... Fratricide (from the Latin word frater, meaning: brother and cide meaning to kill) is the act of a person killing his or her brother. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... In sociology and biology, infanticide is the practice of intentionally causing the death of an infant of a given species, by members of the same species - often by the mother. ... Mariticide (not to be confused with matricide); from the Latin maritus (married) & cidium (killing), literally means the murder of ones married partner, but has become most associated with the murder of a husband by his wife. ... Matricide is the act of killing ones mother. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Patricide. ... Patricide is (i) the act of killing ones father, or (ii) a person who kills his or her father. ... Prolicide is the act of killing offspring, either before or soon after birth. ... This article is about a kind of homicide. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Regicide (disambiguation). ... Tyrannicide literally means the killing of a tyrant. ... Uxoricide (from Latin uxor meaning wife) is murder of ones wife. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

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Human sacrifice is the act of killing a human being for the purposes of making an offering to a deity or other, normally supernatural, power. It was practiced in many ancient cultures. The practice has varied between different cultures, with some like the Aztecs being notorious for their ritual killings, while others have looked down on the practice as primitive. Victims were ritually killed in a manner that was supposed to please or appease gods or spirits. Victims ranged from prisoners to infants to Vestal Virgins, who suffered such fates as burning, beheading and being buried alive. For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... Aztec is a term used to refer to certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who achieved political and military dominance over large parts of Mesoamerica in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, a period referred to as the Late post-Classic... A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value, which is prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community. ... Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Image of a Roman Vestal Virgin In Ancient Rome, the Vestal Virgins (sacerdos Vestalis), were the virgin holy priestesses of Vesta, the goddess of the hearth. ...


Because information on certain cultures' sacrificial tendencies often comes from outside sources (Greeks and Romans for Celts and medieval Christians for Norsemen, for example) who may have had ulterior propaganda motives, some contemporary historians consider certain allegations of human sacrifice suspect.[citation needed] Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Celts, normally pronounced // (see article on pronunciation), is widely used to refer to the members of any of the peoples in Europe using the Celtic languages or descended from those who did. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... This article is about the occupation of studying history. ... Marcus Aurelius and members of the Imperial family offer sacrifice in gratitude for success against Germanic tribes: contemporary bas-relief, Capitoline Museum, Rome For other uses, see Sacrifice (disambiguation). ...


Over time human sacrifice has become less common around the world, and sacrifices are now very rare. Most religions condemn the practice and present-day laws generally treat it as a criminal matter. Nonetheless it is still occasionally seen today, especially in the least developed areas of the world where traditional beliefs persist.

Contents

Evolution

Further information: Origin of religion, Homo Necans, and Magical thinking

The idea of human sacrifice has its roots in deep prehistory,[1] in the evolution of human behaviour. Mythologically, it is closely connected, or even fundamentally identical with animal sacrifice. There has been a lot of debate on the primacy of myth vs. ritual, and the presence of a myth of human sacrifice should not be taken as necessarily implying the historical existence of the actual practice: human sacrifice may be taken as the re-enactment of an older myth, or conversely a myth can be taken as a memory of an earlier practice of human sacrifice. The development of religion (religiopoiesis) can refer to the gradual emergence of religious behaviour during human evolution out of pre- or proto-religious ritual (origin of religion), or to the crafting of religion as part of the history of religion within a given culture. ... Homo necans is a book on Ancient Greek religion and mythology by Walter Burkert. ... In psychology and cognitive science, magical thinking is non-scientific causal reasoning (e. ... Behavioral modernity is a term used in anthropology and archeology to refer to an important milestone in the evolution of humans. ... A sheep is led to the altar, 6th century BC Corinthian fresco. ... In traditional societies, myth and ritual are two central components of religious practice. ...


Theistic rationalizations of human sacrifice may involve the idea of offering to deities as payment for favorable interventions in an event of special importance, to forestall unfavorable events, or to purchase disclosures about the physical world.

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to the patterns of everyday speech. ...

Context

Human sacrifice has been practiced on a number of different occasions and in many different cultures.


Indians who adhere to Tantrism believe that human sacrifices to the gods can change their fortune. Tantra (Sanskrit: loom), tantric yoga or tantrism is any of several esoteric traditions rooted in Hindu and Buddhist philosophy. ...


Some cultures would use a human sacrifice to dedicate a completed building like a temple or bridge. There is a Chinese legend that says there are thousands of people are entombed in the Great Wall of China. This may be a factual historical event, even as a metaphor, considering the labor and investment of construction and the deceased labors could be buried where they worked. The Great Wall of China (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally Long wall) or (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally The long wall of 10,000 Li (里)[1]) is a series of stone and earthen fortifications in China, built, rebuilt, and maintained between the 5th century BC and the 16th...


In ancient Japan legends talk about Hitobashira ("human pillar"), in which maidens were buried alive at the base or near some constructions as a prayer to ensure the buildings against disasters or enemy attacks.[2] “Buried Alive” redirects here. ...


The Thugee cult that plagued India was devoted to Kali, the goddess of death and destruction. According to the Guinness Book of Records the Thuggee cult was responsible for approximately 2,000,000 deaths. Thuggee (or tuggee) (from the Sanskrit root sthag (Pali, thak), to conceal, mainly applied to fraudulent concealment) was an Indian cult worshipping Kali whose members were known as Thugs. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Suresh Joachim, minutes away from breaking the ironing world record at 55 hours and 5 minutes, at Shoppers World, Brampton. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation), Dead (disambiguation), Death (band) or Deceased (band). ...


Aztec and Mayan people participated in human sacrifice as a part of their culture to diverse gods. For the re-consecration of Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan in 1487, the Aztecs reported that they killed about 80,400 prisoners over the course of four days. According to Ross Hassing, author of Aztec Warfare, "between 10,000 and 80,400 persons" were sacrificed in the ceremony.[3][4] Aztec is a term used to refer to certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who achieved political and military dominance over large parts of Mesoamerica in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, a period referred to as the Late post-Classic... This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ... Tenochtitlan, looking east. ... Events Richard Fox becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... The word Aztec is usually used as a historical term, although some contemporary Nahuatl speakers would consider themselves Aztecs. ...


Jephthah sacrificed his daughter after making a promise to God. In Judges 11:29 he says to God "If you deliver the Ammonites into my hands then I will make a burnt sacrifice out of the first thing that comes out of my house to greet me." He says this anticipating a goat or animal to greet him. Tears start to run down his face when his only child, his daughter. He grants her 3 months to mourn her virginity then sacrifices her as he promised God. Jephtha יפתח -- one of the so called Judges in Israel between the conquest of Canaan and the first king. ... The Tetragrammaton in Phoenician (1100 BC to AD 300), Aramaic (10th century BC to 1 BC) and modern Hebrew scripts. ... For the extinct mollusc see Ammonite. ...


Abraham was instructed by God to sacrifice his only son. He was told to take him to a place on a hill and build an altar and sacrifice him there. Abraham gets as far as bounding up his son and laying him altar and pulls out a knife when God tells him to stop. He had proved his loyalty to God. God gave him a ram to sacrifice instead. (Genesis 22) For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... Look up RAM, Ram, ram in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ...


Sacrifice upon the death of a king, high priest or great leader; the sacrifices were to serve or accompany the deceased leader in the next life. Mongols, Scythians, early Egyptians and various Mesoamerican chiefs could take most of their household, including servants and concubines, with them to the next world. This is sometimes called a "retainer sacrifice," as the leader's retainers would be sacrificed along with their master. For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Afterlife (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... The Scythians (, also ) or Scyths ([1]; from Greek ), a nation of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who spoke an Iranian language[2], dominated the Pontic steppe throughout Classical Antiquity. ... This article is about the culture area. ... A swampy marsh area ...


Aztecs killed prisoners in ritual combats such as gladiatorial or bloody games. This is an example of sacrifice by ritual combat. Martyrdom or sacrifice through war, a controversial argument that asserts military combat to be ritualistic and hence a kind of ritual human sacrifice. This article is about the Roman professional fighters. ... Ballcourt at Monte Alban Ballcourt at Uaxactun The Mesoamerican ballgame[1] was a sport with ritual associations played for over 3000 years by the peoples of Mesoamerica in Pre-Columbian times. ... For other uses, see Martyr (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ...


Priests would try to predict the future from the body parts of a slain prisoner or slave. According to Strabo, Celts stabbed a victim with a sword and divined the future from his death spasms. Sacrifice for divination.[5] For other uses, see Prophecy (disambiguation). ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... This article is about the European people. ... For other uses, see Divination (disambiguation). ...


Droughts, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and comets were seen as a sign of anger or displeasure of gods and sacrifices were made to appease the divine ire. Ancient Minoans may have tried to avert destruction by earthquake by using a man as a sacrificial victim within the temple of Anemospilia.[6] Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Crete or Candia in 1861 // Little is known about the rise of ancient Cretan society, because very few written records remain, and many of them are written in the undeciphered script known as Linear A. This contrasts with the superb palaces, houses, roads, paintings and sculptures that do remain. ... Anemospilia is the archaeological site of an ancient Minoan temple on Crete. ...


Antiquity

Ancient Egypt

There may be evidence of retainer sacrifice in the early dynastic period at Abydos, when on the death of a King he would be accompanied with servants, and possibly high officials, who would continue to serve him in eternal life. The skeletons found show no obvious signs of trauma, leading to speculation that the giving up of life to serve the King may have been a voluntary act, possibly carried out in a drug induced state. At about 2800BC any possible evidence of such practices disappears, though echoes are perhaps to be seen in the burial of statues of servants in Old Kingdom tombs.[7][8] Abydos (Arabic: أبيدوس, Greek Αβυδος), one of the most ancient cities of Upper Egypt, is about 11 km (6 miles) west of the Nile at latitude 26° 10 N. The Egyptian name was Abdju (technically, 3bdw, hieroglyphs shown to the right), the hill of the symbol or reliquary, in which the sacred... The Old Kingdom is the name commonly given to that period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization in complexity and achievement – this was the first of three so-called Kingdom periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the lower Nile...


Phoenicia

According to Roman sources, Phoenicians and Carthaginians sacrificed infants to their gods. The bones of numerous infants have been found in Carthaginian archaeological sites in modern times but the subject of child sacrifice is controversial.[9] Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ... Roman Carthage with former military harbor Carthage (Greek: , Latin: , from the Phoenician meaning new town; Arabic: ) refers both to an ancient city in Tunisia and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... Child sacrifice is the ritualistic killing of children in order to please, propitiate or force supernatural beings in order to achieve a desired result. ...


Plutarch (ca. 46–120 AD) mentions the practice, as do Tertullian, Orosius, Diodorus Siculus and Philo. Livy and Polybius do not. The Hebrew Bible also mentions what appears to be child sacrifice practiced at a place called the Tophet ("roasting place") by the Caananites, ancestors of the Carthaginians, and by some Israelites. Some of these sources suggest that babies were roasted to death on a heated bronze statue. According to Diodorus Siculus: Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicised as Tertullian, (ca. ... Paulus Orosius (c. ... Philo (20 BC - 50 AD), known also as Philo of Alexandria and as Philo Judaeus And as Yedidia, was a Hellenized Jewish philosopher born in Alexandria, Egypt. ... A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ... Polybius (c. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum Hebrew Bible is a term that refers to the common portions of the Jewish canon and the Christian canons. ... Tophet is a location near Jerusalem where according to the Bible the Canaanites sacrificed children to the god Moloch by burning them alive. ... This article is about the land called Canaan. ... Diodorus Siculus (c. ...

There was in their city a bronze image of Cronus extending its hands, palms up and sloping toward the ground, so that each of the children when placed thereon rolled down and fell into a sort of gaping pit filled with fire.

The accuracy of such stories is disputed by some modern historians and archaeologists.[10] Nevertheless, several apparent "Tophets" have been identified, including a large one in Carthage.


Greco-Roman sacrifice

Other than three possible sites in Crete, and allusions to the practice in classical mythology, archaeologists have been unable to find any evidence that Ancient Greeks practiced human sacrifice. The deus ex machina salvation in some versions of Iphigeneia (who was about to be sacrificed by her father Agamemnon) and her replacement with a deer by the goddess Artemis, may be a vestigial memory of the abandonment and discrediting of the practice of human sacrifice among the Greeks in favor of animal sacrifice. Many scholars have suggested a possible analogy with the story of Isaac's attempted sacrifice by his father Abraham in the Bible, which was also stopped at the last minute (though it had first been encouraged) by divine intervention. The Minoan civilization was a bronze age civilization which arose on Crete, an island in the Aegean Sea. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... For other uses, see Deus ex machina (disambiguation). ... 112 Iphigenia is an asteroid. ... This article is about a character in Greek mythology. ... For other uses, see Artemis (disambiguation). ... Sacrifice of Isaac, a detail from the sarcophagus of the Roman consul Junius Bassus, ca. ... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ...


Early Romans practiced various forms of human sacrifice in their first centuries; from Etruscans (or, according to other sources, Sabellians), they adopted the original form of gladiatorial combat where the victim was slain in a ritual battle. During the early republic, criminals who had broken their oaths or defrauded others were sometimes "given to the gods" (that is, executed as a human sacrifice). The Rex Nemorensis was an escaped slave who became priest of the goddess Diana at Nemi by killing his predecessor. Prisoners of war and Vestal virgins were buried alive as offerings to Manes and Di Inferi (gods of the underworld).[citation needed] Archaeologists have found sacrificial victims buried in building foundations. Ordinarily, deceased Romans were cremated rather than buried. Captured enemy leaders, after the victorious general's triumph, would be ritually strangled in front of a statue of Mars, the war god. The Etruscan civilization existed in Etruria and the Po valley in the northern part of what is now Italy, prior to the formation of the Roman Republic. ... The Sabellians may be a Latin people near Rome followers of Sabellianism This is a disambiguation page—a list of articles associated with the same title. ... For other uses, see Gladiator (disambiguation). ... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... The rex Nemorensis, (Latin: the king of Nemi or the king of the grove) was a sort of sacred king who served as priest of the goddess Diana at Aricia in Italy, by the shores of lake Nemi. ... Slave redirects here. ... Diana was the equivalent in Roman mythology of the Greek Artemis (see Roman/Greek equivalency in mythology for more details). ... Nemi, an old town and comune of Italy, is in the province of Rome, on the Alban Hills, in central Lazio, 41°43′N 12°43′E, at 521 metres (1709 ft) above sea-level overlooking Lake Nemi. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Image of a Roman Vestal Virgin In Ancient Rome, the Vestal Virgins (sacerdos Vestalis), were the virgin holy priestesses of Vesta, the goddess of the hearth. ... In Roman mythology, the Manes were the souls of deceased loved ones. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ... A Roman Triumph was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly honour the military commander (dux) of a notably successful foreign war or campaign and to display the glories of Roman victory. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ...


Religious practices changed over the centuries. According to Pliny the Elder, human sacrifice was abolished by a senatorial decree in 97 BCE, although by this time it was so rare that the decree was wholly symbolic. Most of the rituals turned to animal sacrifice like taurobolium or became merely symbolic. A Roman general might bury a statue of his likeness to thank the gods for victory. Dionysius of Halicarnassus[11]refers to a sacrifice of Argei in the Vestal ritual that might have originally included sacrifice of old men. When the Roman Empire expanded, Romans stopped human sacrifices as barbaric. However, other activities with a ritual origin kept being practiced for many years, and even get more massive, like the gladiatorial games and some kinds of executions. Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC Years: 102 BC 101 BC 100 BC 99 BC 98 BC - 97 BC - 96 BC 95 BC 94... A sheep is led to the altar, 6th century BC Corinthian fresco. ... In ancient Rome, the taurobolium was the sacrifice of a bull, usually in connection with the worship of the Great Mother of the Gods, though not limited to it. ... Dionysius Halicarnassensis (of Halicarnassus), Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric, flourished during the reign of Augustus. ... Argei were doll-like figures meant to resemble bound human men, and used ceremonially during the ancient Roman Empire. ... Vesta was the virgin goddess of the hearth, home, and family in Roman mythology. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Barbarian was originally a Greek term applied to any foreigner, one not sharing a recognized culture or degree of polish with the speaker or writer employing the term. ...


Celts

As written in Roman sources, Celtic Druids engaged extensively in human sacrifice.[12] According to Julius Caesar, the slaves and dependants of Gauls of rank would be burnt along with the body of their master as part of his funerary rites.[13] He also describes how they built wicker figures that were filled with living humans and then burned.[14] It is known that druids at least supervised sacrifices of some kind. According to Cassius Dio, Boudica's forces impaled Roman captives during her rebellion against the Roman occupation, to the accompaniment of revellery and sacrifices in the sacred groves of Andate.[15] Some modern-day scholars question the accuracy of these accounts, as they invariably come from hostile (Roman or Greek) sources.[16] Different gods reportedly required different kind of sacrifices. Victims meant for Esus were hanged, those meant for Taranis immolated and those for Teutates drowned. Some, like the Lindow Man, may have gone to their deaths willingly. The Celts practised human sacrifice on a limited scale as part of their religious rituals. ... This article is about the European people. ... In the Celtic religion, the modern words Druidry or Druidism denote the practices of the ancient druids, the priestly class in ancient Celtic societies through much of Western Europe north of the Alps and in the British Isles. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Latin name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Cassius Dio Cocceianus (ca. ... Boudica and Her Daughters near Westminster Pier, London, commissioned by Prince Albert and executed by Thomas Thornycroft Boudica (also spelt Boudicca, formerly better known as Boadicea) (d. ... Roman invasion of Britain: Britain was the target of invasion by forces of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire several times during its history. ... Image of Esus on the Pillar of the Boatmen. ... Hanging is the suspension of a person by a ligature, usually a cord wrapped around the neck, causing death. ... In Celtic mythology Taranis was a god of thunder worshipped in Gaul and Britain and mentioned, along with Esus and Toutatis, by the Roman poet Lucan in his epic poem Pharsalia. ... Immolation means a sacrificial killing by burning, such as: Animal sacrifice Human sacrifice Sati is a Hindu funeral custom involving immolation. ... Toutatis or Teutates, ancient god of Celts and Gauls, whose name means father of the tribe. ... Lindow Man is the name given to the naturally-preserved bog body of an Iron Age man, discovered in a peat bog at Lindow Moss, Wilmslow, Cheshire, northwest England, on 1 August 1984 by commercial peat-cutters. ...


Archaeological evidence from the British Isles seems to indicate that human sacrifice may have been practiced, over times long pre-dating any contact with Rome. Human remains have been found at the foundations of structures from the Neolithic time to the Roman era, with injuries and in positions that argue for their being foundation sacrifices. Similarly, additional human remains in the tombs of aged men show signs of having been killed to be buried in the grave.


Abrahamic traditions

All three Abrahamic religions hold that the Bible condemns human sacrifice. Jewish, Christian, Muslim, and modern historians' views on this subject can be found in the article on the binding of Isaac. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Abraham Sacrificing Isaac by Laurent de LaHire, 1650 Akedah or the Binding of Isaac (‎, Akedát Yitzhák) in Genesis 22, is narration from the Hebrew Bible, in which God asks Abraham to sacrifice his son Isaac on Mount Moriah. ...


Hebrew Bible

References in the Bible point to an awareness of human sacrifice in the history of ancient near-eastern practice. During a battle with the Israelites the king of Moab gives his firstborn son and heir as a whole burnt offering (olah, as used of the Temple sacrifice).[17] (2 Kings 3:27). Also, in the time of the prophet Micah he is able to say, "Shall I give my firstborn for my sin?"(Micah 6.7). So it is possible that the offering of a firstborn son or other human victim developed into the whole burnt offering of the Temple service. Micah the titular prophet of the Book of Micah, also called The Morasthite He is not the same as another prophet , Micaiah son of Imlah. ...


In Genesis 22 there is a story about the binding of Isaac. In this story, God tests Abraham by asking him to present his son, Isaac, as a sacrifice on Mount Moriah. No reason is given within the text. Abraham agrees to this command without arguing. According to the text, God does not want Abraham to actually sacrifice his son; it states from the beginning that this is only a test of obedience. The story ends with an angel stopping Abraham at the last minute and making Isaac's sacrifice unnecessary by providing a ram, caught in some nearby bushes, to be sacrificed instead. Many Bible scholars have suggested this story's origin was a remembrance of an era when human sacrifice was abolished in favor of animal sacrifice.[18][19] For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... Abraham Sacrificing Isaac by Laurent de LaHire, 1650 Akedah or the Binding of Isaac (‎, Akedát Yitzhák) in Genesis 22, is narration from the Hebrew Bible, in which God asks Abraham to sacrifice his son Isaac on Mount Moriah. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... Sacrifice of Isaac, a detail from the sarcophagus of the Roman consul Junius Bassus, ca. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and make it more accessible to a general audience, this article may require cleanup. ... This article is about the supernatural being. ...


Another instance of human sacrifice mentioned in the Bible is the sacrifice of Jephthah's daughter in Judges chapter 11. Jephthah vows to sacrifice to God whatsoever comes to greet him at the door when he returns home if he is victorious. The vow is stated in Judges 11:31 as "Then it shall be, that whatsoever cometh forth of the doors of my house to meet me, when I return in peace from the children of Ammon, shall surely be the Lord's, and I will offer it up for a burnt offering." When he returns from battle, his virgin daughter runs out to greet him. That he actually does sacrifice her is shown in verse 11:39, "And it came to pass at the end of two months, that she returned unto her father, who did with her according to his vow which he had vowed". This example seems to be the exception rather than the rule, however, as the verse continues "And she was a virgin. From this comes the Israelite custom that each year the young women of Israel go out for four days to commemorate the daughter of Jephthah the Gileadite." The lamentations that were offered annually in remembrance of this act frame it as the atrocity it was, and accentuate the grievousness of such a rash action. According to commentators of the rabbinic Jewish tradition this was a gross violation of God's law, and this part of the Bible illustrates the terrible tragedy of human sacrifice. However most scholars believe the passage suggests the sacrifice was accepted by God.[20] Others point out the complete lack of censure by God of Jephthah and the sacrifice of his daughter in the biblical account.[21] The majority of the early Christian Church Fathers saw the sacrifice of Jepthah's virgin daughter as foreshadowing, like Isaac, the death of Jesus Christ not least because Jepthah's vow in the biblical account was made whilst under the influence of the Holy Spirit (Judges 11:29). Jephtha יפתח -- one of the so called Judges in Israel between the conquest of Canaan and the first king. ... Meforshim is a Hebrew word meaning commentators (or roughly meaning exegetes), and is used as a substitute for the correct word perushim which means commentaries. In Judaism this term refers to commentaries by the commentators on the Torah (five books of Moses), Hebrew Bible, the Mishnah, the Talmud, responsa, even...


Christianity

In the Christian religion the belief developed that the story of Isaac's binding was a foreshadowing of the sacrifice of Jesus, whom Christians believe was God's only son and simultaneously God Himself, and who gave up his life so that sins could be forgiven. There is a tradition that the site of the binding of Isaac, Moriah, was also the city of Jesus's future crucifixion, i.e. Jerusalem.[22] However no archaeological or historical evidence supports this assertion. This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and make it more accessible to a general audience, this article may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...


The beliefs of most denominations of Christianity hinge upon a single, specific human sacrifice: that of the Christ. Most Christians believe, at least nominally, that in order to gain access to paradise in the afterlife each individual person must somehow become a partaker in that all-important human sacrifice for the atonement of their personal sins. Some Christians, including Orthodox and Roman Catholics, believe they participate in the sacrifice of Calvary through the Eucharist which they believe is really the body and blood of Jesus Christ.[23][24] Most non Catholics, however, reject this, and rather believe that the bread and wine of communion are merely symbolic, trusting that it is their faith in Christ's finished work on the cross that atones for their sins. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ...


Germanic peoples

According to Norse mythology, Odin hanged himself from the world-tree Yggdrasil for nine nights to attain divine wisdom. Medieval Christian sources refer to Norsemen sacrificing prisoners by hanging them from trees, but the true extent of this behavior is unclear. Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... For other meanings of Odin,Woden or Wotan see Odin (disambiguation), Woden (disambiguation), Wotan (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Yggdrasil (disambiguation). ...


Norse warriors were sometimes buried with enslaved women with the belief that these women would become their wives in Valhalla. A detailed eyewitness account of such a burial was given by Ahmad ibn Fadlan as part of his account of an embassy to the Volga Bulgars in 921. In his description of the funeral of a Scandinavian chieftain, a slave volunteers to die with a Norseman. After ten days of festivities, she is stabbed to death by an old woman, a sort of priestess who is referred to as Völva or "Angel of Death", and burnt together with the deceased in his boat. For other uses, see Valhalla (disambiguation). ... Ahmad ibn Fadlān ibn al-Abbās ibn RaÅ¡Ä«d ibn Hammād (أحمد إبن فضلان إبن ألعباس إبن رشيد إبن حماد) was a 10th century Muslim writer and traveler who wrote an account of his travels as a member of an embassy of the Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad to the king of the Volga Bulgars, the Kit... A diplomatic mission is a group of people from one nation state present in another nation state to represent the sending state in the receiving State. ... The Volga Bulgars were a culture in southern modern Russia along the Volga River from approximately 900 to 1300 AD. They were related to the original Bulgars of Old Great Bulgaria which had existed in approximately the same region around 600 to 700. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view. ... The völva, vala, wala (Old High German), seiðkona, or wicce was a female shaman in Norse mythology, and among the Germanic tribes. ... Ship burial of Igor the Old in 945, depicted by Heinrich Semiradski (1845-1902). ...


Adam von Bremen recorded human sacrifices to Odin in 11th century Sweden, at the Temple at Uppsala, a tradition which is confirmed by Gesta Danorum and the Norse sagas. According to the Ynglinga saga, king Domalde was sacrificed there in the hope to bring greater future harvests and the total domination of all future wars. The same saga also relates that Domalde's descendant king Aun sacrificed nine of his own sons to Odin in exchange for longer life, until the Swedes stopped him from sacrificing his last son, Egil. Adam of Bremen (also: Adam Bremensis) was one of the most important German medieval chroniclers. ... For other meanings of Odin,Woden or Wotan see Odin (disambiguation), Woden (disambiguation), Wotan (disambiguation). ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... The Temple at Uppsala was a temple in Gamla Uppsala (Old Uppsala), near modern Uppsala, Sweden, that was created to worship the Norse gods of ancient times. ... Bishop Asgar, etching by the Danish-Norwegian illustrator Louis Moe (1857—1945) Gesta Danorum (Deeds of the Danes) is a work of Danish history, by 12th century author Saxo Grammaticus (Saxo the Grammarian). It is the most ambitious literary undertaking of medieval Denmark. ... Excerpt NjÃ¥ls saga in the Möðruvallabók (AM 132 folio 13r) circia 1350. ... The Ynglinga saga was originally written in Old Norse by the Icelandic poet Snorri Sturluson about 1225. ... Domalde was a Swedish king of the House of Ynglings, in Norse mythology. ... Ane, On, One, Auchun or Aun the Old (Audhun, the same name as the A-S name Edwin) was the son of Jorund and one of the Swedish kings of the House of Yngling, the ancestors of Norways first king, Harald Fairhair. ... Ongenþeow, Ongentheow, Ongendþeow, Egil, Egill, Eigil, or Angantyr (- ca 515) was the name of one or two semi-legendary Swedish kings of the house of Scylfings, who appear in Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian sources. ...


Heidrek in the Hervarar saga agrees to the sacrifice of his son in exchange for the command over a fourth of the men of Reidgotaland. With these, he seizes the entire kingdom and prevents the sacrifice of his son, dedicating those fallen in his rebellion to Odin instead. Heidrek or Heiðrekr was one of the main characters in the cycle about the magic sword Tyrfing. ... Hervarar saga ok Heidhreks is a fornaldarsaga from the 13th century using material from an older saga. ... Reidgotaland, Hreidgotaland or Hreiðgotaland was a land in Scandinavian mythology. ...


China

The ancient Chinese are known to have made sacrifices of young men and women to river deities, and to have buried slaves alive with their owners upon death as part of a funeral service. This was especially prevalent during the Shang and Zhou Dynasties. During the Warring States period, Ximen Bao of Wei demonstrated to the villagers that sacrifice to river deities was actually a ploy by crooked priests to pocket money.[25] In Chinese lore, Ximen Bao is regarded as a folk hero who pointed out the absurdity of human sacrifice. Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ... This article is about the ancient Chinese dynasty. ... Alternative meaning: Warring States Period (Japan) The Warring States Period (traditional Chinese: 戰國時代, simplified Chinese: 战国时代 pinyin Zhànguó Shídài) takes place from sometime in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by Qin in 221 BC. It is nominally... State of Wei (small seal script, 220 BC) The Wei (Chinese: 魏; pinyin: Wèi) was a state during the Warring States Period in China. ...


The sacrifice of a high-ranking male's slaves, concubines or servants upon his death (called Xun Zang 殉葬 or more specifically Sheng Xun 生殉) was a more common form. The stated purpose is to provide companion for the dead in afterlife. In earlier times the victims were either killed or buried alive, while later they were usually forced to commit suicide. A swampy marsh area ...


Funeral human sacrifice was abolished by the Qin Dynasty in 384 BC. Afterwards it became relatively rare throughout the central parts of China.. However, the Hongwu Emperor of the Ming Dynasty revived it in 1395 when his second son died and two of the prince's concubines were sacrificed. In 1464, the Zhengtong Emperor in his will forbade the practice for Ming emperors and princes. Qin Dynasty in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC - 380s BC - 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC Years: 389 BC 388 BC 387 BC 386 BC 385 BC - 384 BC - 383 BC 382 BC... izzy lewis loves the weewee in her pooter. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Events February - Christian I of Denmark and Norway who was also serving as King of Sweden is declared deposed from the later throne. ... Zhu Qizhen (November 29, 1427 – February 23, 1464) was an emperor of the Ming Dynasty. ...


Human sacrifice was also practiced by the Manchus. Following Emperor Nurhaci's death, Lady Abahai and his two lesser consorts committed suicide. During the Qing Dynasty, sacrifice of slaves was banned by Emperor Kangxi in 1673. The Manchu (manju in Manchu; 滿族 (pinyin: mǎnzú) in Chinese, often shortened to 滿 (pinyin: mǎn) are an ethnic group who originated in northeastern Manchuria. ... Also known as Taizu Emperor, Nurhaci or Nuerhachi (Chinese: 努爾哈赤; Manchu: ) (1558-September 30, 1626; r. ... Lady Abahai was the First Rank Concubine of Nurhachi of the Manchu dynasty in ancient China and mother of Prince Dorgon, Prince Dodo and Prince Ajige. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... This article needs cleanup, so as to conform to a higher standard. ... 1673 (MDCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Pre-Columbian Americas

Altar for human sacrifice at Monte Alban
Altar for human sacrifice at Monte Alban

Some of the most famous forms of ancient human sacrifice were performed by various Pre-Columbian civilizations in the Americas.[26] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 1503 KB) Summary Photo taken by Bobak HaEri. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 1503 KB) Summary Photo taken by Bobak HaEri. ... Monte Albán is a large archeological site in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico. ... The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the Americas continent. ... Central New York City. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...


Mixtec

The Mixtec players of the Mesoamerican ballgame were sacrificed when the game was used to resolve a dispute between cities. The rulers would play a game instead of going to battle. The losing ruler would be sacrificed. The ruler "Eight Deer" was considered a great ball player and won several cities this way, until he lost a ball game and was sacrificed. Codex Zouche-Nuttall, a pre-Columbian piece of Mixtec writing, now in the British Museum The Mixtec (or Mixteca) are a Native American people centered in the Mexican state of Oaxaca. ... Ballcourt at Monte Alban Ballcourt at Uaxactun The Mesoamerican ballgame[1] was a sport with ritual associations played for over 3000 years by the peoples of Mesoamerica in Pre-Columbian times. ...


Maya

The Maya held the belief that cenotes or limestone sinkholes were portals to the underworld and sacrificed human beings to please the water god Chaac. The most notable example of this is the "Sacred Cenote" at Chichen Itza where extensive excavations have recovered the remains of 42 individuals, half of them under twenty years old. This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ... Sacred Cenote, Chichén Itzá Cenote in Quintana Roo, Mexico Cenote (pronounced in Spanish seh-no-teh and in English say-no-tay, plural: cenotes) is the name given in Central America and southern Mexico to a type of freshwater-filled limestone sinkhole. ... Chaac (also rendered as Chaak or Chac) is the originally Yucatec name of the Maya rain deity. ... Sacred Cenote at Chichén Itzá Sacred Cenote (Well of Sacrifice) is a noted cenote at the Mayan site of Chichen Itza. ... Temple of the Warriors Chichen Itza is the largest of the Pre-Columbian archaeological sites in Yucat n, Mexico. ...


In the Post-Classic period, the victims and the altar are represented as daubed in a hue now known as Maya Blue, obtained from the añil plant and the clay mineral palygorskite.[27] Mesoamerican chronology The chronology of Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica is usually divided into the following eras: Paleo-Indian Period c. ... A warrior with Azul Maya on the background Maya Blue (Spanish: ) is a unique bright blue to greenish-blue pigment manufactured by cultures of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, such as the Maya and Aztec. ... Binomial name Indigofera suffruticosa Mill. ... Palygorskite (also known as attapulgite) is a magnesium aluminum silicate from a type of clay soil common to the Southeastern United States. ...


Aztec

The Aztecs were particularly noted for practicing human sacrifice on a large scale; an offering to Huitzilopochtli would be made to restore the blood he lost, as the sun was engaged in a daily battle. Human sacrifices would prevent the end of the world that could happen on each cycle of 52 years. In the 1487 re-consecration of the Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan as many as 80,400 prisoners were sacrificed. Human sacrifice is known to have been an aspect of Aztec culture, although the extent of the practice is debated by scholars. ... Aztec is a term used to refer to certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who achieved political and military dominance over large parts of Mesoamerica in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, a period referred to as the Late post-Classic... A pictorial representation of Huitzilopochtli from the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e História, México In Aztec mythology, Huitzilopochtli, also spelled Uitzilopochtli, (IPA: (Hummingbird of the South, He of the South, Hummingbird on the Left (South), or Left-Handed Humming Bird – huitzil is the Nahuatl word for hummingbird... Sol redirects here. ... The Great Pyramid or Templo Mayor was the main temple of the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan (modern Mexico City). ...

Aztec sacrifices, Codex Mendoza.
Aztec sacrifices, Codex Mendoza.

Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... The first page of Codex Mendoza. ...

Tlaloc

Main article: Child sacrifice in pre-Columbian cultures

Tlaloc would require weeping boys in the first months of the Aztec calendar to be ritually murdered. The remains of a sacrificed boy to Huitzilopochtli in the Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan (photo by Héctor Monta). ... Tlaloc, as shown in the late 16th century Codex Rios. ... The Aztec calendar was the calendar of the Aztec people of Pre-Columbian Mexico. ...


Xipe Totec

Sacrifices to Xipe Totec were bound to a post and shot full of arrows. The dead victim would be skinned and a priest would use the skin. Earth mother Teteoinnan required flayed female victims. Xipe Totec ias depicted in the Codex Borgia, notice the bloody weapon and the flayed human skin he wears as a suit with the hands hanging down. ... An arrow is a pointed projectile that is shot with a bow. ... In Aztec mythology, Teteoinnan (also known as Tozi and Toci) was the mother of the gods, the personification of the power of nature, and the goddess of healing and sweat baths. ... Michelangelos Last Judgment - Saint Bartholomew holding the knife of his martyrdom and his flayed skin Flaying is the removal of skin from the body. ...


Inca empire

A number of mummies of sacrificed children have been recovered in the Inca regions of South America, an ancient practice known as capacocha.[28] South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The remains of a sacrificed boy to Huitzilopochtli in the Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan (photo by Héctor Monta). ...


West Africa

Human sacrifice was common in west African states up to and during the nineteenth century. The Annual customs of Dahomey was the most notorious example, but sacrifices were carried out all along the west African coast and further inland. Sacrfices were particularly common after the death of a King or Queen, and there are many recorded cases of hundreds or even thousands of slaves being sacrificed at such events. Sacrifices were particularly common in Dahomey, in the Benin Empire, in what is now Ghana, and in the small independent states in what is now southern Nigeria. Every year in the Kingdom of Dahomey, a huge festival in honor of the ancestors was organized called the annual customs. In the customs, the king would assemble the entire court, foreign dignitaries, and the populace. ... Dahomey was a kingdom in Africa, situated in what is now the nation of Benin. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


In the northern parts of West Africa, human sacrifice had become rare early as Islam became more established in these areas such as the Hausa States. Human sacrifice was officially banned in the remainder of West African states only by coercion, or in some cases annexation, by either the British or French. An important step was the British co-ercing the powerful Egbo secret society to oppose human sacrifice in 1850. This society was powerful in a large number of states in what is now south-eastern Nigeria. Nonetheless, human sacrifice continued, normally in secret, until west Africa came under firm colonial control. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Hausa Kingdoms were a collection of independent city-states situated between the Niger River and Lake Chad. ... Ceremonies during the annexation of Hawaii. ... Ekpe, also known as Egbo (English: Lion), is a secret society flourishing chiefly among the Efiks of the Cross River State and the Oron and part of Ibibio (Uruan) of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, as well as Nigerians in the diaspora, such as in Cuba. ...


The last major center of human sacrifice was the Benin Empire in modern Nigeria. The Benin Empire agreed with the British to prohibit human sacrifice in the 1890s. However, for five years the rulers continued human sacrifice on a large scale. After an incident in which British observers were killed in order to prevent them witnessing human sacrifice, the British authorities assembled forces to conquer the Benin Empire. This caused an escalation of human sacrifice as Benin's rulers sought to protect themselves from Britain by appeasing the Gods with sacrifice. After a brief campaign the Benin Empire was conquered and human sacrifice suppressed. This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Contemporary human sacrifice

In India

Some people in India are adherents of a set of theistic philosophies called Tantrism (not to be confused with Tantric Buddhism). Most either use animal sacrifice or symbolic effigies, but a small percent of them engage in human sacrifice: Tantra (Sanskrit: loom), tantric yoga or tantrism is any of several esoteric traditions rooted in Hindu and Buddhist philosophy. ... A mandala used in Vajrayana Buddhist practices. ... A sheep is led to the altar, 6th century BC Corinthian fresco. ... The effigy of John Gower in Southwark Cathedral, London. ...

After a rash of similar killings in the area — according to an unofficial tally in the English language-language Hindustan Times, there have been 25 human sacrifices in western Uttar Pradesh in the last six months alone — police have cracked down against tantriks, jailing four and forcing scores of others to close their businesses and pull their ads from newspapers and television stations. The killings and the stern official response have focused renewed attention on tantrism, an amalgam of mysticism practices that grew out of Hinduism.[29]

A 2006 newspaper report states: , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , translation: Northern Province, IPA: ,  ), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... Advert redirects here. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ...

Police in Khurja say dozens of sacrifices have been made over the past six months. Last month, in a village near Barha, a woman hacked her neighbour's three-year-old to death after a tantrik promised unlimited riches. In another case, a couple desperate for a son had a six-year-old kidnapped and then, as the tantrik chanted mantras, mutilated the child. The woman completed the ritual by washing in the child's blood. "It's because of blind superstitions and rampant illiteracy that this woman sacrificed this boy," said Khurja police officer Ak Singh. "It's happened before and will happen again but there is little we can do to stop it. In most situations it's an open and shut case. It isn't difficult to elicit confessions — normally the villagers or the families of the victims do that for us" […]. According to an unofficial tally by the local newspaper, there have been 28 human sacrifices in western Uttar Pradesh in the last four months. Four tantrik priests have been jailed and scores of others forced to flee.[30]

Khurja is a small town situated around 90 km from Delhi. ... Barha (Nepal Bhasa:बाह्रा)is a Nepalese ceremony for girls. ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , translation: Northern Province, IPA: ,  ), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ...

In Africa

Human sacrifice, in the context of religious ritual, still occurs in other traditional religions, for example in muti killings in eastern Africa. Human sacrifice is no longer officially condoned in any country, and such cases are regarded as murder. Muti is a generic term for medicine in Southern Africa. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


In the West

So-called Satanic ritual abuse is largely unsubstantiated, but the allegations are not always unbased. Satanism Associated organizations The Church of Satan First Satanic Church Prominent figures Anton LaVey | Blanche Barton | Peter H. Gilmore | Peggy Nadramia | Karla LaVey Associated concepts Left-Hand Path | Pentagonal Revisionism | Suitheism | Might is Right Books and publications The Satanic Bible | The Satanic Rituals | The Satanic Witch | The Devils Notebook...


One fairly recent case occurred in Greece in the early 1990s. Between 1990 and 1993 a small "band" of - self-styled - Satan worshipers, some of them teenagers, some adults, were involved in demon worship and satanic rituals including at least two ritual human sacrifices. The cult's first victim was Dora Syropoulou, 15. She was killed at her initiation ceremony in August 1992. She was led to an abandoned winery to participate in the ritual, but there she was stripped, handcuffed, raped and strangled. Seven months after Syropoulou's murder, they kidnapped a 30-year-old hotel maid, Garyfalia Yiourga, raping and torturing her in their car before crushing her skull. Another body was found in the same area as the other two victims, that of 35-year-old Sultana Kriskian. Eight members of this "band" were arrested in December 1993 and brought to trial in 1995. Asimakis Katsoulas, 24, and Manos Dimitrokalis, 23, also known by their cult names "Amon" and "Enigma", were found guilty and given life sentences on two counts of rape and murder and one count of kidnapping. Katsoulas's former girlfriend and "high priestess" Dimitra Marieti, 22, was sentenced to 18 years and four months in prison after being found guilty as an accessory to murder. All defendants denied involvement in the killing of a "third" victim. Three other members of the "band", Varvara Angelopoulou and Maria and Katerina Rigaki, charged with withholding evidence and harbouring a criminal, were given sentences of 17, seven and 16 months respectively. The court acquitted the two others, Haralambos Zavras, charged with being an accessory after the fact, and Angeliki Anagnostou, charged with attempted blackmail, of all charges. There were other people involved with the "band" too, but they were not arrested as they could not be linked to the murders, or any other illegal activity. The convicted, before and during their trial spoke of widespread satanic rituals among teenagers and young adults in Greece, and about "master-minds" in "high places", people above suspicion behind it all. However they failed to substantiate those claims, or even to produce names.[21][22]


Another such ritual murder occurred in 1999 in Hyvinkää, Finland, as a young man was slowly tortured to death and his body parts eaten in a sacrificial rite. The three cultists were sentenced to prison. Modern occultists consider such sacrifices unnecessary, or use them only in the symbolic form where the volunteer "sacrifice" is not actually killed. For other uses of this term, see occult (disambiguation). ...


In 2005 the BBC reported that children are being trafficked into the UK from Africa and used for human sacrifices. This claim was based on a confidential report prepared by the Metropolitan Police.[31] For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Metropolitan Police redirects here. ...


References

Books

  • Dying for the Gods, Miranda Aldhouse Green; Trafalgar Square; 2001, ISBN 0-7524-1940-4
  • Cenote of Sacrifices, Clemency Coggins and Orrin C. Shane III ; 1984 The university of Texas Press; ISBN 0-292-71097-6
  • Violence and the Sacred, Rene Girard, translated by P. Gregory; Johns Hopkins University Press, 1979, ISBN-10: 0826477186
  • I See Satan Fall Like Lightning, René Girard, Translated by James G. Williams; Orbis Books; 2001, ISBN 1-57075-319-9
  • The Pagan Religions of the Ancient British Isles: Their Nature and Legacy Ronald Hutton, 1991, ISBN 0-631-18946-7
  • Human Sacrifice in Ancient Greece Dennis D. Hughes 1991 Routledge ISBN 0-415-03483-3
  • City of Sacrifice: The Aztec Empire and the Role of Violence in Civilization, David Carrasco, Moughton Mifflin, 2000, ISBN 0-807-04643-4

Ronald Hutton is Professor of History at the University of Bristol and is an occasional commentator on British television and radio on the history of paganism in the British Isles. ...

Journal articles

  • Michael Winkelman, Aztec Human Sacrifice: Cross-Cultural Assessments of the Ecological Hypothesis, Ethnology, Vol. 37, No. 3. (Summer, 1998), pp. 285-298.
  • R. H. Sales, Human Sacrifice in Biblical Thought, Journal of Bible and Religion, Vol. 25, No. 2. (Apr., 1957), pp. 112-117.
  • Brian K. Smith; Wendy Doniger, Sacrifice and Substitution: Ritual Mystification and Mythical Demystification, Numen, Vol. 36, Fasc. 2. (Dec., 1989), pp. 189-224.
  • Robin Law, Human Sacrifice in Pre-Colonial West Africa, African Affairs, Vol. 84, No. 334. (Jan., 1985), pp. 53-87.
  • Th. P. van Baaren, Theoretical Speculations on Sacrifice, Numen, Vol. 11, Fasc. 1. (Jan., 1964), pp. 1-12.
  • Heinsohn, Gunnar: “The Rise of Blood Sacrifice and Priest Kingship in Mesopotamia: A Cosmic Decree?”[32] (also published in Religion, Vol. 22, 1992)
  • J. Rives, Human Sacrifice among Pagans and Christians, The Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. 85. (1995), pp. 65-85.
  • Clifford Williams , Asante: Human Sacrifice or Capital Punishment? An Assessment of the Period 1807-1874, The International Journal of African Historical Studies, Vol. 21, No. 3. (1988), pp. 433-441.

Notes

  1. ^ Early Europeans Practiced Human Sacrifice
  2. ^ History of Japanese Castles
  3. ^ Hassig, Ross (2003). "El sacrificio y las guerras floridas". Arqueología mexicana, p. 46-51.
  4. ^ The Enigma of Aztec Sacrifice
  5. ^ "Strabo Geography", Book IV Chapter 4:5, published in Vol. II of the Loeb Classical Library edition, 1923.[1]
  6. ^ "The Temple of Anemospilia"[2]
  7. ^ "Human Sacrifice", retrieved 12 May 2007.[3]
  8. ^ "Abydos - Life and Death at the Dawning of Egyptian Civilization", National Geographic, April 2005, retrieved 12 May 2007.[4]
  9. ^ http://www.phoenicia.org/childsacrifice.html
  10. ^ Fantar, M’Hamed Hassine. Archaeology Odyssey Nov/Dec 2000, pp. 28-31
  11. ^ Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities, i.19, 38.[5]
  12. ^ "The Religion of the Ancient Celts", J. A. MacCulloch, ch xvi, 1911, retrieved 24 May 2007.[6]
  13. ^ "Gaius Julius Caesar Commentaries on the Gallic War", Book VI:19, translated by W.A. McDevitte and W.S. Bohn, New York: Harper & Brothers, 1869.[7]
  14. ^ "Gaius Julius Caesar Commentaries on the Gallic War", Book VI:16, translated by W.A. McDevitte and W.S. Bohn, New York: Harper & Brothers, 1869.[8]
  15. ^ "Roman History", Cassius Dio, p95 ch62:7, Translation by Earnest Cary,Loeb classical Library, retrieved 24 May 2007.[9]
  16. ^ "What We Don't Know About the Ancient Celts", Rowan Fairgrove, Pomegrante Magazine, Issue 2 1997, retrieved 24 May 2007.[10]
  17. ^ "Why King Mesha of Moab Sacrificed His Oldest Son", Baruch Margalit, Biblical Archaeology Review, Nov/Dec 1986.[11]
  18. ^ "Child Sacrifice: Returning God’s Gift", Susan Ackerman, Biblical Archaeology Review, June 1993.[12]
  19. ^ "Child Sacrifice at Carthage—Religious Rite or Population Control?", Lawrence E. Stager and Samuel R. Wolff, Biblical Archaeology Review, Jan/Feb 1984.[13]
  20. ^ "Why the Deuteronomist Told about the Sacrifice of Jephthah's Daughter", Journal for the Study of the Old Testament,Sage Publications, p7,[14]
  21. ^ "Did Jephthah Kill his Daughter?", Solomon Landers, Biblical Archaeology Review, August 1991.[15]
  22. ^ http://"Voices From the Children of Abraham",[www.newmantoronto.com/040311childrenofabraham2.htm]
  23. ^ "The Sacrifice of the Mass", Catholic Encyclopedia.[16]
  24. ^ "Sacrifice of the Mass", Orthodox Church of America.[17]
  25. ^ http://www.chinaculture.org/gb/en_aboutchina/2003-09/24/content_26349.htm
  26. ^ Mexican tomb reveals gruesome human sacrifice
  27. ^ Arnold, Dean E.; and Bruce F. Bohor (1975). "Attapulgite and Maya Blue: an Ancient Mine Comes to Light". Archaeology 28 (1): pp.23–29.  as cited in Haude, Mary Elizabeth (1997). "Identification and Classification of Colorants Used During Mexico's Early Colonial Period". The Book and Paper Group Annual 16. ISSN 0887-8978. 
  28. ^ [18] – Discovery Channel article
  29. ^ In India, case links mysticism, murder - John Lancaster, Washington Post, 11/29/2003)
  30. ^ “Indian cult kills children for goddess: Holy men blamed for inciting dozens of deaths”, The Observer , Dan McDougall in Khurja, India, Sunday March 5, 2006 [19]
  31. ^ "Boys used for Human Sacrifice", BBC NEWS, 16th June 2005.[20]
  32. ^ http://www.kronia.com/library/journals/sacrfice.txt

Arqueología mexicana is a bimonthly publication edited by the Mexican Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (National Institute of Anthropology and History). ... The Biblical Archaeology Review (illuminating archaeology and the Bible) is the organ of the non-denominational Bible Archaeology Society which has been combining the excitement of archaeology and the latest in Bible scholarship since 1974 [1]. The Societys founder and editor-in-chief is Hershel Shanks. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Discovery Channel is a cable and satellite TV channel founded by John Hendricks which is distributed by Discovery Communications. ... ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

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Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Cannibal redirects here. ... In 2006, an ancient site of habitation was discovered by archaeologists dating to approximately 3000 BC, representing the early Yamna culture near the city of Luhansk, Ukraine. ... For the gambling game, see lottery. ... For the Iron Maiden song, see The Wicker Man (song). ... Sharon Tate as Odile de Caray in Eye of the Devil Eye of the Devil (1967) is a film with occult and supernatural themes, but which stops short of being a conventional horror film. ... // Ceremony of Burning a Hindu Widow with the Body of her Late Husband, from Pictorial History of China and India, 1851. ... The Hashshashin (also Hashishin, Hashashiyyin or Assassins) was a religious sect of Ismaili Shia Muslims from the Nizari sub-sect originating from post-Islamic Persia. ...

External links




  Results from FactBites:
 
Human sacrifice - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3137 words)
Sacrifice upon the death of a king, high priest or great leader; the sacrifices were to serve or accompany the deceased leader in the next life.
According to Pliny the Elder, human sacrifice was abolished by a senatorial decree in 97 BCE.
In the ancient Near East, human sacrifice was suppressed throughout the Persian Empire, partly as a consequence of the spread of Zoroastrianism, which taught that human sacrifice was a sign of Ahriman, not of the Wise Lord Ahura Mazda.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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