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Encyclopedia > Human rights in the United States
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The human rights record of the United States of America has featured an avowed commitment to the protection of specific personal political, religious and other freedoms. It has sheltered many political and economic refugees in its history and has been a final destination of many immigrants from a multitude of locations around the world. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Freedom is the right, or the capacity, of self-determination, as an expression of the individual will. ... It has been suggested that Religious toleration be merged into this article or section. ... Political freedom is the right, or the capacity, of self-determination as an expression of the individual will. ...


At the same time, the U.S., like nearly all Western countries, has had a history of legally permitted slavery, and both de jure and de facto racial and ethnicreligious discrimination, and occasional violation of those freedoms, particularly in times when national security has been of particular concern. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The stela of King Hammurabi depicts the god Shamash revealing a code of laws to the king. ... An African-American drinks out of a water fountain marked for colored in 1939 at a street car terminal in Oklahoma City. ... Categories: Move to Wiktionary | Stub | Persecution ... Religious discrimination is valuing a person or group lower because of their religion, or treating someone differently because of what they do or dont believe. ... Security measures taken to protect the Houses of Parliament in London, England. ...


As with the most developed countries, the government and press attempt to engage in continual public review of alleged human rights abuses. Given that the modern concept of human rights developed primarily out of 20th century liberal Western thought, assessments of the United States human rights record often tend to measure its conformity to that political model. A developed country is a country that has achieved (currently or historically) a high degree of industrialization, and which enjoys the higher standards of living which wealth and technology make possible. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... The term Western thought is usually associated with the cultural tradition that traces its origins to Greek thought and Jewish and Christian religion (See also Western culture). ...

Contents

Overview

The principles of legal egalitarianism underlying the United States Constitution, upon which the United States is founded, were and are tempered with a political pragmatism that has occasionally undercut the human rights ideals that the document espouses. The Constitution created what was, in 1787, a distinguished progressive democracy that guaranteed unprecedented social and economic rights for much of its citizenry. Yet at the same time, the very same founding document implicitly [1] sanctioned slavery, which was not completely abolished until 1865 after the American Civil War, and lynching of blacks was relatively common into the middle 1900s. Only in 1968 did the Supreme Court rule explicitly against racial segregation laws. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Social rights refer to what are usually positive rights, which ensure to all people a fair standard of treatment. ... Slave sale in Easton, Maryland The history of slavery in the United States began soon after Europeans first settled in what in 1776 became the United States. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert Edward Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... In the United States, Lynching, i. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the judicial branch of the United States federal government. ... The Rex Theatre for Colored People, Leland, Mississippi, June 1937 This entry is related to, but not included in the Political ideologies series or one of its sub-series. ...


This mixture of idealism and compromise has produced a paradoxical human rights record. The American system aims at a free society where life, liberty and a host of inalienable human rights are guaranteed by its Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Human rights in the United States of America are built on what has been described as a self-evident truth that all men are created equal and endowed by their creator with natural human rights. Some confuse equal rights with equal authority and thus assume that those with less authority lack these rights which gives birth to the mistaken hypothesis that by "men" the Declaration of Independence meant, white males. Robert Boyles self-flowing flask fills itself in this diagram, but perpetual motion machines cannot exist. ... The Statue of Liberty is a very popular icon of liberty. ... A bill of rights can be a statement of certain rights that may be guaranteed to citizens or residents of a society, legal jurisdiction, or nation-state; or an enumeration of rights they would like to have or believe they ought to have. ... In epistemology, a self-evident proposition is one that can be understood only by one who knows that it is true. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A man is a male human. ...


The Constitution guarantees freedom of speech, freedom of the press, the right to a fair trial, freedom of religion, equal suffrage, and property rights. Such affirmations of human rights are the product of nearly four centuries of struggle and social progress aiming for a fair and just society, with its beginnings in 1634 when the first colonies in Maryland were founded on the basis of religious tolerance. However, some Americans attempting to exercise these fundamental human rights have been persecuted at various times throughout the country's history.[citation needed] The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Freedom of the press (or press freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public press for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ... In legal parlance, a trial is an event in which parties to a dispute present information (in the form of evidence) in a formal setting, usually a court, before a judge, jury, or other designated finder of fact, in order to achieve a resolution to their dispute. ... It has been suggested that Religious toleration be merged into this article or section. ... EQUAL is a popular artificial sweetener Equal (sweetener) Equality can mean several things: Mathematical equality Social equality Racial equality Sexual equality Equality of outcome Equality, a town in Illinois See also Equity Egalitarianism Equals sign This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might... Events Moses Amyrauts Traite de la predestination is published Curaçao captured by the Dutch Treaty of Polianovska First meeting of the Académie française The witchcraft affair at Loudun Jean Nicolet lands at Green Bay, Wisconsin Opening of Covent Garden Market in London English establish a settlement... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,417 sq mi (32,160 km²)  - Width 90 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37°53N to 39°43N  - Longitude 75°4W to 79°33... Freedom of religion is the individuals right or freedom to hold whatever religious beliefs he or she wishes, or none at all. ...


Most citizens tend to be optimistic about the United States Constitution and point out it is still a work in progress and changes to it are continuously under consideration as the needs of the society of the United States change. An example of this is how the status of human rights in the United States recently have come under scrutiny for the government's positions on capital punishment, police brutality, the War on Drugs, and sexual morality. The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... A constitutional amendment is an alteration to the constitution of a nation or a state. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... Police brutality is a term used to describe the excessive use of physical force, assault, verbal attacks, and threats by police officers. ... Operation Mallorca, U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, 2005 [1] Massive mark-ups for drugs, UK Govt report No significant impact on retail or wholesale prices, UK Govt report The War on Drugs is an initiative undertaken by the United States to carry out an all-out offensive (as President Nixon... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Finer points which are sometimes debated are a perceived media concentration that might drown out voices of dissent, campaign finance in the United States preventing a "fair" election, details of the justice system minimum sentencing guidelines, coercion into plea bargains and inadequate public defenders. Such issues often come up because of different interpretations of what is constitutional by the various authorities. Some rights issues are portrayed as a political split, pitching the rights of one group against another. For example, Americans have the right to form trade unions but some states have passed laws to guarantee an individual's right to work, a right not guaranteed in states with Collective bargaining statutes, and which have made it difficult for unions to negotiate contracts. However, in the vast majority of states, at-will employment (an employee can be fired for any or no reason) is the norm and unions have very little power to fight this. Also, in the more conservative states (red states), generally in the Deep South and Midwest, union influence is limited in general. In regards to abortion, the right of women to terminate a pregnancy is generally contrasted with the rights of unborn children.[citation needed] Concentration of media ownership (also known as media consolidation or media convergence) is a commonly used term among media critics, policy makers, and others to characterize ownership structure of media industries. ... Campaign finance in the United States is the financing of electoral campaigns at the federal, state and local levels. ... Minimum sentencing guidelines, often also called mandatory minimums, vary across the United States and the world. ... A plea bargain is an agreement in a criminal case in which a prosecutor and a defendant arrange to settle the case against the defendant. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... ... Collective agreement is a labor contract between an employer and one or more unions. ... At-will employment is an employment relationship in which either party can terminate the employment relationship at-will with no liability if there was not an express contract for a definite term governing the employment relationship. ... ... Image of a woman on the Pioneer plaque sent to outer space. ... Unborn is an Alternative band out of Baker, West Virginia. ...


After the September 11, 2001 attacks, pressure from the government for more surveillance of suspected terrorist cells activities has led to heightened criticism of the government's violation of suspected terrorists' privacy and of control measures that do not respect suspected terrorist prisoners' dignity. In the aftermath of those attacks, there have been signs from the federal government of the United States of a noticeable shift away from United States Constitution safeguards traditionally afforded American citizens, notably: The World Trade Center on fire The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001. ... Surveillance is the monitoring of behavior. ... Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to keep their lives and personal affairs out of public view, or to stop information about themselves from becoming known to people other than those whom they choose to give the information. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This law-related article does not cite its references or sources. ... For the entry on the naval ship U.S.S. Constitution, see: USS Constitution. ...

  • Two Pakistani Americans allegedly affiliated with the Islamic militant group Harakat ul-Ansar were arrested in Pakistan by Pakistani authorities and held and allegedly tortured in a Pakistani jail. The two allege that they were interrogated by men flashing FBI agent shields. [2]
  • The detention without charge, for months on end, of United States citizens suspected of ties to insurgents in Iraq (for instance, for carrying washing machine timers in their car trunks). [3]. (The Associated Press reported on July 7, 2005, that the United States was holding five Americans in Iraq.)[citation needed]
  • The arrest, without charge, of large numbers of Muslim men as "material witnesses" in cases related to Terrorist activities in the United States.[4].

Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Controversial Issues

Torture and abuse

Certain practices of the United States military, civilian agencies such as the CIA, and private contractors have been condemned both domestically and internationally as torture. A fierce debate regarding non-standard interrogation techniques exists within the US civilian and military intelligence community, with no general consensus as to what practices under what conditions are acceptable. The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Torture is any act by which severe pain, whether physical or psychological, is intentionally inflicted on a person as a means of intimidation, deterrence, revenge, punishment, sadism, or information gathering. ...


These practices include: extended forced maintenance of "stress positions" such as standing or squatting; psychological tricks and "mind games"; sensory deprivation; exposure to loud music and noises; extended exposure to flashing lights; prolonged solitary confinement; denigration of religion; withholding of food, drink, or medical care; withholding of hygienic care or toilet facilities; prolonged hooding; forced injections of unknown substances; sleep deprivation; magneto-cranial stimulation resulting in mental confusion; threats of bodily harm; threats of rendition to torture-friendly states or Guantánamo; threats of rape or sodomy; threats of harm to family members; threats of imminent execution; prolonged constraint in contorted positions (including strappado, or "Palestinian hanging"); facial smearing of real or simulated feces, urine, menstrual blood, or semen; sexual humiliation; beatings, often requiring surgery or resulting in permanent physical or mental disability; release or threat of release to attack dogs, both muzzled or un-muzzled; near-suffocation or asphyxiation via multiple detainment hoods, plastic bags, water-soaked towels or blankets, duct tape, or ligatures; gassing and chemical spraying resulting in unconsciousness; confinement in small chambers too small to fully stand or recline; prolonged underwaffler immersion just short of drowning (i.e. dunking); and extended exposure to extreme temperatures below freezing or above 120 °F (48 °C). These practices have resulted in a number of deaths. According to Human Rights First, at least as many as 46 detainees have been tortured to death in U.S. custody in Iraq and Afghanistan. [5] The strappado is a form of torture in which a victim is suspended in the air by means of a rope attached to his hands which are tied behind his back. ... Dunking is a form torture that was applied to supposed witches. ... Human Rights First is a U.S. based association formerly known as Lawyers Committee for Human Rights. ...


Torture and abuse is strictly illegal and punishable within US territorial bounds. The legality of abuse occurring on foreign soil, outside of usual US territorial jurisdiction, is however somewhat murky. The United States Administration has created a category called unlawful combatants, that have no basis in U. S. or international law, to deprive such persons of protection under the Geneva Convention as prisoners of war, and keeps and interrogates them on foreign soil. Both United States citizens and foreign nationals are occasionally captured outside of the United States and transferred to secret US administered detention facilities, sometimes being held incommunicado for periods of months or years. Overseas detention facilities are known to be or to have been maintained at least in Thailand, the Philippines, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Jordan, Egypt, Iraq, Kuwait, UAE, Saudi Arabia, Morocco, Cyprus, Cuba, Diego Garcia, and unspecified South Pacific island nation(s). In addition, individuals are suspected to be or to have been held in temporary or permanent US controlled facilities in Indonesia, El Salvador, Nigeria, Equatorial Guinea, Libya, Israel, Denmark, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Hungary, Germany, and Scotland. There are also allegations that persons categorized as prisoners of war have been tortured, abused or humiliated; or otherwise have had their rights afforded by the Geneva Convention violated. In 2004 photos showing humiliation and abuse of prisoners leaked from Abu Ghraib prison, causing a political and media scandal in the US. Unlawful combatant (also illegal combatant or unprivileged combatant) describes a person who engages in combat without meeting the requirements for a lawful combatant according to the laws of war as specified in the Third Geneva Convention. ... The Geneva Conventions consist of treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland that set the standards for international law for humanitarian concerns. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... UAE redirects here; for other uses of that term, see UAE (disambiguation) The United Arab Emirates is an oil-rich country situated in the south-east of the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia, comprising seven emirates: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al-Quwain. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... World map exhibiting a common interpretation of Oceania. ... Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen of the UK Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by... Map of Iraq highlighting Abu Ghraib The city of Abu Ghraib (BGN/PCGN romanization: AbÅ« Ghurayb; أبو غريب in Arabic) in Iraq is located 20 km (12 miles) west of Baghdad just north of the Baghdad International Airport. ...


The detention camps at the US Naval base of Guantánamo Bay, hosting over 500 detainees, have gained notoriety in recent years. As of Fall 2006, some detainees have been held for almost five years without charges or trial. Detainees have included American citizens and children as young as 11 year old. Though often criticized for being denied due process, all detainees have received review before Combatant Status Review Tribunals subsequent to US Supreme Court rulings.[citation needed] Detainees upon arrival at Camp X-Ray, January 2002 Guantánamo Bay detainment camp, serving as a joint military prison and interrogation center under the leadership of Joint Task Force Guantanamo (JTF-GTMO), has occupied a portion of the United States Navys base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba since 2002. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and make it easier to understand, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States...


Freedom of expression

Main article: Freedom of speech in the United States

In the United States, like other liberal democracies, freedom of expression (including speech, media, and public assembly) is seen as an important right and is given special protection. According to Supreme Court precedent, the federal and lower governments may not apply prior restraint to expression. There is no law punishing insults against the government, ethnic groups, or religious groups. Symbols of the government or its officials may be destroyed in protest, including the American flag. Significant legal limits on expression per se include: Citizens of the United States often treat free speech as a fundamental right and often a matter of patriotism. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Prior restraint is a legal term referring to a governments actions that prevent materials from being published. ... Flag ratio: 7:12; nicknames: Stars and Stripes, Old Glory The flag of the United States of America consists of thirteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with white; there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing 50 small, white, five-pointed stars...

Some laws remain controversial due to concerns that they infringe on freedom of expression. These include the Digital Millennium Copyright Act and the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act. Such laws can be brought before the federal courts to determine their constitutionality, but the expense and time required is often prohibitive. Other recent issues include military censorship of blogs written by military personnel in Iraq. The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Solicitation is a crime; it is an inchoate offense that consists of a person inciting, counseling, advising, urging, or commanding another to commit a crime with the specific intent that the person solicited commit the crime. ... A typical classified document. ... In English and American law, and systems based on them, libel and slander are two forms of defamation (or defamation of character), which is the tort or delict of making a false statement of fact that injures someones reputation. ... Harassment refers to a wide spectrum of offensive behavior. ... The FCCs official seal. ... Note: broadcasting is also the old term for hand sowing. ... The free speech zone at the 2004 Democratic National Convention Free speech zones (also known as First Amendment Zones and Free speech cages) are areas set aside in public places for political activists to exercise their right of free speech in the United States. ... The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) is a United States copyright law which criminalizes production and dissemination of technology that can circumvent measures taken to protect copyright, not merely infringement of copyright itself, and heightens the penalties for copyright infringement on the Internet. ... The Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 (BCRA) is U.S. Congressional legislation which regulates the financing of political campaigns. ... It has been suggested that Online diary be merged into this article or section. ...


In two high profile cases, grand juries have decided that Time magazine reporter Matthew Cooper and New York Times reporter Judith Miller must reveal their sources in cases involving CIA leaks. Time magazine cooperated with authorities after exhausting its legal appeals, and Mr. Cooper eventually agreed to testify. Ms. Miller was jailed for 85 days before cooperating. U.S. District Chief Judge Thomas F. Hogan ruled that the First Amendment does not insulate Time magazine reporters from a requirement to testify before a criminal grand jury that's conducting the investigation into the possible illegal disclosure of classified information. (Clockwise from upper left) Notable Time magazine covers from the dates May 7, 1945; July 20, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...


Other journalists who've been legally pressured to provide information to investigators include Tim Russert, who moderates NBC's "Meet the Press," Washington Post reporter Walter Pincus, and syndicated columnist Robert D. Novak.


Several foreign journalists including British reporter Elena Lappin who arrived in the USA without an I-visa have been jailed and deported since the 2001 terrorists attacks. Citizens of many Western countries are exempt from a U.S. visa requirement intended mainly for tourists. However, they must declare that they are not representing the "foreign information media." This requirement is outside the norms of other democratic countries, and many journalists entering the USA were not aware of it. In 2005, the United States territory was ranked 44th in the annual Worldwide Press Freedom Index by Reporters Without Borders. Elena Lappin is a British author and journalist, born in Moscow in 1954, who grew up in Prague and Hamburg, and has lived in Israel, Canada and the United States. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is an international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press. ... Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is an international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press. ...


Death penalty

The United States, Japan, South Korea, and Singapore are the only developed nations to use capital punishment in practice. This practice is controversial. Death penalty opponents regard the death penalty as inhumane and criticize it for its irreversibility and claim that it lacks a deterrent effect. Further, opponents often point to overrepresentation of blacks on death row as evidence of the unequal racial application of the death penalty (2003 [6]). It is the official policy of the European Union and of a number of non-EU nations to achieve global abolition of the death penalty. For this reason the EU is vocal in its criticism of the death penalty in the US and has submitted amicus curiae briefs in a number of important US court cases related to capital punishment. While criticism of the death penalty within the United States is strong among activist groups, public support varies regionally. The death penalty has been largely abolished in the Northeast, while the South and West continue to conduct executions. Texas overwhelmingly leads the United States in executions, with 359 executions from 1976 to 2006. The second-highest ranking state is Virginia, with 94. A 2002 Houston Chronicle poll of Texans found that when asked "Do you support the death penalty?" 69.1% responded that they did, 21.9% did not support and 9.1% were not sure or gave no answer.[citation needed] A developed country is a country that has achieved (currently or historically) a high degree of industrialization, and which enjoys the higher standards of living which wealth and technology make possible. ... Amicus curiae (plural amici curiae) is a legal Latin phrase, literally translated as friend of the court, that refers to a person or entity that is not a party to a case that volunteers to offer information on a point of law or some other aspect of the case to... The Houston Chronicle is a daily newspaper in Houston, Texas, United States. ...


A ruling on March 1, 2005 by the United States Supreme Court prohibits the execution of people who committed their crimes when they were under the age of 18. Between 1990 and 2005, Amnesty International recorded 19 executions in the United States for crime committed by a juvenile. March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an non-governmental membership organization with the stated purpose of campaigning for internationally recognized human rights. ...


See also

Capital punishment in the United States is officially sanctioned by 38 of the 50 states, as well as by the federal government and the military. ... Capital punishment has been used in the U.S. state of Texas and its predecessor entities since 1819. ...

National security exceptions

The United States government has on several occasions claimed exceptions to guaranteed rights on grounds of protecting national security. It typically invokes exceptions in wartime or during international conflicts short of war (such as the Cold War). In some instances the federal courts have allowed these exceptions, while in others the courts have decided that the national security interest was insufficient. Security measures taken to protect the Houses of Parliament in London, England. ... The United States detonated an atomic bomb over Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. ... For other uses, please see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Sedition laws have sometimes placed restrictions on freedom of expression. The Alien and Sedition Acts, passed by President John Adams during an undeclared naval conflict with France, allowed the government to punish "false" statements about the government and to deport "dangerous" immigrants. The Federalist Party used these acts to harass supporters of the Democratic-Republican Party. While Woodrow Wilson was president, another broad sedition law called the Sedition Act of 1918, was passed during World War I. Its provisions were so strict that the government imprisoned for 10-years, one Hollywood director for making a film about the American Revolution because it depicted the British unfavorably. It also caused the arrest and ten year sentencing of Socialist Party of America Presidential candidate Eugene V. Debs for speaking out against the atrocities of WWI, although he would later be realeased early by President Warren G. Harding. Countless others, labeled as "subverts"--especially the Wobblies, were persecuted harshly by the Woodrow Wilson Administration. Some argue that America was a police state during this harsh period of repression. These laws continued for several years even after the end of the conflict. The Alien and Sedition Acts were acts of Congress passed during the administration of President John Adams; his signature made them into law on July 14, 1798. ... John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826) was a Founding Father of the United States and American politician who served as the first Vice President of the United States (1789–1797), and the second President of the United States (1797–1801). ... The label Federalist refers to two major groups in the history of the United States of America: (1. ... The Democratic-Republican party was a United States political party, which evolved early in the history of the United States. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was the 28th President of the United States (1913–1921). ... The Sedition Act of 1918 was an amendment to the Espionage Act of 1917. ... Combatants Allied Powers: France Italy Russia Serbia United Kingdom United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Luigi Cadorna Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul von Hindenburg Reinhard Scheer Franz Josef I Conrad von... ... The American Revolution was a political movement that ended British control of the south-eastern coastal area of North America, resulting in the formation of the United States of America in 1776 and sparking the American Revolutionary War. ... The Socialist Party of America (SPA) was a socialist political party in the United States and one of the most influential socialist parties in U.S. history. ... Eugene Victor Debs (November 5, 1855 – October 20, 1926) was an American labor and political leader, one of the founders of the international labor union the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) and five-time Socialist Party of America candidate for President of the United States. ... Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923) was an American politician and the 29th President of the United States, serving from 1921 to 1923, when he became the sixth president to die in office. ... The IWW Label A Wobbly membership card The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or the Wobblies) is an international union headquartered in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, having much in common with anarcho-syndicalist unions, but also many differences. ... A police state is a political condition where the government maintains strict control over society, particularly through suspension of civil rights and often with the use of a force of secret police. ...


Presidents have claimed the power to imprison summarily, under military jurisdiction, those suspected of being combatants for states or groups at war against the United States. Abraham Lincoln invoked this power in the American Civil War to imprison Maryland secessionists. In that case, the Supreme Court concluded that only Congress could suspend the writ of habeas corpus, and the government released the detainees. During World War II, the United States interned thousands of Japanese-Americans on fears that Japan might use them as saboteurs. In the recent campaign against terrorist groups, the government has detained suspected al Qaeda affiliates like Yaser Esam Hamdi, who also had his citizenship revoked.[citation needed] Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865), sometimes called Abe Lincoln and nicknamed Honest Abe, the Rail Splitter, and the Great Emancipator, was an American politician who served as the 16th President of the United States (1861 to 1865), and the first president from the Republican Party. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert Edward Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,417 sq mi (32,160 km²)  - Width 90 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37°53N to 39°43N  - Longitude 75°4W to 79°33... The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... Seal of the U.S. Congress. ... In common law countries, habeas corpus (/heɪbiÉ™s kɔɹpÉ™s/), Latin for you [should] have the body, is the name of a legal instrument or writ by means of which detainees can seek release from unlawful imprisonment. ... Combatants Allied Powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Axis Powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000,000 Total dead... Jerome War Relocation Center in Jerome, Arkansas Japanese American Internment refers to the forcible relocation of approximately 110,000[1] Japanese and Japanese Americans (62 percent of whom were United States citizens)[2] [3] from the west coast during World War II to hastily constructed housing facilities called War Relocation... Al-Qaeda or Al-Qaida (, translit: ; the Law, the foundation, the base or the database) is an armed Sunni Islamist terrorist organization with the stated objective of eliminating foreign influence in Muslim countries, and reestablishing the califate. ... Yaser Esam Hamdi was a U.S. citizen captured in Afghanistan while fighting U.S. forces with the Taliban in 2001. ...


The Fourth Amendment of the United States Constitution forbids unreasonable search and seizure without a warrant, but some administrations have claimed exceptions to this rule to investigate alleged conspiracies against the government. During the Cold War, the FBI established COINTELPRO to infiltrate and disrupt left-wing organizations, including those that supported the rights of black Americans. More recently the USA PATRIOT Act has been attacked as eroding Fourth Amendment protections. The Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which is part of the Bill of Rights, guards against unreasonable searches and seizures. ... In law, a warrant can mean any authorization. ... In a political sense, conspiracy refers to a group of persons united in the goal of usurping or overthrowing an established political power. ... For other uses, please see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a Federal police force which is the principal investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... COINTELPRO (Counter Intelligence Program) is a program of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation aimed at investigating and disrupting dissident political organizations within the United States. ... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


National security, as well as other concerns like unemployment, has sometimes led the United States to toughen its generally liberal immigration policy. The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 all but banned Chinese immigrants, who were accused of crowding out American workers. Today foreign nationals can be detained or deported for minor infractions, although deportation is not as common as it use to be. The government is sometimes accused of skirting the required legal procedures. Tracking of immigrants has also increased as part of the anti-terrorism campaign, so that foreigners arriving by air are now subject to mandatory fingerprinting and photography. Since 2002, male adults from any of two dozen countries, most of them Muslim, have been subject to Special Registration. The United States is sometimes criticized for the effects of its border control efforts; for instance, between 1998 and 2004, 1,954 persons are officially reported to have died along the U.S.-Mexico border. An 1837 political cartoon about unemployment in the United States. ... The Chinese Exclusion Act was a United States federal law that was passed into law on May 6, 1882 that followed revisions made in 1880 to the Burlingame Treaty of 1868. ... 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... The tip of a finger showing the friction ridge structure. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ... The National Security Entry-Exit Registration System (NSEERS, INS Special Registration) is a system for registration of certain non-citizens within the United States, initiated in September 2002 as part of the War on Terrorism. ... The international border between Mexico and the United States runs a total of 3,141 km (1,951 miles) from San Diego, California, and Tijuana, Baja California, in the west to Matamoros, Tamaulipas, and Brownsville, Texas, in the east. ...


Prison

As of 2004 the United States had the highest percentage of people in prison of any nation. At a rate of incarceration of 726 inmates per 100,000, the United States has the highest reported rate in the world, well ahead of the Russian rate of 532 per 100,000. In 2004, more than 2.1 million Americans, or roughly 1 out of every 138, were in prisons or jails, a figure which represented one third of the world's prison population. To illustrate these figures, if the United States had the same rate of incarceration as Japan or China, only about 100,000 people would be in jail. [7] 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Because the legal system has imposed liability upon employers for negligence in hiring ex-convicts and in supervising them, many employers now make background checks a mandatory part of the hiring process. As a result, prisoners who are released often have difficulty finding jobs and often return to crime to support themselves.


According to Human Rights Watch, "black men [in 2000] were eight times more likely to be in prison than white men". [8] According to the Federal Bureau of Prisons, approximately 40.2% of the prison population is black, while 32.1% of the population is Hispanic, [9] with several enquiries and critics commenting negatively on the use of racial profiling and the overrepresentation of minorities in American prisons. Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... The Federal Bureau of Prisons is a subdivision of the United States Department of Justice, and is responsible for the administration of the federal prison system. ... Racial profiling is inclusion of race in the profile of a persons considered likely to commit a particular crime or type of crime (see Offender Profiling). ...


Sexual abuse in United States prisons is believed by many to be widespread. It has been fought against by organizations such as Stop Prisoner Rape, some of whom allege that some wardens use sexual abuse as a control tool in the prisons. Stop Prisoner Rape, or SPR, is an organization that seeks to end sexual violence committed against men, women, and youth in all forms of detention. ...


The United States also has supermax prisons, where the most dangerous prisoners are kept in soundproofed solitary confinement for 23 hours a day with almost no human contact. They are often defended as appropriate for mass murderers, but there have been reports that some nonviolent prisoners have been sent to supermaxes.[citation needed] Supermax is the name used to describe control-unit prisons or units within prisons, representing the most secure and austere levels of custody in the prison systems of the United States and other countries. ...


In many states, those convicted of felony offenses are banned from voting. These laws have a much greater effect on minorities, especially African Americans, as they are more likely to be convicted of felonies. In some United States cities, for example, half of all black men cannot vote, and in states such as Florida and Alabama, as many as a third of black men cannot vote. For this reason, the constitutionality of this practice is likely to be tested in the United States Supreme Court in due course. (see Count Every Vote Act) A felony, in many common law legal systems, is the term for a very serious crime, whereas misdemeanors are considered to be less serious offenses. ...


Health and the family

In recent years several human rights issues regarding health and the family have been widely debated across the United States. The first is the question of whether a woman has a right to terminate a pregnancy or, as it is cast by opponents of abortion, whether the unborn child has a right to life. In 1976, a Supreme Court decision (Roe v. Wade) established that most laws against abortion violate a constitutional right to privacy. However, public debate about abortion rights continue, and the constitutionality of both positions are frequently challenged. A pregnant woman near the end of her term Pregnancy is the carrying of one or more embryos or fetuses by female mammals, including humans, inside their bodies. ... Pro-life is a term representing a variety of perspectives and activist movements in bioethics. ... Holding Texas laws criminalizing abortion violated womens Fourteenth Amendment right to choose whether to continue a pregnancy. ... The morality and legality of abortion are controversial topics. ... Constitutionality is the status of a law, procedure, or act being in accordance with the laws or guidelines contained in a constitution. ...


At the other end of life, are the questions of whether a terminally-ill person has the right to decide the time of death (euthanasia) and whether the families of patients who have permanently lost all brain activity can end medical care or stop feeding. Both questions have been hotly contested and families are sometimes forced to endure lengthy court battles. Euthanasia (from Greek: ευθανασία -ευ, eu, good, θανατος, thanatos, death) is the practice of terminating the life of a person or an animal because they are perceived as living an intolerable life, in a painless or minimally painful way either by lethal injection, drug overdose, or by the withdrawal of life support. ...


While some countries such as Canada and Spain have recognized same-sex marriage, the issue remains hotly contested in the United States. There has recently been talk of defining marriage as one man and one woman by directly writing it into of the U.S. Constitution; which would rule out all homosexual marriages. As of 2005, same-sex marriage has official status only in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, though some states offer similar privileges to same-sex couples. (See Same-sex marriage in the United States). Same-sex marriage is the union of two people who are of the same biological sex, or gender. ... Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Syng inkstand, with which the Constitution was signed The Constitution of the United States is the supreme... Since its coinage, the word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq mi (27,360 km²)  - Width 183 miles (295 km)  - Length 113 miles (182 km)  - % water 13. ... Same-sex marriage, often called gay marriage, is a marriage between two persons of the same gender. ...


Assessments of human rights organizations

Amnesty International states for the year 2000: Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an non-governmental membership organization with the stated purpose of campaigning for internationally recognized human rights. ... This article is about the year 2000. ...

Police brutality, disputed shootings and ill-treatment in prisons and jails were reported. In May the U.N. Committee against Torture considered the initial report of the USA on implementation of the U.N. Convention against Torture. Eighty-five prisoners were executed in 14 states bringing to 683 the total number of people executed since 1976. Those executed included individuals who were children under 18 at the time of their crimes, and the mentally impaired.

In 2005 the organization expressed alarm at the erosion in civil liberties since the 9/11 attacks. According to Amnesty International: Police brutality is a term used to describe the excessive use of physical force, assault, verbal attacks, and threats by police officers. ... Torture is any act by which severe pain, whether physical or psychological, is intentionally inflicted on a person as a means of intimidation, deterrence, revenge, punishment, sadism, or information gathering. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

The Guantánamo Bay detention camp has become a symbol of the United States administration’s refusal to put human rights and the rule of law at the heart of its response to the atrocities of 11 September 2001. It has become synonymous with the United States executive’s pursuit of unfettered power, and has become firmly associated with the systematic denial of human dignity and resort to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment that has marked the USA’s detentions and interrogations in the "war on terror".[10]

Amnesty International also condemned the Guantánamo facility as "the gulag of our times," [11] which raised heated conversation in the United States. The purported legal status of "unlawful combatants" in those nations currently holding detainees under that name has been the subject of criticism by other nations and international human rights institutions including Human Rights Watch and the International Committee of the Red Cross. The ICRC, in response to the US-led military campaign in Afghanistan, published a paper on the subject The legal situation of unlawful/unprivileged combatants (IRRC March 2003 Vol.85 No 849). See Unlawful combatant. China has criticized racial discrimination in its annual Human Rights Record of the United States. HRW cites two sergeants and a captain accusing U.S. troops of torturing prisoners in Iraq and Afghanistan. [12] Gulag ( , Russian: ) is an acronym for Главное Управление Исправительно—Трудовых Лагерей и колоний, Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerey i kolonii, The Chief Directorate [or Administration] of Corrective Labour Camps and Colonies of the NKVD. Anne Applebaum, in her book Gulag: A History, explains: Literally, the word GULAG is an acronym, meaning Glavnoe Upravlenie Lagerei, or Main Camp... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a committee of Swiss nationals and probably will be so as long as the ICRC exists. ... The term unlawful combatant (also unlawful enemy combatant or unprivileged combatant/belligerent) is a term used by the Bush administration to label certain persons as outside of the protection of the Geneva Conventions; those that have such protections are known as lawful combatants. ... Human Rights Record of the United States can be perceived to mean: Human Rights Record of the United States, a report issued annually by the Peoples Republic of China since 1998 evaluating the United States, according to the USAs own standards (as which used in the USAs...


See also

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with LGBT movements in the United States. ... The US Bill of Rights explicitly forbids the government to censor advocacy of religious ideas or practices and guarantees the rights of citizens to speak and publish freely, as well as to assemble to demand redress of grievances (see First Amendment). ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... The United States, amid bipartisan consensus, has stated that it does not intend to ratify the treaty creating the International Criminal Court. ... Extraordinary rendition is an American extra-judicial procedure which involves the sending of criminal suspects, generally suspected terrorists or alleged supporters of groups which the US Government considers to be terrorist organizations, to countries other than the United States for imprisonment and interrogation[1]. According to Swiss senator Dick Marty...

History

McCarthyism, named after Joseph McCarthy, was a period of intense anticommunism, also (popularly) known as the (second) Red Scare, which occurred in the United States from 1948 to about 1956 (or later), when the government of the United States was actively engaged in suppression of the Communist Party USA, its... Political cartoon of the era depicting an anarchist attempting to destroy the Statue of Liberty. ... Sacco (right) and Vanzetti Nicola Sacco (1891 - August 23, 1927) and Bartolomeo Vanzetti (1888 - August 23, 1927) were two Italian anarchists, who were arrested, tried, and executed in Massachusetts in the 1920s on charges of murder of a shoe factory paymaster named Frederick Parmenter and a security guard named Alesandro...

US related topics

History Timeline ( Colonial Era | American Revolution | Westward Expansion | Civil War | World War I | Great Depression | World War II | Cold War | Vietnam War | Civil Rights) | Foreign relations | Military | Demographic and Postal history
Politics Law ( Constitution and Bill of Rights | Declaration of Independence) | Political parties ( Democrats & Republicans) | Elections (Electoral College) | Political scandals | Political divisions | Red state vs. blue state divide
Government Federal agencies | Legislative branch (Congress: House | Senate) Executive branch ( President & Vice-President | Cabinet | Attorney-General | Secretary of State) | Law enforcement ( FBI | Intelligence:CIA | DIA | NIMA | NRO | NSA) | Judicial branch ( Supreme Court) | Military ( Army | Navy | Marines | Air Force | Coast Guard )
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Economy Banking | Companies | Standard of living | U.S. Dollar | Wall Street | Household income | Homeownership | Poverty | Federal Reserve
Society Demographics | U.S. Census Bureau | Languages | Religion | Social structure | Standard of living | Media | Education | Holidays | Folklore | Middle class | Educational attainment | Professional and working class conflict | Crime
Arts Music ( Classical | Folk | Popular) | Film & TV (Hollywood) | Literature ( Poetry | Transcendentalism | Harlem Renaissance | Beat Generation) | Visual arts ( Abstract expressionism) | Cuisine | Dance | Architecture
Other United States territory | Communications | Transportation ( Highways and Interstates | Railroads) | Uncle Sam | Flag | American Dream | Media | Education | Tourism | Social issues ( Immigration | Affirmative action | Racial profiling | Human rights | War on Drugs | Pornography | Same-sex marriage | Prisons | Capital punishment) | Anti-Americanism | American exceptionalism | American Folklore | American English | United States Mexico barrier | Passenger vehicle transport

The United States is a country occupying part of the North American continent ranging from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean and including outlying areas as well. ... This is a timeline of United States history. ... For other American colonies, see European colonization of the Americas or British colonization of the Americas. ... The American Revolution was a political movement that ended British control of the south-eastern coastal area of North America, resulting in the formation of the United States of America in 1776 and sparking the American Revolutionary War. ... A government map, probably created in the mid-20th century, that depicts a simplified history of territorial acquistions within the continental United States. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert Edward Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Combatants Allied Powers: France Italy Russia Serbia United Kingdom United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Luigi Cadorna Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul von Hindenburg Reinhard Scheer Franz Josef I Conrad von... Great Depression was a worldwide economic downturn which started in 1929 (although its effects were not fully felt until late in 1930) and lasted through most of the 1930s. ... Combatants Allied Powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Axis Powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000,000 Total dead... For other uses, please see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Historically, the civil rights movement was a concentrated period of time around the world of approximately one generation (1960-1980) wherein there was much worldwide civil unrest and popular rebellion. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... // [edit] Census Totals and Estimates [edit] Population Growth Patterns [edit] Projections [edit] Regional Trends [edit] Marriage and infertility [edit] Baby Boom [edit] Mortality [edit] Demographic Transition [edit] Infant Mortality [edit] Morbidity and Disease [edit] Malaria [edit] Tuberculosis [edit] Heart Disease [edit] Infectious Disease [edit] HIV-AIDS [edit] Age Distribution [edit... 48-star flag, 1957 This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of the United States. ... Politics of the United States of America takes place in a framework of a federal presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of the United States is both head of state and head of government, and of a two-party legislative and electoral system. ... The law of the United States was originally largely derived from the common law of the system of English law, which was in force at the time of the Revolutionary War. ... Image of the United States Bill of Rights from the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. ... United States Declaration of Independence The Declaration of Independence is the document in which the Thirteen Colonies in North America declared themselves independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain and explained their justifications for doing so. ... This list of political parties in the United States catalogues political parties in the United States. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... The United States has a federal government, with elected officials at federal (national), state and local level. ... An electoral college is a set of electors who are empowered as a deliberative body to elect someone to a particular office. ... This article provides a list of major political scandals of the United States. ... The political units and divisions of the United States include: the fifty states, which units are typically divided into counties and townships, and incorporate cities, villages, towns, and other types of municipalities, and other autonomous or subordinate public authorities and institutions; and the federal state, which unit is the United... Map of results by state of the 2000 U.S. presidential election reflect current thinking, representing states as either red or blue. ... This is an incomplete list of federal agencies, which are either departmental agencies within the executive branch of the United States government or are Independent Agencies of the United States Government (including regulatory agencies and government corporations). ... Seal of the U.S. Congress. ... Seal of the House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress, the other being the Senate. ... Seal of the U.S. Senate The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the Congress of the United States, the other being the House of Representatives. ... The executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law and running the day-to-day affairs of the government or state. ... The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... The Vice President of the United States is the second-highest executive official of the United States government, the person who is, in the words of Adlai Stevenson, a heartbeat from the presidency. ... Cabinet meeting on May 16, 2001. ... Alberto Gonzales, current Attorney General of the United States The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... Military intelligence (abbreviated MI, int. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... The Defense Intelligence Agency, or DIA, is a major producer and manager of military intelligence for the United States Department of Defense. ... External links Biography of Nima Yooshij Categories: People stubs | Iranian poets ... The National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) is a department of the United States Department of Defense (DoD) which designs, builds and operates the reconnaissance satellites of the United States government. ... NSA can stand for: National Security Agency of the USA The British Librarys National Sound Archive This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the judicial branch of the United States federal government. ... The United States Army is the largest branch of the United States armed forces and has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... USN redirects here. ... This article is becoming very long. ... The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerospace branch of the United States armed forces and one of the seven uniformed services. ... Coast Guard Seal The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is a branch of the United States armed forces involved in maritime law enforcement, mariner assistance, search and rescue, and national defense, among other duties of coast guards elsewhere. ... A rainy day in the Great Smoky Mountains, Western North Carolina The Appalachian Mountains (French: les Appalaches) are a vast system of North American mountains, partly in Canada, but mostly in the United States, forming a zone, from 100 to 300 miles wide, running from Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, 1... Moraine Lake, and the Valley of the Ten Peaks, Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada The Rocky Mountains, often called the Rockies, are a broad mountain range in western North America. ... The Grand Canyon is a very colorful, steep-sided gorge, carved by the Colorado River, in the U.S. state of Arizona. ... The Great Plains is the broad expanse of prairie which lies east of the Rocky Mountains in the United States and Canada. ... The Midwest is a common name for a region of the United States of America. ... The U.S. Southern states or the South, also known colloquially as Dixie, constitute a distinctive region covering a large portion of the United States, with its own unique heritage, historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ... The Mississippi River, derived from the old Ojibwe word misi-ziibi meaning great river (gichi-ziibi big river at its headwaters), is the longest river in the United States; the second-longest is the Missouri River, which flows into the Mississippi. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Darker red states are always considered part of the Pacific Northwest. ... The highest mountains in the U.S. are overwhelmingly located in four states: Alaska (home of 19 of the 20 highest peaks in the U.S.--Californias Mt. ... This is a list of valleys of the United States including valleys which lie within the United States and another country (Mexico and Canada, just for example): Berkshire Valley (Massachusetts) Big Smoky Valley (Nevada) Cache Valley (Utah-Idaho) Central Valley (California) Champlain Valley Coachella Valley (California) Columbia River Gorge Connecticut... Rivers in the United States is a list of rivers in the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Minor parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries â€¢ Politics Portal • • A state of the United States is any one of the fifty subnational entities referred to... This is a list of cities in the fifty United States as well as U.S.-owned territories (Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and American Samoa) and the District of Columbia. ... United States of America, showing states, divided into counties. ... This list of regions of the United States includes official (governmental) and non-official areas within the borders of the United States, not including U.S. states, the federal district of Washington, D.C. or standard subentities such as cities or counties. ... This is a list of the extreme points of the United States, the points that are farther north, south, east, or west than any other location in the country. ... The National Park System of the United States is the collection of physical properties owned or administered by the National Park Service. ... United States Banking began in 1781 with an act of United States Congress that established the Bank of North America in Philadelphia. ... This is a list of companies from the United States: #Current companies #Former companies, including acquired and merged ones #By industry #By location #See also Current companies Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S... The standard of living in the United States is one of the highest in the world by almost any measure. ... ISO 4217 Code USD User(s) the United States, the British Virgin Islands, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Panama, Turks and Caicos Islands, and the insular areas of the United States Inflation 3. ... View up Wall Street from Pearl Street NYSE and Broad Street view from Wall Street Wall Street is the name of a narrow street in lower Manhattan running east from Broadway downhill to the East River. ... The median household income in 2003 according to the US Census Bureau was determined to be $43,389 a year[1] with the median income per household member being $23,535. ... Single family homes such as this are indicative of the American middle class. ... There has been significant disagreement about poverty in the United States; particularly over how poverty ought to be defined. ... Headquarters Washington, DC, USA Central Bank of United States Currency US dollar -ISO 4217 Code USD Base borrowing rate 5. ... This article very generally discusses the customs and culture of the United States; for the culture of the United States, see arts and entertainment in the United States. ... Population of the United States, 1790 to 2000 The demographics of the United States depict a largely urban nation, with 80. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... The contemporary United States has no legally-recognized social classes. ... The standard of living in the United States is one of the highest in the world by almost any measure. ... Holidays of the United States vary with local observance. ... The folklore of the United States, or American folklore, is the folk tradition which has evolved on the North American continent since Europeans arrived in the 16th century. ... A monument to the working and supporting classes along Market street in the heart of San Franciscos Financial District, home to tens-of-thousands of professional and managerial middle class workers each day. ... The educational attainment of the US population is similar to that of many other industrialized countries with the vast majority of the population having completed secondary education and a rising number of college graduates that outnumber high school dropouts. ... Violent conforntation between working class union members and law enforecement such as the one between teamsters and Minneapolis police above were commonly frowned upon by professional middle class. ... This article discusses the culture of the United States; for customs and way of life, see Culture of the United States. ... The United States is home to a wide array of regional styles and scenes. ... American classical music refers to music written in the United States but in the European classical music tradition. ... American roots music is a broad category of music including country music, bluegrass, gospel, ragtime, jug bands, Appalachian folk, blues, Tejano and Cajun and Native American music. ... The first major American popular songwriter, Stephen Foster Starting with the birth of recorded music, American popular music has had a profound effect on music across the world. ... Much like American popular music, the American film industry has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century. ... This article is about television in the United States, specifically its history, art, business and government regulation. ... ... This topic is considered to be an essential subject on Wikipedia. ... The poetry of the United States began as a literary art during the colonial era. ... Transcendentalism was a group of new ideas in literature, religion, culture, and philosophy that emerged in the New England region of the United States of America in the early-to mid-19th century. ... The Harlem Renaissance was a flowering of art, literature and music in the United States led primarily by the African American community based in Harlem, New York City. ... The term Beat Generation refers primarily to a group of American writers of the 1950s. ... The Rocky Mountains, Landers Peak, 1863 by Albert Bierstadt, one of the Hudson River School painters Visual arts of the United States refers to the history of painting and visual art in the United States. ... This USPS stamp illustrates Pollocks drip technique. ... Because America has long attracted immigrants from a wide variety of nations and cultures, it is no surprise that the cuisine of the United States is extremely diverse. ... Closely related to the development of American music in the early 20th century was the emergence of a new, and distinctively American, art form -- modern dance. ... The United States has a history of architecture that includes a wide variety of styles. ... United States territory is any extent of region under the jurisdiction of the federal government of the United States, including all waters (around islands or continental tracts). ... The primary regulator of communications in the United States is the Federal Communications Commission. ... Current U.S. Highway shield The United States Highway System is an integrated system of roads in the United States numbered within a nationwide grid. ... Interstate Highways in the lower 48 states. ... There arergwertwertert[1] Kyle Railroad (KYLE) [2] Missouri and Northern Arkansas Railroad (MNA) [3] Montana Rail Link (MRL) [4] Montreal, Maine and Atlantic Railway (MMA) [5] Nebraska, Kansas and Colorado RailNet (NKCR) New York, Susquehanna and Western Railway (NYSW) [6] Northern Plains Railroad Paducah and Louisville Railway (PAL) [7] Palouse... J. M. Flaggs 1917 Uncle Sam, based on the original British Lord Kitchener poster of three years earlier, was used to recruit soldiers for both World War I and World War II. Flagg used a modified version of his own face for Uncle Sam, and veteran Walter Botts provided... National flag and ensign. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The United States of America has a large and lucrative tourism industry serving millions of international and domestic tourists. ... Social issues in the United States as perceived by social justice advocates and other groups and commentators include an unequal educational system, poverty, high rates of crime and incarceration, and lack of access to quality health care. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Racial profiling is inclusion of race in the profile of a persons considered likely to commit a particular crime or type of crime (see Offender Profiling). ... Operation Mallorca, U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, 2005 [1] Massive mark-ups for drugs, UK Govt report No significant impact on retail or wholesale prices, UK Govt report The War on Drugs is an initiative undertaken by the United States to carry out an all-out offensive (as President Nixon... Pornography may use any of a variety of media — written and spoken text, photos, movies, etc. ... Same-sex marriage, often called gay marriage, is a marriage between two persons of the same gender. ... Capital punishment in the United States is officially sanctioned by 38 of the 50 states, as well as by the federal government and the military. ... Flag burning is widely used internationally as a symbolic form of protest against the U.S. Anti-Americanism, often Anti-American sentiment, refers to a prejudice against the government, culture, or people of the United States. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The folklore of the United States, or American folklore, is the folk tradition which has evolved on the North American continent since Europeans arrived in the 16th century. ... English language spread in the United States. ... The United States Mexico barrier is actually several separation barriers designed to prevent illegal immigration into the United States from the territory of adjacent Mexico along the U.S.-Mexico border. ... A 1979 Lincoln Continental with Town Car trim option. ...

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Failed United States' Leadership On Human Rights (2111 words)
Human rights emerged as a theoretical concept and political tool in the aftermath of WW II as numerous international treaties cultivated the legal responsibilities of the sovereign states to honor its citizens' inherent human rights.
State members, either the territorial state where the alleged crime was committed, or the nationality state of the accused violator, could request the prosecutor's investigation, but only under restrictive and complicated conditions.
Noting that the United States has the largest deployment of military personnel in the history of the world, often to the most troubled parts of the world at the very request of the United Nations, it would be not be in U.S. national interest to endorse the Rome Treaty.
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Human rights in the United States of America are built on what has been described as a self-evident truth that all men are created equal and endowed by their creator with natural human rights.
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