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Encyclopedia > Human rights in Islamic Republic of Iran

Today, the state of human rights in Iran continues to be generally considered a source of significant concern. Despite many efforts by Iranian human right activists, writers, NGOs and international critiques as well as several resolutions by the UN General Assembly and the UN Human Rights Commission, the government of Iran continues to restrict freedom of speech, gender equality and other forms of freedom. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... NGO is an abbreviation or code for: Non-governmental organization Nagoya Airport (IATA code) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... United Nations General Assembly The United Nations General Assembly is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations. ... The United Nations Commission on Human Rights, a commission supervised by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, is composed of representatives from 53 member states, and meets each year in regular session in March/April for six weeks in Geneva. ... The December 1979 constitution, and its 1989 amendment, define the political, economic, and social order of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... This article is about the general concept. ... Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ...


Furthermore, the Islamic regime of Iran continues to disregard the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in several aspects. Eleanor Roosevelt with the Spanish version of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. ...

Contents

Background

Human rights violations in Islamic Republic of Iran can be said to derive from two elements;

  • Firstly, traditional Islam and the Sharia law: The historical petrification of Sharia law by some cultures/regimes has allowed for significant gender inequality, homosexual persecution, as well as other internationally criticised practices such as stoning as a method of execution.
  • Furthermore, in Iran, a mentality of fatalism established through the practice of Shia Islam also helps less educated elements of the public disregard violations by attributing them to fate.[1]

For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the dynamic body of Islamic religious law. ... It has been suggested that Theological fatalism be merged into this article or section. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

History

Iran is home to the first charter of human rights[2] — the Persian Empire established unprecedented principles of human rights in the 6th century BC, under the reign of Cyrus the Great. After his conquest of Babylon in 539 BC, the King issued the Cyrus Cylinder, discovered in 1879 and recognised by many today as the first document defining a person's human rights. The cylinder declared that citizens of the Empire would be allowed to practice their religious beliefs freely and abolished slavery. This means that all the palaces of the Kings of Persia were built by paid workers, in an era where slaves typically did such work. These two reforms were reflected in the biblical books of Chronicles and Ezra, which state that Cyrus released the followers of Judaism from slavery and allowed them to migrate back to their land. Following Persia's defeat at the hands of Alexander the Great, the concept of human rights was abandoned. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Cyrus Cylinder. ... The Persepolis Ruins The Achaemenid dynasty (Old Persian:Hakamanishiya, Persian: هخامنشیان) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 6th century BC started on January 1, 600 BC and ended on December 31, 501 BC. // Monument 1, an Olmec colossal head at La Venta The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time... “Cyrus” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC Events and Trends 538 BC - Babylon occupied by Jews transported to Babylon are allowed to return to... The Cyrus Cylinder. ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Book of Chronicles is a book in the Hebrew Bible (also see Old Testament). ... The Book of Ezra is a book of the Bible in the Old Testament and Hebrew Tanakh. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ...


In 1906 the Iranian Constitutional Revolution resulted in a constitutional monarchy. For the first time in the more than 2000 years since the reign of Cyrus the Great, Iran was relying on a code of law to govern the interactions of its citizens and define their minimum freedoms. 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Iranian Constitutional Revolution (also Persian Constitutional Revolution and Constitutional Revolution of Iran) took place between 1905 and 1911. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not bound by a...


With the arrival of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925, the constitutional monarchy was for all practical reasons abolished. His son, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi continued in his father's footsteps. It was under his reign that the Iranian human rights movement drastically picked up once again and ultimately climaxed in the 1979 Iranian Revolution. Following the revolution, the subsequent Islamic Government of Iran continued flagrantly to disregard human rights and in many cases has made the situation worse. Reza Shah, also Reza Shah the Great, Reza Shah Pahlavi and Reza Pahlavi (Persian: , Rez̤ā PahlavÄ«), (March 16, 1878 – July 26, 1944), was Shah of Iran[1] from December 15, 1925 until he was forced to abdicate after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran in September 16, 1941 by British... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... His Majesty Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (اعلیحضرت محمدرضا شاه پهلوی; October 26, 1919 – July 27, 1980) also knows as Aryamehr, was the last Shah of Iran, ruling from 1941 until... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ...


Following the rise of the reform movement within Iran and the election of moderate Iranian president Mohammad Khatami in 1997 numerous moves were made to modify the Iranian civil and penal codes in order to improve the human rights situation. The predominantly reformist parliament drafted several bills allowing increased freedom of speech, the banning of torture, and gender equality. These were all dismissed or significantly watered down by the Guardian Council and leading conservative figures in the Iranian government at the time. Mohammad Khatami (Persian : سید محمد خاتمی Seyyed Moḥammad KhātamÄ«), born on September 29, 1943, in Ardakan city of Yazd province, is an Iranian intellectual, philosopher and political figure. ... The Guardian Council of the Constitution[1] (Persian: شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی) is a high chamber within the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ...


Legal foundations for human rights in Iran

The constitution

According to the Iranian fundamental law (Persian: Qānun-e asāsi): “Farsi” redirects here. ...

  • The nineteenth principle: "the Iranian people, no matter which ethnic group, should enjoy equal rights; colour, race, language, etc. are not a cause for different treatment."[3]
  • The twentieth principle: "all members of the Nation, whether men or women, are equal before the law and enjoy the protection of human, political, economical, social and cultural rights within the precepts of Islam."
  • The twenty-first principle: "the State is responsible to protect the rights of women at all levels within the precepts of Islam and shall take the following steps:
    • The creation of locations where the women can let her personality blossom and can take over her material and spiritual rights.
    • The protection of mothers, particularly while pregnant and for the education of children: protection of children without guardian.
    • The creation of a competent tribunal to ensure stability and continuity of the family.
    • The creation of special benefits for widowers, elderly women and single women. Grant custody of children to the mother in their mutual benefit when there is no legal guardian.
  • Twenty-third principle: "the offence of opinion shall be banned and no one can be blamed or admonished because of his or her opinions".
  • Twenty-fourth principle: "publications and the media enjoy free speech, unless they attack the principles of Islam or harm public stability; the Law will specify the modalities of this principle."
    • Still within the scope of the twenty-fourth principle, the "control and interception of mail, the recording and divulgation of telephone conversations, publications of faxes and telex, censorship, the lack of transmission or distribution as well as eavesdropping are forbidden, unless the Law states otherwise."
  • Twenty-seventh principle states that "parties, groups, political and union associations, Islamic associations and minority religious groups are free unless they interfere with the independence, freedom, national unity, Islamic principles or with the foundations of the Islamic Republic. No one shall be prevented or forced to participate in any one of these groups. "The organisation of meetings or protests, without any one bearing arms, is permissible as long as it does not interfere with the precepts of Islam."

The woman is considered as someone under guard and non-mature.[4] The excerpts above show a major discrepancy between the legal text and the reality in Iran, as well as a certain hypocrisy in the writing of the constitution. The latter grants freedom in certain areas, "unless the law states otherwise" or "unless it interferes with the precepts of Islam". The insitutional system granting power with the clergymen, especially the Supreme Guide, the reality is that decisions are made according to political Islamism, even as Iran is a self-proclaimed democracy.


The civil code

Discrimation between men and women in the Iranian civil code

The Iranian legislation being strongly influenced by the precepts of Islam, it consolidates the supremacy of the man, which is shown in different articles of the Iranian civil code:[5]


Excerpts:

  • Article 906 : if the dead man has no offspring, the totality of the inheritance belongs to his parents. If both the parents are alive, the mother receives 1/3 and the father 2/3 of the inheritance. If the mother has a hojab (relative who reduces her part, article 886), she shall receive 1/6, the rest belonging to the father.
  • Article 920: if the dead man's heirs are brothers and sisters of the parents or of the father, the part of the inheritance belonging to the men is twice that belonging to the women.
  • Discrimination against women in the law and in practice: a woman is granted half the inheritance of a man, like its counterpart in penal law, where a woman's life is worth half the life of a man. A woman also needs permission from her father or husband to travel.[6]
  • Article 907: when there are multiple children, the inheritance of the sons is twice that of the daughters.
  • Article 911: Where there are a number of grandparents, if they are all on the father's side, the male get twice the female; and if all on the mother's side it will be divided equally. If the deceased has brothers and sisters, although they will not inherit, this will reduce the share of the mother (who now has a hojab) to 1/6.

Children's rights in Iran at the international law level

Following declarations made upon ratification of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, Iran made the following comments: "the government of the Islamic Republic of Iran reserves the right not to apply dispositions and articles of the convention that would not be compatible with Islamic law or with the legislation in effect in the country. (UN document C.N.321.1995 of the treaty). The country continues to execute children. One of the recent cases to gain international attention was the hanging of Atefah Sahaaleh. Convention on the Rights of the Child Opened for signature 20 November 1989 in - Entered into force September 2, 1990 Conditions for entry into force 20 ratifications or accessions (Article 49) Parties 193 (only 2 non-parties: USA and Somalia) The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child... Atefeh Sahaaleh, aged 16 years Atefeh Rajabi Sahaaleh (1988 - August 15, 2004) was a 16-year-old Iranian girl who was executed in Iran after being sentenced to death by an Iranian judge, Haji Rezai, for allegedly having committed acts incompatible with chastity: Based on judicial records, by the time...


Penal code

Violations of human rights in Iran are sometimes institutionalised, wide-spread and legal in the Iranian penal code, deriving from the Sharia.


The Iranian penal code distinguishes two types of punishments: Hudud (fixed punishment) and the Qissas (retribution) or Diya (Blood money or Talion Law). Punishments falling within the category of Hududs are applied to people committing offenses against the State, such as adultery, alcohol consumption, burglary or petty theft, rebellions against Islamic authority, apostasia and homosexual intercourse (considered contrary to the spirit of Islam). Punishments include death by stoning or decapitation, amputation or flagellation (punishments are usually carried out in public). Victims of private crimes, such as murder or rape, can exercise a right to retribution (Qissas) or decide to accept "blood money" (Diyah or Talion Law).[7] Hudud ( Arabic , also transliterated hadud, hudood; plural for hadd, , limit, or restriction) is the word often used in Islamic social and legal literature for the bounds of acceptable behaviour and the punishments for serious crimes. ... Retributive justice maintains that proportionate punishment is a morally acceptable response to crime, regardless of whether the punishment causes any tangible benefits. ... Blood money is money paid as a fine to the next of kin of somebody who was killed intentionally (in Arabic: Qisas قصاص) or unintentionally (in Arabic: Diyat or Diyya ديت). Islam has not prescribed any specific amount for Diyat nor has it obligated to discriminate in this matter between a man... Blood money is money paid as a fine to the next of kin of somebody who was killed intentionally. ... “Talion” redirects here. ... This article is about the act of adultery. ... Everyday instance of theft: the bike which fits on this wheel has disappeared In the criminal law, theft (also known as stealing) is the wrongful taking of someone elses property without that persons freely-given consent. ... A rebellion is, in the most general sense, a refusal to accept authority. ... From Greek απο, apo, away, apart, στασις, stasis, standing. Also derived from Greek αποστάτης, meaning political rebel, as applied to rebellion against God, its law and the faith of Israel (in Hebrew מרד) in the old testament. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... Stoning, or lapidation, refers to a form of capital punishment execution method carried out by an organized group throwing stones or rocks at the person they mean to execute. ... Decapitation (from Latin, caput, capitis, meaning head), or beheading, is the removal of a living organisms head. ... Partial hand amputation Amputation is the removal of a body extremity by trauma or surgery. ... Whipping on a post Flagellation is the act of whipping (Latin flagellum, whip) the human body. ...


A bill to set the minimum age for the death penalty at 18 years was examined by the parliament in December 2003, but it was not ratified by the Guardian Council of the Constitution.[4] Image:DSC--Majlis5323. ... The Guardian Council of the Constitution[1] (Persian: شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی) is a high chamber within the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ...


In December 2002, Ayatollah Shahroudi, head of the judicial system, supposedly sent judges a memorandum requesting the suspension of stonings and asking them to choose other forms of sanctions. However, legal dispositions regarding the death penalty by stoning remain in force.[4] December 2002 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December - → // Events December 31, 2002 United States troops get into a brief gun battle with paramilitary forces of the Warzirstan Scouts of Pakistan, in a remote tribal area along the undefined Afghan/Pakistani border, in Paktia Province... Ayatollah Seyyed Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi (آیت‌الله سید محمود هاشمی شاهرودی) (Born 1948 in Najaf, Iraq[1]) is an Iranian politician and Shia cleric. ...


Current situation

Political issues

  • Chained Murders of Iran
  • Iran student protests, July 1999
  • 2nd of Khordad Movement
  • Saeed Hajjarian
  • Mansour Osanlou
  • Abbas Abdi
  • Saeed Asgar
  • Ali Afshari
  • Nasser Zarafshan
  • Ali Farahbakhsh
  • Dariush Forouhar
  • Ahmad Batebi
  • Roozbeh Farahanipour
  • Seyed Reza Mirfayzi was in prison in 2005 for a long time
  • Tohid Ghaffarzadeh, a University student killed by Basij, while he was talking to his fiancée.
  • Amnesty International reports that "investigations by Parliament and the National Security Council indicated that actions by Revolutionary Guard officials and Basij (Mobilisation) forces, amongst others, precipitated the unrest and injuries following the July 1999 students demonstrations".[8]
  • Human Rights Watch reports that the Basij belong to the "Parallel Institutions" (nahad-e movazi), "the quasi-official organs of repression that have become increasingly open in crushing student protests, detaining activists, writers, and journalists in secret prisons, and threatening pro-democracy speakers and audiences at public events." Under the control of the Office of the Supreme Leader, these groups set up arbitrary checkpoints around Tehran, uniformed police often refraining from directly confronting these plainclothes agents. "Illegal prisons, which are outside of the oversight of the National Prisons Office, are sites where political prisoners are abused, intimidated, and tortured with impunity."[9]
  • Stop Child Executions Campaign reports that there are currently 74 children (under 18 years of age) facing execution in Iran. [10]
  • On March 8, 2004, the Basij issued a violent crackdown on the activists celebrating International Women's Day in Tehran.[11]
  • According to Amnesty International report, after May 2006 widespread demonstrations related to Iran newspaper cockroach cartoon controversy‎ in Iranian Azerbaijan hundreds were arrested and some reportedly killed by the security forces, although official sources downplayed the scale of arrests and killings. Further arrests occurred, many around events and dates significant to the Azerbaijani community such as the Babek Castle gathering in Kalayber in June, and a boycott of the start of the new academic year over linguistic rights for the Azerbaijani community." [12]
  • On August 12, 2006, the Iranian government banned the human rights group led by Iranian Nobel Peace Prize laureate Shirin Ebadi. According to Iran, the Defenders of Human Rights Center (DHRC), failed to get authorisation to operate. The ban prompted some international criticism.[13]

As of 2006, the Iranian government has been attempting to de-politisize Iran's student body or make it supportive of the government by stopping students that hold contrary political views from attending higher education, despite the acceptance of those students by their universities. According to Human Rights Watch, this practice has been coupled with academic suspensions, arrests, and jail terms.[14] ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Second of Khordad Movement refers to a movement started by 6th presidental election in Iran. ... Hajjarian, a former secret agent, was widely believed to be the main strategist behind the 1997 reform movement of Iran Hajjarian was shot in the head on the doorsteps of Tehran city council in March 2000 Hajjarian escaped almost certain death, but he has been paralyzed for life. ... Mansour Osanlou is head of the executive committee of the transport workers trade union in Tehran in Iran. ... Abbas Abdi, a reformist politician. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Nasser Zarafshan (born 1946) is an Iranian novelist, translator, and attorney. ... Ali Farahbakhsh is a notable Iranian economist journalist. ... Dariush Forouhar (1928-November 1998) was the leader of the Hezb-e Mellat-e Iran (Nation of Iran Party), a pan-Iranist opposition party in Iran which he founded in 1951. ... Ahmad Batebi, A symbol of Irans reformist movement appeard on the cover of The Economist magazine. ... Roozbeh Farahanipour, a Nationalist writer and journalist was born on July 16, 1971. ... Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a pressure group that promotes human rights. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... Ayatollah Sayyed Ali Khamenei, Supreme Leader of Iran. ... Stop Child Executions Campaign Logo The “Stop Child Executions” Campaign, initiated by Nazanin Afshin-Jam, aims at putting an end to executions of minors in Iran. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image:IWD 2007 Logo. ... Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a pressure group that promotes human rights. ... Cartoon that started the controversy. ... Iranian Azerbaijan or Iranian Azarbaijan (Persian: آذربایجان ایران; Āzārbāijān-e Irān), (Azeri: اذربایجان, c. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... Shirin Ebadi at a press conference in November 2005. ... Defenders of Human Rights Center Defenders of Human Rights Center (also known as the Centre for the Defence of Human Rights, Persian: کانون مدافعان حقوق بشر ) is Irans leading human rights organization. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ...


The volume, Crimes Against Humanity: Indict Iran's Ruling Mullahs for Massacre of 30,000 Political Prisoners, was published by the National Council of Resistance of Iran Foreign Affairs Committee in 2001. The report contains a statement by Baron Avebury, vice-chairman of the British Parliamentary Human Rights Group, written in 2001. Baron Avebury describes a major massacre in 1988, (according to Ayatollah Hossein-Ali Montazeri): "in the first few days of the… massacre… thousands were killed, and at a conservative estimate. the final death toll was in the region of 30,000.". “MKO” redirects here. ... Eric Reginald Lubbock, 4th Baron Avebury 7th Bt, PC (born 29 September 1928) is an English politician. ...


Freedom of Expression

Freedom of the Press

A Reporters Without Borders report indicates permanent restriction of the press and denounces an application of censorship found to be systematic. Iran is one of the ten most repressive countries of the world concerning freedom of the press. Journalists detained in prison are often harassed and humiliated, as was Zahra Kazemi, an Irano-Canadian journalist who died in prison. The Canadian government broke off relations with Iran following her death, suspected to have been backed by the authorities and executed by the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps. Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ... Before her arrest Zahra Ziba Kazemi-Ahmadabadi (زهرا کاظمی احمدآبادی in Persian)‎ (1949 - July 11, 2003) was an Iranian (Persian)-born freelance photographer, residing in Montreal (Canada), who died in the custody of Iranian officials following her arrest. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


In its report published on the 16th International World Press Freedom Day, Wednesday May 3, 2006, Reporters Without Borders denounced 37 "predators of press freedom", of which many were political leaders or armed groups. Reporters Without Borders groups Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad among the "predators of freedom". is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mahmoud Ahmadinejad[1] (born October 28, 1956)[2] is the sixth and current President of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ...


Akbar Ganji, an Iranian intellectual and important figure in the anti-government opposition, supported a plan to change Iran in an interview with French newspaper Le Monde dated 6 June 2006. He denounces human rights violations in Iran: "a regime, in Tehran, that ridicules the most basic rights". With Amnesty international (see this organization's report on Iran), Akbar Ganji denounces a regime that had 94 people executed in 2005: "The fact that the penal code authorises a citizen to assassinate another if he is judged to be "impious"; the ban on writing for "opposing" journalists; the difficulty of demonstration (70 women were arrested a few days ago) or even the blanket of "authoritarianism" that ignores all private life and transforms into a political act the simple gesture of a woman taking the scarf from her head". He thinks that the only route for the country will be civil disobedience. He reminds western democracies of "their duty to denounce attacks on human rights" in Iran. Akbar Ganji (Persian: اکبر گنجی , born 31 January 1960 in Qazvin) is an Iranian journalist and writer. ... For the song by the Thievery Corporation, see Le Monde (song). ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a pressure group that promotes human rights. ... Akbar Ganji (Persian: اکبر گنجی , born 31 January 1960 in Qazvin) is an Iranian journalist and writer. ...


100 newspapers and other publications have been closed by the regime since April 2000. There are currently 10 journalists in prison. Reporters Without Borders considers Iran to be "the biggest prison in the Middle-East for journalists".


In 1999 journalist Camelia Entekhabifard conducted research on women earning money in Qom, a center for Shi'a scholarship and pilgrimage, by engaging in temporary marriage with pilgrims and religious scholars, in what she called a thinly veiled form of prostitution.[15] This research resulted in the female reporter being imprisoned in Towhid Prison. She initiated a romance with her interrogator and was released after 11 weeks. Cover of Entekhabifards book Camelia (2007) Camelia Entekhabifard (also Camelia E. Fard or Camelia Entekhabi-Fard, Persian: , born 1973 in Tehran) is an Iranian journalist and author who now lives in New York City. ... Qom (Persian: قم, also known as Qum or Kom) is a city in Iran and the Qom (River) flows through the town. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Whore redirects here. ... Towhid Prison was an unofficial detention center in Tehran, Iran. ...

Abbas Amir-Entezam(in Persian: عباس امیر انتظام) was the spokesman and the secretary of the Interim Cabinet of Mehdi Bazargan in 1979. ... Nasser Zarafshan (born 1946) is an Iranian novelist, translator, and attorney. ... Dr. Hashem Aghajari defending his speech in court. ... Akbar Mohammadi Akbar Mohammadi (in Persian: اکبر محمدی) (born 1972 - died July 30, 2006) was an Iranian student involved in 18th of Tir crisis in Tehran University. ...

Control of the Internet

According to a Reporters Without Borders report, "since the closing of most [reformist] Iranian newspapers since April 2000, this means of communication has become the primary medium by which journalists and press correspondents can express themselves and call for more liberty and reforms. Irritated by this new method, conservatives, like Iranian reformers, strengthened control of this medium. Since January 2003, several webmasters and surfers have been arrested". i cnat believe you would trust an idiot like me! ... Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ...


Reporters Without Borders also believes that it is the Iranian "government’s desire to rid the Iranian Internet of all independent information concerning the political opposition, the women’s movement and human rights”.[16] Where the government cannot legally stop sites it uses advanced blocking software to prevent access to them.


According to the same source, the "conservatives' mistrust of the Web doesn't prevent its use for propaganda. Thus information sites such as Daricheh.org or Jebhe.com (note: jebhe.com no longer exists) were put in place and convey the ideas of regime hardliners. Also, the theological university Qom trains several thousand students in computer science and as internet specialists every year so that, according to a mullah of Qom, 'they will use their knowledge to serve the country and Islam'". Qom (Persian: قم, also known as Qum or Kom) is a city in Iran and the Qom (River) flows through the town. ... Mullah (Persian: ملا) is a title given to some Islamic clergy, coming from the Arabic word mawla, means both `vicar` and `guardian. ...


Religious issues

The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran mandates that the official religion of Iran is Islam and the Twelver Ja'fari school, though it also mandates that other Islamic schools are to be accorded full respect, and their followers are free to act in accordance with their own jurisprudence in performing their religious rites and recognizes Zoroastrian, Jewish, and Christian Iranians as religious minorities. Irreligious people are recognized and they do not have even basic rights as education, becoming member of parliament etc. The Bahá'í Faith is not recognized either and is persecuted.[17] The Constitution of Iran declares that the official religion of Iran is Islam and the doctrine followed is that of Ja’fari (Twelver) Shi’ism. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Constitution of Islamic Republic of Iran The Constitution of Islamic Republic of Iran[1] [2] abolished the Constitution of 1906. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Twelvers ( Ithnāˤashariyyah) are those Shiˤa Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms, as distinct from Ismaili & Zaidi Shiite Muslims, who believe in a different number of Imams or in a different path of succession. ... Jafari school of thought, Jafari jurisprudence or Jafari Fiqh is the name of the jurisprudence of the Shia Twelvers Muslims, derived from the name of Jafar al-Sadiq, the 6th Shia Imam. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Irreligion is the absence of religious following. ... This article is about the generally-recognized global Baháí community. ...


The United Nations and its human rights bodies have passed more than 67 resolutions and decisions regarding human rights violations against Iran's religious minorities since 1980.[18] In every year since 1984, except for 2002 where the United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR) tried to engage Iran into a dialogue on human rights, the UNCHR passed resolutions about human rights violations against Iran's religious minorities especially the Bahá'ís.[18] Iran became the fourth country in the history of the United Nations to be on the agenda of the General Assembly because of its human rights violations.[19] The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... United Nations Commission on Human Rights - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Irreligious people

Irreligious people in Iran are not recognized as citizens. While Jews, Christians and other minorities have the right to take part in university entrance exams and can become members of parliament or city councils, irreligious people are not granted even their basic rights. Most irreligious people, however, hide their beliefs and pretend to be Muslims. Non-believers — atheists — under Islam do not have "the right to life". Apostasy in Iran is punishable by death.[20] This section does not cite its references or sources. ... “Atheist” redirects here. ... The term right to life is a political term used in controversies over various issues that involve the taking of a life (or what is perceived to be a life). ... Apostasy (from Greek αποστασία, meaning a defection or revolt, from απο, apo, away, apart, στασις, stasis, standing) is a term generally employed to describe the formal renunciation of ones religion, especially if the motive is deemed unworthy. ...


Bahá'í issues

Main article: Persecution of Bahá'ís

Bahá'ís continue to be persecuted in Islamic countries, especially Iran, where members of the Bahá'ís have been subjected to unwarranted arrests, false imprisonment, beatings, torture, unjustified executions, confiscation and destruction of property owned by individuals and the Bahá'í community, denial of employment, denial of government benefits, denial of civil rights and liberties, and denial of access to higher education.[17] Since the Islamic Revolution of 1979, Iranian Bahá'ís have regularly had their homes ransacked or been banned from attending university or holding government jobs, and several hundred have received prison sentences for their religious beliefs, most recently for participating in study circles.[17] Bahá'í cemeteries have been desecrated and property seized and occasionally demolished, including the House of Mírzá Buzurg, Bahá'u'lláh's father.[18] The House of the Báb in Shiraz has been destroyed twice, and is one of three sites to which Bahá'ís perform pilgrimage.[18], [21], [22] The persecution of Baháís refers to the religious persecution of Baháís in various countries, especially in Iran, the nation of origin of the Baháí Faith, Irans largest religious minority and the location of one of the largest Baháí populations in the world. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution,[1][2][3][4][5][6] Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi) was the revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza... The term study circle has become common terminology in the Baháí Faith to describe a specific type of gathering for systematic study of the Baháí teachings. ... Eram Garden, Shiraz most popular garden. ... The Shrine of the Báb and its Terraces, 2003. ...


Even more recently the situation of Bahá'ís has worsened; the United Nations Commission on Human Rights revealed an October 2005 confidential letter from Command Headquarters of the Armed Forces of Iran to identify Bahá'ís and to monitor their activities[23] and in November 2005 the state-run and influential Kayhan[24] newspaper, whose managing editor is appointed by Iran's supreme leader, Ayatollah Khamenei,[25] ran nearly three dozen articles defaming the Bahá'í Faith.[26] United Nations Commission on Human Rights - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Grand Âyatollâh   (Persian: آیت‌الله سید علی حسینی کس ننه ای Ä€yatollāh Seyyed `AlÄ« ḤoseynÄ« KhāmeneÄ«) (born 17 July 1939), also known as Seyyed Ali Khamenei,[1] is the current Supreme Leader of Iran and was the president of Iran from 1981 to 1989. ...


Due to these actions, the Special Rapporteur of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights stated on March 20, 2006 that she "also expresses concern that the information gained as a result of such monitoring will be used as a basis for the increased persecution of, and discrimination against, members of the Bahá'í faith, in violation of international standards. … The Special Rapporteur is concerned that this latest development indicates that the situation with regard to religious minorities in Iran is, in fact, deteriorating."[23] is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Jewish issues

Jews have lived in Iran for nearly 3,000 years and outside of Israel, Iran is host to the largest Jewish community in the Middle East. Although 80% of Iran's Jewish population left during the Islamic revolution of 1979, an estimated 25,000 Jews remain in the country. Jews in Iran have constitutional rights equal to other Iranians, although they may not hold government jobs or become army officers. They have freedom of religion, but may not proselytize. Jews have a representative in parliament; this person is legally obligated to support Iran's foreign policy and anti-Zionist position. Jews, along with other Iranian citizens, can be criminally prosecuted and subject to the death penalty for supporting Israel. After the Islamic revolution in 1979, several Jews were executed for Zionism. In 1998, Jewish businessman Ruhollah Kakhodah-Zadeh was executed without charge. In 2000, 13 Jews including religious leaders in Shiraz were accused and imprisioned for spying for Israel, but were released after an international outcry. According to Amir Cyrus Razzaghi, "The government goes to extra lengths to differentiate between the government of Israel, with whom they have fundamental issues, and the Jewish people, especially Iranian Jews… There is a genuine interest to keep the Jewish community in Iran to demonstrate to the world that the government is anti-Israel and not anti-Jewish. Iran's official government-controlled media published the Protocols of the Elders of Zion in 1994 and 1999. It is unclear whether Jews stay in Iran because they are happy and comfortable there or because they are elderly and speak only Persian. Most pre-revolutionary Jewish schools and synagogues have closed. Jewish children still attend Jewish schools where Hebrew and religious studies are taught, but Jewish principals have been replaced by Muslim ones, the curricula are government-supervised, and the Jewish Sabbath is no longer recognized. Jews may use passports and visas to leave Iran, but those who apply must do so to a special bureau and are placed under surveillance. Whole families may not leave Iran together.[27], [28] Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is... For other uses, see Shiraz (disambiguation). ... 1992 Russian edition of the Protocols, adapting Eliphas Levis portrayal of Baphomet. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ...


Gender issues

As an Islamic state, Iran's legislation, which is derived from a highly conservative interpretation of Islamic law, re-enforces male supremacy. For this reason, Iran is sometimes referred to as an Islamic patriarchy. This can be noted in the articles of the Iranian Civil Law as well as Iran's participation in international human rights conventions. For example, in 2003, Iran elected not to become a member of the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) since the convention contradicted the Islamic Sharia law in Clause A of its single article.[29] Look up patriarchy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women Opened for signature 18 December 1979 in New York City Entered into force 3 September 1981 Conditions for entry into force 20 ratifications Parties 185[1] The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW... Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women Opened for signature 18 December 1979 in New York City Entered into force 3 September 1981 Conditions for entry into force 20 ratifications Parties 183[1] The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the dynamic body of Islamic religious law. ...


This creates numerous problems in issues regarding rape, where the female is at fault by default. In such cases, the act of sexual penetration must be attested by at least four male Muslim witnesses of good character. The ultimate punishments are reserved to the legal authorities however the law states that false accusations are to be punished severely.[30] According to these views, the principles are so rigorous in their search for evidence, that they create the near impossibility of being able to reach a verdict that goes against the suspect in any manner.[31] Legal imbalances such as this can be seen in the case of individuals such as Atefah Sahaaleh who was executed by the state for 'inappropriate sexual relations', however was most probably a rape victim. This article is about witnesses in law courts. ... Atefeh Sahaaleh, aged 16 years Atefeh Rajabi Sahaaleh (1988 - August 15, 2004) was a 16-year-old Iranian girl who was executed in Iran after being sentenced to death by an Iranian judge, Haji Rezai, for allegedly having committed acts incompatible with chastity: Based on judicial records, by the time...


It is worth noting that the situation of women's rights in Iran, is significantly better than many Middle Eastern countries in several respects. While Iranian women have served in parliament and local government, women in many other Muslim countries in the region did not even have the right to vote before 2003, including Bahrain which is considered a pioneer in respecting the rights of women in the Arab world.[32], [33], [34] Iranian women gained the right to vote in 1962. In the United Arab Emirates, women do not have the right to vote or to stand for election. In Saudi Arabia, women took part, in 2005, in the first local elections ever held in the country.

A young Iranian woman is warned about her immodest dress, April 2007

Post-pubescent women are required to cover their hair and body in Iran and can be arrested for failing to do so[35] In Spring 2007, Iranian police have launched a crackdown against women accused of not covering up enough, arresting hundreds of women, some for wearing too tight an overcoat or letting too much hair peek out from under their veil. The campaign in the streets of major cities is the toughest such crackdown since the Islamic revolution. [36], [37] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... “Higab” redirects here. ...


LGBT issues

Main article: LGBT rights in Iran

Homosexual acts and adultery are criminal and punishable by life imprisonment or death after multiple offenses, and the same sentences apply to convictions for treason and apostasy. Those accused by the state of homosexual acts are routinely flogged and threatened with execution.[38], [39], [40], [41], [42], [43], [44]. Iran is one of seven countries in the world that apply the death penalty for homosexual acts; all of them justify this punishment with Islamic law. The Judiciary does not recognize the concept of sexual orientation, and thus from a legal standpoint there are no homosexuals or bisexuals, only heterosexuals committing homosexual acts[45]. LGBT rights Around the world By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Discrimination Violence This box:      Since the Iranian Revolution of 1979, some LGBT and human rights groups have cited a lack of tolerance toward the gay community. ... Since its coinage, the word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings. ... This article is about the act of adultery. ... For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ... Apostasy (from Greek αποστασία, meaning a defection or revolt, from απο, apo, away, apart, στασις, stasis, standing) is a term generally employed to describe the formal renunciation of ones religion, especially if the motive is deemed unworthy. ... Sexual orientation refers to the direction of an individuals sexuality, normally conceived of as falling into several significant categories based around the sex or gender that the individual finds attractive. ...


For some years after the Revolution, transgendered individuals were classified by the Judiciary as being homosexual and were thus subject to the same laws. However, in the mid-1980s the Judiciary began changing this policy and classifying transgendered individuals as a distinct group, separate from homosexuals, granting them legal rights. Gender identity disorder is officially recognized in Iran today, and the Judiciary permits sexual reassignment surgery for those who can afford it.[46] In the early 1960s, Ayatollah Khomeini had issued a ruling permitting gender reassignment, which has since been reconfirmed by Ayatollah Khamenei.[47] Currently, Iran has between 15,000 and 20,000 transsexuals, according to official statistics, although unofficial estimates put the figure at up to 150,000. Iran carries out more gender change operations than any country in the world besides Thailand. Sex changes have been legal since the late Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, spiritual leader of the 1979 Islamic revolution, passed a fatwa authorising them nearly 25 years ago. Whereas homosexuality is considered a sin, transsexuality is categorised as an illness subject to cure. While the government seeks to keep its approval quiet, state support has increased since Mr Ahmadinejad took office in 2005. His government has begun providing grants of £2,250 for operations and further funding for hormone therapy. It is also proposing loans of up to £2,750 to allow those undergoing surgery to start their own businesses.[48] After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution,[1][2][3][4][5][6] Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi) was the revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza... Transgender is generally used as a catch-all umbrella term for a variety of individuals, behaviors, and groups centered around the full or partial reversal of gender roles; however, compare other definitions below. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Gender identity disorder, as identified by psychologists and physicians, is a condition in which a person has been assigned one gender, usually on the basis of their sex at birth (compare intersex disorders), but identifies as belonging to another gender, and feels significant discomfort or being unable to deal with... Sex reassignment surgery (SRS) includes the surgical procedures by which a persons physical appearance and function of their existing sexual characteristics are changed to that of the other sex. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political... Ayatollah Ali Khamenei Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenei (Persian: آیت‌الله سید علی خامنه‌ای) (born July 15, 1939) is the Iran. ... “GBP” redirects here. ...


Corporal and capital punishment

According to Amnesty International's 2004 report, at least 108 people were executed that year, most of whom had been detained as political prisoners.[49] Amnesty has also described cases in which adolescent children were sentenced to the death penalty.[50] Though illegal, torture is often carried out in Iranian prisons, as in the widely publicised case of photojournalist Zahra Kazemi. Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a pressure group that promotes human rights. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Before her arrest Zahra Ziba Kazemi-Ahmadabadi (زهرا کاظمی احمدآبادی in Persian)‎ (1949 - July 11, 2003) was an Iranian (Persian)-born freelance photographer, residing in Montreal (Canada), who died in the custody of Iranian officials following her arrest. ...


Like 74 other countries in the world, Iran carries out capital punishment. As a State party to the International Convention on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), Iran has undertaken not to execute anyone for an offence committed when they were under the age of 18, despite continuing to carry out such executions, and is one of only six nations in the world to do so. According to Article 6 of the ICCPR, "sentence of death shall not be imposed for crimes committed by persons below eighteen years of age.”.[51] Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ...


In 2004, Iran ranked second in the world by total number of confirmed executions having carried out 159, coming behind the People's Republic of China, who committed at least 1,770.[52] In 2005, the number dropped to 94 confirmed executions, either by hanging or stoning, though returned to 177 in 2006.[53] Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Death sentences are always administered for those convicted of murder, rape, and child molestation. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Child executions in Iran

As a state party to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), the government of Iran has undertaken not to execute anyone for an offense committed when they were under the age of 18.


Article 6.5 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) declares: “Sentence of death shall not be imposed for crimes committed by persons below eighteen years of age” and the article 37(a) of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) provides that: “Neither capital punishment nor life imprisonment without possibility of release shall be imposed for offenses committed by persons below eighteen years of age”.


Since 1990 at least 23 executions of child offenders in Iran has been recorded.


In January 2005, the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, which monitors states' compliance with the CRC, urged Iran to immediately stay all executions of child offenders and to abolish the use of the death penalty in such cases. In the summer of 2006, the Iranian Parliament reportedly passed a bill establishing special courts for children and adolescents. However, it has not yet been approved by the Council of Guardians, which supervises Iran's legislation to ensure conformity with Islamic principles. During the past four years, the Iranian authorities have reportedly been considering legislation to ban the death penalty for child offenders. Recent comments by a judiciary spokesperson indicates that the proposed law would only prohibit the death penalty for certain crimes, and not all crimes committed by children.


In spite of these efforts, the number of child offenders executed in Iran has risen during the past two years. Stop Child Executions Campaign has recorded 73 children facing executions in Iran. As a state party to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), the government of Iran has undertaken not to execute anyone for an offense committed when they were under the age of 18. Stop Child Executions Campaign Logo The “Stop Child Executions” Campaign, initiated by Nazanin Afshin-Jam, aims at putting an end to executions of minors in Iran. ...


Article 6.5 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) declares: “Sentence of death shall not be imposed for crimes committed by persons below eighteen years of age” and the article 37(a) of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) provides that: “Neither capital punishment nor life imprisonment without possibility of release shall be imposed for offenses committed by persons below eighteen years of age”.[54]. In July 2007, Amnesty International issued a comprehensive 46 page report titled Iran: The last executioner of children.[55], [56] Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a pressure group that promotes human rights. ...


Treatment of Prisoners

Torture, which is not banned in Iran due to Islamic law,[1] is often carried out in Iranian prisons, as in the widely publicised case of photojournalist Zahra Kazemi. This Canadian-Iranian woman died in an Iranian prison in 2003. She had been arrested while reportedly photographing protesting relatives of students held at Evin prison. Doctors examining her body determined that she died from a fractured skull and had been beaten, tortured, and raped.[57] Before her arrest Zahra Ziba Kazemi-Ahmadabadi (زهرا کاظمی احمدآبادی in Persian)‎ (1949 - July 11, 2003) was an Iranian (Persian)-born freelance photographer, residing in Montreal (Canada), who died in the custody of Iranian officials following her arrest. ... Evin Prison (زندان اوین) is a prison in Iran, located in the north of Tehran. ...


Significant figures in the Iranian human rights movement

The following individuals represent a partial list of individuals who are currently, or have in the past, significantly attempted to improve the human rights situation in Iran after the revolution in 1979. After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution,[1][2][3][4][5][6] Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi) was the revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza...

Shirin Ebadi at a press conference in November 2005. ... Akbar Ganji (Persian: اکبر گنجی , born 31 January 1960 in Qazvin) is an Iranian journalist and writer. ... Nazanin Afshin Jam in Miss World 2003 contest image obtained from here Nazanin Afshin-Jam (in Persian: نازنین افشین جم) (born 1979 in Tehran, Iran) is an Iranian-Canadian and a former Miss World Canada. ...

International Criticism of the Iranian human rights record

Jahangir Razmi's Firing Squad in Iran is the first and only anonymous image to ever win the Pulitzer Prize

On 13 October 2005, the Members of the European Parliament voted to adopt a resolution condemning Iran's continued disregard of the human rights of its citizens with a vote of 49 against 43, with 89 abstentions. On 22 December, Hamid Reza Assefi, from the Iranian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, announced that Iran would suspend dialogue with the European Union concerning the ongoing question of human rights in the country. Image File history File links Firing_squad_in_iran. ... Image File history File links Firing_squad_in_iran. ... Jahangir Razmi (Persian: جهانگیر رزمی) (b. ... The Pulitzer Prize is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in print journalism, literary achievements, and musical composition. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hamid Reza Assefi (In Persian: حمیدرضا آصفی) is the Spokesman, Vice Minister of Parliamentary and Consular Affairs and Communication, and the Special Assistant to the Minister at the Iranian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. ... A minister for foreign affairs, or foreign minister, is a governmental cabinet minister who helps form the foreign policy of a sovereign nation. ...


In a National Post article dated Thursday, November 2, 2006 Iran has been listed among the 13 worst abusers of Human rights in the world by the Canadian Government. Canada has brought this to the United Nations Human rights council, a body which the country firmly rejects Iran's participation on given its horrendous human rights record. This related to the torture and death of Canada-based Iranian photo journalist Zahra Kazemi, by an Iranian prosecutor, who became a high ranking member of the government of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. Iran's was not pleased with this assessment, despite its factual accuracy. [58] The National Post is a major Canadian English-language national newspaper based in Don Mills, Ontario, a district of Toronto. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Before her arrest Zahra Ziba Kazemi-Ahmadabadi (زهرا کاظمی احمدآبادی in Persian)‎ (1949 - July 11, 2003) was an Iranian (Persian)-born freelance photographer, residing in Montreal (Canada), who died in the custody of Iranian officials following her arrest. ... Mahmoud Ahmadinejad[1] (born October 28, 1956)[2] is the sixth and current President of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ...


See also

Wikisource has original text related to this article: Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam The Cairo Declaration of Human Rights in Islam (CDHRI) is a declaration of the member states of the Organization of the Islamic Conference, which provides an overview on the Islamic perspective on human rights, and... Eleanor Roosevelt with the Spanish version of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. ... The Cairo Declaration of Human Rights in Islam (CDHRI) is a declaration of the member states of the Organization of the Islamic Conference, which affirms Sharia — Islamic law — as the sole source of human rights. ... Defenders of Human Rights Center Defenders of Human Rights Center (also known as the Centre for the Defence of Human Rights, Persian: کانون مدافعان حقوق بشر ) is Irans leading human rights organization. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The current judicial system of Iran was implemented and established by Ali Akbar Davar and some of his contemporaries. ... This article focuses on ethnic minorities in Iran and their related political issues and current realities. ... Map showing ethnic and religious diversity among the population of Iran. ... The Constitution of Iran declares that the official religion of Iran is Islam and the doctrine followed is that of Ja’fari (Twelver) Shi’ism. ... Stop Child Executions Campaign Logo The “Stop Child Executions” Campaign, initiated by Nazanin Afshin-Jam, aims at putting an end to executions of minors in Iran. ... Towhid Prison was an unofficial detention center in Tehran, Iran. ... Evin Prison (زندان اوین) is a prison in Iran, located in the north of Tehran. ... Gohardasht Prison is a notorious prison in the outskirt of Karaj, approximately 20 km west of Tehran and is also known as Rajaye Shahr. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Ateqeh Rajabi, aged 16 years Ateqeh Rajabi (1988 to August 15, 2004) was a sixteen year-old Iranian girl who was executed in Iran after being sentenced to death by an Iranian judge, Haji Rezaii, for allegedly having committed acts incompatible with chastity (having sexual intercourse with an older man... Nazanin (Mahabad) Fatehi Nazanin (Mahabad) Fatehi (Persian: نازنین فاتحی) is a 19-year-old Iranian girl who was sentenced to death for stabbing a man who she claimed tried to rape her and her 15 year old niece (Nazanin was 17 at the time). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Brigadier-General Ahmad Reza Radan is Tehrans police chief, infamous for his crackdown on unIslamic hair and dress style. ...

References

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  34. ^ Kuwaiti women win right to vote, BBC News Online, 17 May 2005
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  46. ^ The story of Maryam Hatoon Molkara (Iran)
  47. ^ Iran's sex-change operations, BBC Newsnight, 5 January 2005
  48. ^ Sex change funding undermines no gays claim, The Guardian, September 26, 2007
  49. ^ Iran Country Report, covering events from January – December 2003, Amnesty International, 2004
  50. ^ Iran continues to execute minors and juvenile offenders, Amnesty International, 22 July 2005
  51. ^ International Convention on Civil and Political Rights: Article 6, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
  52. ^ Facts and Figures on the Death Penalty, Amnesty International, 19 September 2007; retrieved 30 September 2007
  53. ^ Capital punishment on the English Wikipedia; retrieved 30 September 2007
  54. ^ The Row — Minors on Death Row in Iran, StopChildExecutions.com
  55. ^ Iran: The last executioner of childrenPDF, Amnesty International, June 2007
  56. ^ (Persian)ایران: ‌ آخرین اعدام‌ كننده كودكان, StopChildExecutions.com
  57. ^ "Iranian dissident 'admits' working for US", aljazeera.net, August 31, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-08-31. 
  58. ^ Canada criticized in UN after speaking out on human rights abuses, Canada.com, November 2, 2006

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International Freedom of Expression eXchange. ... Human rights in the Middle East are often reported to be a cause of concern among many outsider observers, governmental and non-governmental. ... This article outlines the human rights record of the Palestinian Authority leadership and in the West Bank and Gaza. ... This article is about the general concept. ... The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ... The term minority rights embodies two separate concepts: first, normal individual rights as applied to members of racial, ethnic, class or religious minorities, and second, collective rights accorded to minority groups. ... The term women’s rights typically refers to freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized or ignored and/or illegitimately suppressed by law or custom in a particular society. ... LGBT rights Around the world By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Discrimination Violence This box:      LGBT social movements share related goals of social acceptance of homosexuality, bisexuality, or transgenderism. ... Human rights in Asia are described by region: Human rights in East Asia Human rights in Central Asia Human rights in the Middle East For human rights in specific countries, use the Human rights in Asia template below. ... The situation of human rights in Africa is generally reported to be highly mixed at best, and typically seen as an area of grave concern according to the UN, governmental, and non-governmental observers. ...


 
 

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