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Encyclopedia > Human rights in Brazil
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Brazil

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Politics and government of
Brazil
Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Brazil. ... Brazil is a federal republic with 26 states and a federal district (see: States of Brazil). ...



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There are serious issues in regard to abuses of human rights in Brazil. Brazil had a remarkably poor record during the dictatorship of the 1960s, and still has many problems today. These include the use of police brutality, corruption, torture and summary executions by civil and military police and prison authorities. In the recent years, the 1992 Carandiru Massacre is considered the major violation of the human rights in Brazil. Brazils bicameral National Congress (Portuguese: Congresso Nacional) consists of the Federal Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. ... In its present configuration, the Brazilian Senate (Portuguese: Senado Federal) is a federal legislative body and the upper house of the National Congress of Brazil. ... The Chamber of Deputies of Brazil (Portuguese: Câmara dos Deputados) is a federal legislative body and the lower house of the National Congress of Brazil. ... Brazilian Presidential Standard The first president of Brazil was Deodoro da Fonseca, who proclaimed the republic in a military coup detât against the Emperor Dom Pedro II. Since then, Brazil had six constitutions, two dictatorships and three democratic periods. ... Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (born October 6, 1945) is a left-wing Brazilian politician. ... Category: ... The Vice-President and Minister of Defense José Alencar. ... The Supreme Federal Tribunal (in Portuguese Supremo Tribunal Federal, or simply STF) is the highest court of law of the Federative Republic of Brazil. ... This article lists political parties in Brazil. ... Brazil elects on the national level a head of state – the president – and a legislature. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In 2006, Brazil held general elections in two rounds. ... Brazil is divided into twenty-six estados (states; singular estado) and one district, the Distrito Federal (Federal District) which contains the capital city, Brasília. ... This is a list of the current governors of the States of Brazil. ... Traditionally, Brazil has been a leader in the inter-American community and has played an important role in collective security efforts, as well as in economic cooperation in the Western Hemisphere. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... David Kirkwood on the ground after being struck by police batons Police brutality is a term used to describe the excessive use of physical force, assault, verbal attacks, and threats by police officers and other law enforcement officers. ... Torture is defined by the United Nations Convention Against Torture as any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... The Carandiru Massacre took place on October 2, 1992 in Carandiru Penitentiary in São Paulo, Brazil, and is considered to be an example of a major human rights violation in the History of Brazil. ...

Contents

Prisoner violence

Brazil’s prisons are overcrowded and unhealthy, there are now over 300,000 inmates. Beatings, torture and killings by prison guards occur throughout the prison system. Children are abused in the juvenile justice system. According to the Ministry of Justice 13,489 under 18s are in detention. Prison overcrowding results in a prominent occurrence of prison violence and murder as well as frequent revolts and escapes. In order to deal with these problems, prison administrations often divide prison populations according to gang affiliation. According to Global Justice, there have been claims of gang affiliation being assigned. Living space, food, and cleanliness conditions are inhumane and bribery for privileges and transfers is rampant. Bribery is a crime implying a sum or gift given alters the behaviour of the person in ways not consistent with the duties of that person. ...


Summary executions and police violence

Police violence is one of the most internationally recognized human rights abuses in Brazil. The problem of urban violence focuses on the perpetual struggle between police and residents of high crime favelas such as the areas portrayed in City of God. Police response in many parts of Brazil is extremely violent, including summary execution and torture of suspects. According to Global Justice, in 2003, the police killed 1,195 people in the State of Rio de Janeiro alone. In the same year 45 police officers were killed. Police violence is often reacted to by local communities and trafficking groups with demonstrations and violent resistance, causing escalation and multiplying victims. Unofficial estimates show there are over 3000 deaths annually from police violence in Brazil, according to Human Rights Watch. There are constant complaints of racism, abuses, torture, executions and disappearances. Not all states record police killings or keep accurate statistics. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... City of God (Portuguese: Cidade de Deus) is a Brazilian film, released in its home country in 2002 and worldwide in 2003. ... Global justice is a concept in political philosophy denoting justice between societies or between individuals in different societies, as opposed to within a specific society. ... Location of Rio de Janeiro Coordinates: Country Brazil Region Southeast State Rio de Janeiro  - Mayor Cesar Maia (PFL) Area    - City 1,260 km² Population (2005)[1][2]  - City 5,613,000  - Density 4,781/km²  - Metro 11,620,000 Time zone UTC-3 (UTC-3) Website: www. ...


Torture

Torture in Brazil is widespread and systematic according to the ex-UN Special Rapporteur. Occurrence of police torture accompanies murder or effecting intimidation and extortion. Torture has also been widely reported in detention centers and mental institutions. Extortion is a criminal offense, which occurs when a person obtains money, behaviour, or other goods and/or services from another by wrongfully threatening or inflicting harm to this person, reputation, or property. ... A psychiatric hospital (also called a mental hospital or asylum) is a hospital specializing in the treatment of persons with mental illness. ...


Agrarian violence and oppression

The agrarian struggle in Brazil is manifold, touching on the topics of deforestation, dam building, eviction, squatting, and wildlife smuggling. The enormous Landless Workers' Movement in Brazil involves large and migrating homeless populations. Landowners resort to assassins and death squads to drive and intimidate landless populations from their land. Other cases of agrarian human rights violations involve government takings, such as for various hydroelectric opporations across Brazil. Wealthy international corporations have enormous bargaining power and often refuse to remunerate displaced populations upon the flooding of their ancestral homes. Further agrarian violence arises from smugglers of exotic animals, wood, and other minerals from extracting contraband from forest or agrarian areas. Scrivener Dam, in Canberra, Australia, was engineered to withstand a once-in-5000-years flood A dam is a barrier across flowing water that obstructs, directs or retards the flow, often creating a reservoir, lake or impoundment. ... MST logo Brazil’s Landless Workers Movement, or in Portuguese Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem Terra (MST), is the largest social movement in Latin America with an estimated 1. ... A death squad is an extra-judicial group whose members execute or assassinate persons they believe to be politically unreliable or undesirable. ... Eminent domain (U.S.), compulsory purchase (United Kingdom, New Zealand, Ireland), resumption (Australia) or expropriation (Canada, South Africa) in common law legal systems is the inherent power of the state to expropriate private property, or rights in private property, without the owners consent, either for its own use or... A multinational corporation (MNC) or multinational enterprise (MNE) or transnational corporation (TNC) or multinational organization (MNO) is a corporation or enterprise that manages production establishments or delivers services in at least two countries. ...


Slave Labor and Labor Exploitation

Slavery and labor situations like depression era company towns still exist in remote areas in Brazil. A fictional portrayal of such a town occurs in The Rundown. Welcome to the Jungle (also known as The Rundown) is an action film starring The Rock and Seann William Scott about a bounty hunter/enforcer/aspiring chef named Beck who must head for the Amazon jungle to capture someone. ...


Domestic violence

Brazil has a sad record of domestic violence, both against children and women. The main causes of domestic violence are agreed to be alcohol addiction or drug use, but low literacy, social tension and poverty also play an important role in it. Spirits redirects here. ...


Indigenous violence

As deforestation companies move in to take advantage of the large area of space the Amazon offers, indigenous tribes that live in the forest are attacked or subject to violence. Drugs and diseases are introduced into the tribes because of the people moving in on the terrain. In order to protect the land that is rightly theirs, many indigenous people attack the new arrivals - who fight back - which leads to violence and deaths. Deforestation is the conversion of forested areas to non-forest land use such as arable land, urban use, logged area or wasteland. ... Map of the Amazon rainforest ecoregions as delineated by the WWF. Yellow line encloses the Amazon rainforest. ... A Hupa man. ...


Impunity

In line with the military government’s negotiated impunity upon the return of Brazil to democracy, impunity continues to derail human rights prosecution. Police and prison violence is often covered up or ignored by authorities. Police officers who are imprisoned often serve in privileged security positions inside Brazilian prisons. Brazilian politics are also rife with impunity, continued through dismissal of overzealous officials and pointed bureaucratic oversight.


Violence against human rights defenders

Many human rights defenders who have arisen to oppose human rights violations and their families and friends suffer violence, persecution, and terrorism across Brazil. Telephone death threats are prominent and often followed through by ambush or assassination. Government officials, attorneys, union leaders and even religious leaders have often been targeted, as with Antonio Fernandez Saenz affair. The danger of human rights defense entered the world press with the murder of Dorothy Stang in 2005 and Chico Mendes in 1998. Antonio Fernandez Saenz is a Spanish / Brazilian lawyer and human rights defender born in 1947. ... Dorothy Stang (June 7, 1931–February 12, 2005) was an American nun of the Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur congregation and naturalized Brazilian who was murdered in Anapu, a city in the state of Pará, Amazon Rainforest, Brazil. ... Chico Mendes on a river in Amazonia. ...


Sources: Human Rights Watch, Global Justice, Pastoral Land Commission

  • Global Justice
  • Human Rights Watch
  • Amnesty International
  • International Freedom of Expression Exchange

See also

1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... The Carandiru Massacre took place on October 2, 1992 in Carandiru Penitentiary in São Paulo, Brazil, and is considered to be an example of a major human rights violation in the History of Brazil. ... The 1989 constitutions of the states of Mato Grosso and of Sergipe explicitly prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation (IGLHRC, 1999). ...

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