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Encyclopedia > Human rib cage
Human rib cage
The human rib cage. (Source: Gray's Anatomy of the Human Body, 20th ed. 1918.)
Dorlands/Elsevier c_01/12204262

The human rib cage is a part of the human skeleton within the thoracic area. A typical human ribcage consists of 24 ribs, 12 on each side of the thoracic cavity, the sternum and the 12 thoracic vertebrae in both males and females. From Grays Anatomy. ... An illustration from the 1918 edition Henry Grays Anatomy of the Human Body (or Grays Anatomy as it has more commonly become known) is an anatomy textbook widely regarded as a classic work on human anatomy. ... Elseviers logo. ... Front view of a skeleton of an adult human Back view of a skeleton of an adult human The human skeleton consists of both fused and individual bones supported and supplemented by ligaments, tendons, muscles and cartilage. ... Diagram of a tsetse fly, showing the head, thorax and abdomen The thorax is a division of an animals body, that lies between the head and the abdomen. ... The human rib cage. ... The thoracic cavity is the chamber of the human body (and other animal bodies) that is enclosed by the ribcage and the diaphragm. ... The sternum (from Greek στέρνον, sternon, chest) or breastbone is a long, flat bone located in the center of the thorax (chest). ... A typical thoracic vertebra The thoracic vertebrae (vertebrae thoracales) compose the middle segment of the vertebral column, between the cervical vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae. ...

Contents

Number of ribs

The number of ribs was noted by the Flemish anatomist Vesalius in 1543, setting off a wave of controversy, as it was traditionally assumed from the Biblical story of Adam and Eve that men's ribs would number one fewer than women's. (De humani corporis fabrica[1]) A small proportion of people have one pair more or fewer but this is unrelated to sex. Humans have seven rows of true ribs, each with its own connection to the sternum. Humans also have three rows of false ribs which connect to the ones above it. The last two rows, which don't connect to the sternum, are called floating ribs. The term Flemings (Dutch: ) denotes the majority population in Flanders (the northern half of Belgium). ... Greek anatome, from ana-temnein, to cut up), is the branch of biology that deals with the structure and organization of living things; thus there is animal anatomy (zootomy) and plant anatomy (phytonomy). ... Andreas Vesalius (Brussels, December 31, 1514 - Zakynthos, October 15, 1564) was an anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Workings of the Human Body). ... // Events February 21 - Battle of Wayna Daga - A combined army of Ethiopian and Portuguese troops defeat the armies of Adal led by Ahmed Gragn. ... Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ... The title page of the Fabrica. ... Excluding the first seven ribs, the remaining five are false ribs. ... the four floating ribs Four of the ribs (two pairs) in the ribcage are said to be floating ribs because they are attached to the vertebrae only, and not to the sternum or cartilage coming off of the sternum. ...


Function

Human ribs are designed to provide a basic container for the upright structure of the internal organs, as well as to protect the internal organs from damage from environmental dangers. In the rear, they are attached behind the thoracic vertebrae. In the front, the upper 7 ribs are attached to the sternum by means of costal cartilage. Due to their elasticity they allow movement when inhaling and exhaling. The 8th, 9th, and 10th ribs join with the costal cartilages of the ribs above. The 11th and 12th ribs are known as floating ribs, as they do not have any anterior connection. Cartilage is a type of dense connective tissue. ...


Rib anatomy

The human rib parts: The human rib cage. ...

  • The head is the end of a rib closest to the vertebral column.
  • The neck is the flattened portion which extends lateralward from the head.
  • The tubercle is an eminence on the posterior surface.
  • The angle is a bending part.
  • The Costal groove is a groove between the ridge of the internal surface of the rib and the inferior border.

The head of the rib is marked by a kidney-shaped articular surface, divided by a horizontal crest into two facets for articulation with the depression formed on the bodies of two adjacent thoracic vertebrae; the upper facet is the smaller; to the crest is attached the interarticular ligament. ... The human rib cage. ... The vertebral column seen from the side Different regions (curvatures) of the vertebral column The vertebral column (backbone or spine) is a column of vertebrae situated in the dorsal aspect of the abdomen. ... The neck of the rib is the flattened portion which extends lateralward from the head; it is about 2. ... On the posterior surface at the junction of the neck and body of the rib, and nearer the lower than the upper border, is an eminence—the tubercle It consists of an articular and a non-articular portion. ... The external surface of the rib is convex, smooth, and marked, a little in front of the tubercle, by a prominent line, directed downward and laterally; this gives attachment to a tendon of the Iliocostalis, and is called the angle. ... Between the ridge of the interal surface of the rib and the inferior border is a groove, the costal groove, for the intercostal vessels and intercostal nerve. ... The human rib cage. ...

Types of ribs

Anterior surface of sternum and costal cartilages.
Anterior surface of sternum and costal cartilages.
  • The first seven pairs of ribs are connected to the sternum in front and are known as true ribs or vertebrosternal ribs (costae verae, I-VII).
  • The eighth, ninth, and tenth attached in front to the cartilaginous portion of the next rib above and are known as false ribs or vertebrochondral ribs (costae spuriae, VIII-X).
  • The lower two, that is the eleventh and twelfth, are not attached in front and are called floating ribs or vertebral ribs (costae fluitantes, XI-XII).
  • In some humans, the rib remnant of the 7th cervical vertebra on one or both sides is replaced by a free extra rib called a cervical rib, which can cause problems in the nerves going to the arm.

The spaces between the ribs are known as intercostal spaces; they contain the intercostal muscles, nerves, and arteries. The rib cage allows for breathing due to its elasticity. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (526x650, 34 KB)From Grays Anatomy Anterior surface of sternum and costa cartilages. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (526x650, 34 KB)From Grays Anatomy Anterior surface of sternum and costa cartilages. ... The sternum (from Greek στέρνον, sternon, chest) or breastbone is a long, flat bone located in the center of the thorax (chest). ... Cartilage is a type of dense connective tissue. ... the four floating ribs Four of the ribs (two pairs) in the ribcage are said to be floating ribs because they are attached to the vertebrae only, and not to the sternum or cartilage coming off of the sternum. ... In vertebrates, cervical vertebrae (singular: vertebra) are those vertebrae immediately behind (caudal to) the skull. ... A cervical rib is a supernumerary (extra) rib which arises from the seventh cervical vertebra. ... The intercostal space is the space between two ribs (Lat. ... For other uses of Muscles, see Muscles (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nerve (disambiguation). ... Section of an artery For other uses, see Artery (disambiguation). ... Breathing transports oxygen into the body and carbon dioxide out of the body. ...


Atypical ribs

The atypical ribs are the 1st, 2nd, and 10th to 12th.

  • The first rib has a shaft that is wide and nearly horizontal, and has the sharpest curve of the seven true ribs. Its head has a single facet to articulate with the first thoracic vertebra (T1). It also has two grooves for the subclavian vessels, which are separated by the scalene tubercle.
  • The second rib is thinner, less curved, and longer than the first rib. It has two facets to articulate with T2 and T1, and a tubercle for muscles to attach to.
  • The 10th to 12th ribs have only one facet on their head; the 11th and 12th ribs are short with no necks or tubercles and terminate in the abdominal wall before fusing with the costal cartilages.

A typical thoracic vertebra The thoracic vertebrae (vertebrae thoracales) compose the middle segment of the vertebral column, between the cervical vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae. ... The costal cartilages are bars of hyaline cartilage which serve to prolong the ribs forward and contribute very materially to the elasticity of the walls of the thorax. ...

Medical conditions

  • Rib fractures can occur. These most frequently affect the middle ribs. When several ribs are injured, this can result in a flail chest.

A break or fracture in one or more of the bones making up the human rib cage. ... Flail chest right side (Photo: Fernando Rodriguez) A flail chest occurs when a segment of the thoracic wall breaks under extreme stress and becomes detached from the rest of the chest wall. ... Bifid rib, bifurcated rib Bifid rib or bifurcated rib. ... A congenital disorder is a medical condition or defect that is present at or before birth (for example, congenital heart disease). ... Abnormality is a subjectively defined characteristic, assigned to those with rare or dysfunctional conditions. ... Pectus excavatum is a congenital deformity (often present at birth) of the sternum, which is pressed into the chest, resulting in a caved-in or sunken appearance. ... Pectus carinatum, also called pigeon chest, is a deformity of the chest characterized by a protrusion of the sternum. ...

Additional images

See also

A cervical rib is a supernumerary (extra) rib which arises from the seventh cervical vertebra. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... In zootomy, several terms are used to describe the location of organs and other structures in the body of bilateral animals. ... Rib removal is a surgical operation where usually the lowest ribs are removed to make the waist thinner. ... Costovertebral articulations -- The articulations of the ribs with the vertebral column may be divided into two sets: Articulation of head of rib -- connecting the heads of the ribs with the bodies of the vertebrae. ...

References

  1. ^ Chapter 19 On the Bones of the Thorax. Retrieved on 2007-08-23.
  • Clinically Oriented Anatomy, 4th ed. Keith L. Moore and Robert F. Dalley. pp. 62-64
  • Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 11th ed. Gerard J. Tortora and Bryan Derrickson. pp. 222-4[[[1]]]
Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... The human torso Torso is an anatomical term for the greater part of the human body without the head and limbs. ... The sternum (from Greek στέρνον, sternon, chest) or breastbone is a long, flat bone located in the center of the thorax (chest). ... The suprasternal notch (fossa jugularis sternalis), also known as the jugular notch, is part of human anatomy. ... Sternum or breastbone is a long, flat bone located in the center of the thorax (chest). ... The sternal angle is the angle formed by the junction of the manubrium and the body of the sternum. ... The body of the sternum (gladiolus), considerably lengthier, narrower, and thinner than the manubrium, attains its greatest breadth close to the lower end. ... The xiphisternal joint (or xiphisternal synchondrosis) is a location near the bottom of the sternum, where the following two parts of the sternum meet: body of the sternum xiphoid process It is in line with the T9 vertebrae. ... The xiphoid process is a small cartilaginous extension to the lower part of the sternum which is usually ossified in the adult human. ... The first rib is the most curved and usually the shortest of all the ribs; it is broad and flat, its surfaces looking upward and downward, and its borders inward and outward. ... The second rib is much longer than the first, but has a very similar curvature. ... The tenth rib has only a single articular facet on its head. ... The eleventh rib has a single articular facet on the head, which is of rather large size. ... The twelfth rib has a single articular facet on the head, which is of rather large size. ... Excluding the first seven ribs, the remaining five are false ribs. ... the four floating ribs Four of the ribs (two pairs) in the ribcage are said to be floating ribs because they are attached to the vertebrae only, and not to the sternum or cartilage coming off of the sternum. ... The external surface of the rib is convex, smooth, and marked, a little in front of the tubercle, by a prominent line, directed downward and laterally; this gives attachment to a tendon of the Iliocostalis, and is called the angle. ... On the posterior surface at the junction of the neck and body of the rib, and nearer the lower than the upper border, is an eminence—the tubercle It consists of an articular and a non-articular portion. ... Between the ridge of the interal surface of the rib and the inferior border is a groove, the costal groove, for the intercostal vessels and intercostal nerve. ... The neck of the rib is the flattened portion which extends lateralward from the head; it is about 2. ... The head of the rib is marked by a kidney-shaped articular surface, divided by a horizontal crest into two facets for articulation with the depression formed on the bodies of two adjacent thoracic vertebrae; the upper facet is the smaller; to the crest is attached the interarticular ligament. ... The body is the largest part of a vertebra, and is more or less cylindrical in shape. ... The vertebral arch (or neural arch) is the posterior part of a vertebra. ... The pedicles are two short, thick processes, which project backward, one on either side, from the upper part of the body, at the junction of its posterior and lateral surfaces. ... The laminæ are two broad plates directed backward and medialward from the pedicles. ... The concavities above and below the pedicles are named the vertebral notches; and when the vertebrae are articulated, the notches of each contiguous pair of bones form the intervertebral foramina. ... In a typical vertebra, the vertebral foramen is the foramen formed by the anterior segment (the body), and the posterior part, the vertebral arch. ... When the spinal vertebrae are articulated with each other the bodies form a strong pillar for the support of the head and trunk, and the vertebral foraminae constitute a canal for the protection of the medulla spinalis (spinal cord). ... The transverse processes of a vertebra, two in number, project one at either side from the point where the lamina joins the pedicle, between the superior and inferior articular processes. ... The articular processes of a vertebra, two superior and two inferior, spring from the junctions of the pedicles and laminæ. The superior project upward, and their articular surfaces are directed more or less backward; the inferior project downward, and their surfaces look more or less forward. ... A zygapophysis is process which sticks out of an end of a vertebra to lock with a zygapophysis on the next vertebra, to make the backbone more stable. ... A diagram of a thoracic vertebra. ... In vertebrates, cervical vertebrae (singular: vertebra) are those vertebrae immediately behind (caudal to) the skull. ... In anatomy, the atlas (C1) is the topmost (first) cervical vertebra of the spine. ... The anterior arch of the atlas forms about one-fifth of the ring of the atlas: its anterior surface is convex, and presents at its center the anterior tubercle for the attachment of the Longus colli muscles; posteriorly it is concave, and marked by a smooth, oval or circular facet... In a cervical vertebra, the posterior arch forms about two-fifths of the circumference of the ring: it ends behind in the posterior tubercle, which is the rudiment of a spinous process and gives origin to the Recti capitis posteriores minores. ... The lateral masses are the most bulky and solid parts of the atlas, in order to support the weight of the head. ... In anatomy, the second cervical vertebra (C2) of the spine is named the axis or epistropheus. ... The dens or odontoid process or odontoid peg of the axis exhibits a slight constriction or neck, where it joins the body. ... The most distinctive characteristic of the seventh cervical vertebra is the existence of a long and prominent spinous process, hence the name vertebra prominens. ... The anterior arch forms about one-fifth of the ring: its anterior surface is convex, and presents at its center the anterior tubercle for the attachment of the Longus colli muscles. ... The posterior arch of a cervical vertebra forms about two-fifths of the circumference of the ring: it ends behind in the posterior tubercle, which is the rudiment of a spinous process and gives origin to the Recti capitis posteriores minores. ... The transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae are each pierced by the foramen transversarium, which, in the upper six vertebræ, gives passage to the vertebral artery and vein and a plexus of sympathetic nerves. ... A typical thoracic vertebra The thoracic vertebrae (vertebrae thoracales) compose the middle segment of the vertebral column, between the cervical vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae. ... A typical thoracic vertebra The thoracic vertebrae (vertebrae thoracales) compose the middle segment of the vertebral column, between the cervical vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae. ... A typical thoracic vertebra The thoracic vertebrae (vertebrae thoracales) compose the middle segment of the vertebral column, between the cervical vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae. ... A typical thoracic vertebra The thoracic vertebrae (vertebrae thoracales) compose the middle segment of the vertebral column, between the cervical vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae. ... A typical thoracic vertebra The thoracic vertebrae (vertebrae thoracales) compose the middle segment of the vertebral column, between the cervical vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae. ... A typical thoracic vertebra The thoracic vertebrae (vertebrae thoracales) compose the middle segment of the vertebral column, between the cervical vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae. ... A typical thoracic vertebra The thoracic vertebrae (vertebrae thoracales) compose the middle segment of the vertebral column, between the cervical vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae. ... A typical thoracic vertebra The thoracic vertebrae (vertebrae thoracales) compose the middle segment of the vertebral column, between the cervical vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae. ... A typical thoracic vertebra The thoracic vertebrae (vertebrae thoracales) compose the middle segment of the vertebral column, between the cervical vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae. ... A typical thoracic vertebra The thoracic vertebrae (vertebrae thoracales) compose the middle segment of the vertebral column, between the cervical vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae. ... A typical thoracic vertebra The thoracic vertebrae (vertebrae thoracales) compose the middle segment of the vertebral column, between the cervical vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae. ... A typical thoracic vertebra The thoracic vertebrae (vertebrae thoracales) compose the middle segment of the vertebral column, between the cervical vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae. ... A typical thoracic vertebra The thoracic vertebrae (vertebrae thoracales) compose the middle segment of the vertebral column, between the cervical vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae. ... The superior costal facet (or superior costal fovea) is a site where a rib forms a joint with the top of a vertebra. ... The inferior costal facet (or inferior costal fovea) is a site where a rib forms a joint with the bottom of a vertebra. ... The transverse costal facet (or transverse costal fovea) is a site where a rib forms a joint with the transverse process of a vertebra. ... The lumbar vertebrae are the largest segments of the movable part of the vertebral column, and are characterized by the absence of the foramen transversarium within the transverse process, and by the absence of facets on the sides of the body. ... Of the tubercles noticed in connection with the transverse processes of the lower thoracic vertebrae, the inferior is situated at the back part of the base of the transverse process, and is called the accessory process. ... Of the three tubercles noticed in connection with the transverse processes of the lower thoracic vertebrae, the superior one is connected in the lumbar region with the back part of the superior articular process, and is named the mammillary process. ... The lumbar vertebrae are the largest segments of the movable part of the vertebral column, and are characterized by the absence of the foramen transversarium within the transverse process, and by the absence of facets on the sides of the body. ... For the record label, see Sacrum Torch. ... The pelvic surface of sacrum is concave from above downward, and slightly so from side to side. ... At the ends of the transverse ridges of the pelvic surface of the sacrum are seen the anterior sacral foramina (or pelvic sacral foramina), four in number on either side, somewhat rounded in form, diminishing in size from above downward, and directed lateralward and forward; they give exit to the... The dorsal surface of sacrum is convex and narrower than the pelvic. ... Lateral to the articular processes of the sacrum are the four posterior sacral foramina (or dorsal sacral foramina); they are smaller in size and less regular in form than the anterior, and transmit the posterior divisions of the sacral nerves. ... In the middle line of the dorsal surface of the sacrum, it displays a crest, the median sacral crest, surmounted by three or four tubercles, the rudimentary spinous processes of the upper three or four sacral vertebrae. ... On the lateral aspect of the sacral groove is a linear series of tubercles produced by the fusion of the articular processes which together form the indistinct medial sacral crest (intermediate sacral crest, sacral articular crest). ... On the lateral side of the posterior sacral foramina is a series of tubercles, which represent the transverse processes of the sacral vertebrae, and form the lateral sacral crest. ... The lateral surface of sacrum is broad above, but narrowed into a thin edge below. ... On the lateral surface of sacrum there is a rough surface, the sacral tuberosity, on which are three deep and uneven impressions, for the attachment of the posterior sacroiliac ligament. ... The base of the sacrum, which is broad and expanded, is directed upward and forward. ... The laminae of the fifth sacral vertebra, and sometimes those of the fourth, fail to meet behind, and thus a sacral hiatus or deficiency occurs in the posterior wall of the sacral canal. ... In human anatomy, the presacral space is behind the rectum and in front of the coccyx. ... The Sacral promontory is the anatomical term for the anteriormost portion of the sacrum. ... The vertebral canal (sacral canal) runs throughout the greater part of the sacral bone; above, it is triangular in form; below, its posterior wall is incomplete, from the non-development of the laminæ and spinous processes. ... On either side of the body of the base of the sacrum is a large triangular surface, which supports the Psoas major and the lumbosacral trunk, and in the articulated pelvis is continuous with the iliac fossa. ... The sacrum is curved upon itself and placed very obliquely, its base projecting forward and forming the prominent sacrovertebral angle when articulated with the last lumbar vertebra. ...

 
 

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