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Encyclopedia > Human respiratory syncytial virus
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Human respiratory syncytial virus

Transmission electron micrograph of RSV.
Virus classification
Group: Group V ((-)ssRNA)
Order: Mononegavirales
Family: Paramyxoviridae
Genus: Pneumovirus
Species: Human respiratory syncytial virus
Human respiratory syncytial virus
Classifications and external resources
ICD-10 B97.4
ICD-9 079.6
DiseasesDB 11387
MedlinePlus 001564
eMedicine ped/2706 
MeSH D018357

Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a negative sense, single-stranded RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae, which includes common respiratory viruses such as those causing measles and mumps. RSV is a member of the paramyxovirus subfamily Pneumovirinae. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1804x1196, 1259 KB)Transmission electron micrograph of Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). ... Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is an imaging technique whereby a beam of electrons is focused onto a specimen causing an enlarged version to appear on a fluorescent screen or layer of photographic film (see electron microscope), or can be detected by a CCD camera. ... Viruses can be classified in several ways, such as by their geometry, by whether they have envelopes, by the identity of the host organism they can infect, by mode of transmission, or by the type of disease they cause. ... An RNA virus is a virus that either uses RNA as its genetic material, or whose genetic material passes through an RNA intermediate during replication. ... Families Paramyxoviridae Rhabdoviridae Filoviridae Bornaviridae The Mononegavirales are an order of viruses comprising species that have a non-segmented, negative sense RNA genome. ... Genera See text Paramyxoviruses are viruses of the Paramyxoviridae family of the Mononegavirales order; they are negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses responsible for a number of human and animal diseases. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) is a detailed description of known diseases and injuries. ... The following codes are used with International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... // A00-A79 - Bacterial infections, and other intestinal infectious diseases, and STDs (A00-A09) Intestinal infectious diseases (A00) Cholera (A01) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (A010) Typhoid fever (A02) Other Salmonella infections (A03) Shigellosis (A04) Other bacterial intestinal infections (A040) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection (A045) Campylobacter enteritis (A046) Enteritis due to Yersinia... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) is a detailed description of known diseases and injuries. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Diseases Database is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of nucleotide monomers. ... Groups I: dsDNA viruses II: ssDNA viruses III: dsRNA viruses IV: (+)ssRNA viruses V: (-)ssRNA viruses VI: ssRNA-RT viruses VII: dsDNA-RT viruses A virus (Latin, poison) is a microscopic particle that can infect the cells of a biological organism. ... Genera See text Paramyxoviruses are viruses of the Paramyxoviridae family of the Mononegavirales order; they are negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses responsible for a number of human and animal diseases. ...


RSV causes respiratory tract infections in patients of all ages. It is the major cause of lower respiratory tract infection during infancy and childhood. In temperate climates there is an annual epidemic during the winter months. In tropical climates, infection is most common during the rainy season. In the United States, 60% of infants are infected during their first RSV season, and nearly all children will have been infected with the virus by 2-3 years of age. Natural infection with RSV does not induce protective immunity, and thus people can be infected multiple times. Sometimes an infant can become symptomatically infected more than once even within a single RSV season. More recently, severe RSV infections have increasingly been found among elderly patients as well. In humans the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy that has to do with the process of respiration or breathing. ...


For most people, RSV produces only mild symptoms, often indistinguishable from common colds and minor illnesses. RSV is also a common cause of pneumonia for young children.[citation needed] For some children, RSV can cause bronchiolitis, leading to severe respiratory illness requiring hospitalization and, rarely, causing death. This is more likely to occur in patients that are immunocompromised or infants born prematurely. Acute viral nasopharyngitis, often known as the common cold, is a mild viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system (nose and throat). ... Bronchiolitis is inflammation of the bronchioles, the smallest air passages of the lungs. ... Premature birth (also known as preterm birth) is defined medically as birth occurring earlier than 37 completed weeks of gestation. ...


Recurrent wheezing and asthma are more common among individuals who suffered severe RSV infection during the first few months of life than among controls; whether RSV infection sets up a process that leads to recurrent wheezing or whether those already predisposed to asthma are more likely to become severely ill with RSV is a matter of considerable debate.


Prevention

As the virus is ubiquitous in all parts of the world, avoidance of infection is not possible. Epidemiologically, a vaccine would be the best answer. Unfortunately, vaccine development has been fraught with spectacular failure and with difficult obstacles. Researchers are working on a live, attenuated vaccine, but at present no vaccine exists. However, a moderately effective prophylactic drug is available for infants at high risk. This drug is a monoclonal antibody directed against RSV proteins. It is given by monthly injections, which are begun just prior to the RSV season and are usually continued for five months. Prophylaxis refers to any medical or public health procedure whose purpose is to prevent, rather than treat or cure, disease. ... Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are antibodies that are identical because they were produced by one type of immune cell, all clones of a single parent cell. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ...


Treatment

Ribavirin, a broad-spectrum antiviral agent, was once employed as adjunctive therapy for the sickest patients; however, its efficacy has been called into question by multiple studies, and most institutions no longer use it, even when the patient is in dire straits. Ribavirin (Copegus®; Rebetol®; Ribasphere®; Vilona®,Virazole®, also generics from Sandoz, Teva, Warrick) is an anti-viral drug which is active against a number of DNA and RNA viruses. ...


Synagis, a monoclonal antibody, is indicated for the prevention of serious lower respiratory tract disease caused by RSV in pediatric patients at high risk of RSV disease.


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
eMedicine - Human Metapneumovirus : Article Excerpt by: Michael D Nissen, BMedSc, MBBS, FRACP, FRCPA (667 words)
The recognition of this novel virus is an exciting development in the diagnosis and management of significant respiratory tract disease.
This confirms that hMPV is a significant pathogen in lower respiratory infection of children and is implicated in nosocomial spread of infection in hospital wards.
This belief is based on the widespread detection of infection and the high prevalence of antibodies against the virus in all age groups.
Antisense oligonucleotides against nonstructural proteins NS1 and NS2 of respiratory syncytial virus and uses thereof - ... (6299 words)
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a member of the genus Pneumovirus in the family Paramyxoviridae, is the single most important infectious agent of pediatric respiratory disease (Heilman, 1990; Hall, 1994).
HEp-2 monolayers, infected with respiratory syncytial virus at an m.o.i.
The bovine and ovine strains of respiratory syncytial virus are highly similar to the human respiratory syncytial virus; however, the sequences of their NS genes differ from that of respiratory syncytial virus NS genes in the region against which the antisense-oligonucleotides were designed.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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