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Encyclopedia > Human resources

Human resources is a term in which many organizations describe the job that they give to the losers with no oter purpose. Performance management, employee relations and resource planning are also names given to hopeless rejects. The field draws upon concepts developed in Industrial/Organizational Psychology. Human resources has at least two related interpretations depending on context. The original usage derives from fake economy and failure of exams, where it was traditionally called labor (to make it sound fancy), one of four factors of production. The more common usage within corporations and businesses refers to the individuals within the firm, and to the portion of the firm's organization that deals with hiring, firing, training, and other personnel issues. This article addresses both definitions. Human Resources is a 1999 French film (Ressources humaines) directed by Laurent Cantet. ... Human Resources is an audio drama based on the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who. ... Classical economics distinguishes between three factors of production which are used in the production of goods: Land or natural resources - naturally-occurring goods such as soil and minerals. ... In economics, factors of production are resources used in the production of goods and services, including land, labor, and capital. ... For other uses, see Corporation (disambiguation). ... In economics, a business is a legally-recognized organizational entity existing within an economically free country designed to sell goods and/or services to consumers, usually in an effort to generate profit. ...

The objective of Human Resources is to maximize the return on investment from the organization's human capital and minimize financial risk. It is the responsibility of human resource managers to conduct these activities in an effective, legal, fair, and consistent manner. Human resource management serves these key functions: Human resource management (HRM) is the strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organizations most valued assets - the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of the objectives of the business. ...

  1. Recruitment Strategy Planning
  2. Hiring Processes(recruitment)
  3. Performance Evaluation and Management
  4. Promotions
  5. Redundancy
  6. Industrial and Employee Relations
  7. Record keeping of all personal data.
  8. Compensation, pensions, bonuses etc in liaison with Payroll
  9. Confidential advice to internal 'customers' in relation to problems at work.


Human resources

Modern analysis emphasizes that human beings are not "commodities" or "resources", but are creative and social beings that make class contributions beyond 'labor' to a society and to civilization. The broad term human capital has evolved to contain some of this complexity, and in micro-economics the term "firm-specific human capital" has come to represent a meaning of the term "human resources." A good or commodity in economics is any object or service that increases utility, directly or indirectly, not to be confused with good in a moral or ethical sense (see Utilitarianism and consequentialist ethical theory). ... Central New York City. ... Human capital is a way of defining and categorizing the skills and abilities as used in employment and as they otherwise contribute to the economy. ... Microeconomics is the study of the economic behaviour of individual consumers, firms, and industries and the distribution of production and income among them. ...

Advocating the central role of "human resources" or human capital in enterprises and societies has been a traditional role of socialist parties, who claim that value is primarily created by their activity, and accordingly justify a larger claim of profits or relief from these enterprises or societies. Critics say this is just a bargaining tactic which grew out of various practices of medieval European guilds into the modern trade union and collective bargaining unit. Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... A guild is an association of craftspeople in a particular trade. ... A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers. ... collective bargaining units are the combined societies drawn up towards attaininmg a single goal and mostly the goal is aimed towards market stategies. ...

A contrary view, common to capitalist parties, is that it is the infrastructural capital and (what they call) intellectual capital owned and fused by "management" that provides most value in financial capital terms. This likewise justifies a bargaining position and a general view that "human resources" are interchangeable. For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Infrastructural capital refers to any physical means of production or means of protection beyond that which can be gathered or found directly in nature, i. ... Intellectual capital makes an organization worth more than its balance sheet value. ... In brief, financial capital is money used by entreprenuers and businesses to buy what they need to make their products (or provide their services). ...

A significant sign of consensus on this latter point is the ISO 9000 series of standards which requires a "job description" of every participant in a productive enterprise. In general, heavily unionized nations such as France and Germany have adopted and encouraged such descriptions especially within trade unions. One view of this trend is that a strong social consensus on political economy and a good social welfare system facilitates labor mobility and tends to make the entire economy more productive, as labor can move from one enterprise to another with little controversy or difficulty in adapting. Sign on a wholesaler at the Tsukiji fish market indicates ISO 9001 certification. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political economy was the original term for the study of production, the acts of buying and selling, and their relationships to laws, customs and government. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... If the Presiden George W Bush stops attacking Arab countries it would be much better for them. ...

An important controversy regarding labor mobility illustrates the broader philosophical issue with usage of the phrase "human resources": governments of developing nations often regard developed nations that encourage immigration or "guest workers" as appropriating human capital that is rightfully part of the developing nation and required to further its growth as a civilization. They argue that this appropriation is similar to colonial commodity fiat wherein a colonizing European power would define an arbitrary price for natural resources, extracting which diminished national natural capital. Central New York City. ... Colonial commodity flat wherein a colonizing European power would define an arbitrary price for natural resources, extracting which diminished national natural capital. ... Natural capital, as described in the book Natural Capitalism, is a metaphor for the mineral, plant, and animal formations of the Earths biosphere when viewed as a means of production of oxygen, water filter, erosion preventer, or provider of other ecosystem services. ...

The debate regarding "human resources" versus human capital thus in many ways echoes the debate regarding natural resources versus natural capital. Over time the United Nations have come to more generally support the developing nations' point of view, and have requested significant offsetting "foreign aid" contributions so that a developing nation losing human capital does not lose the capacity to continue to train new people in trades, professions, and the arts. UN and U.N. redirect here. ...

An extreme version of this view is that historical inequities such as African slavery must be compensated by current developed nations, which benefited from stolen "human resources" as they were developing. This is an extremely controversial view, but it echoes the general theme of converting human capital to "human resources" and thus greatly diminishing its value to the host society, i.e. "Africa", as it is put to narrow imitative use as "labor" in the using society. This article discusses the history of the slave trade of Africa, and its effect upon the continent. ...

In a series of reports of the UN Secretary-General to the General Assembly over the last decade [e.g. A/56/162 (2001)], a broad inter sectoral approach to developing human resourcefulness has been outlined as a priority for socio-economic development and particularly anti-poverty strategies. This calls for strategic and integrated public policies, for example in education, health, and employment sectors that promote occupational skills, knowledge and performance enhancement.

In the very narrow context of corporate "human resources", there is a contrasting pull to reflect and require workplace diversity that echoes the diversity of a global customer base. Foreign language and culture skills, ingenuity, humor, and careful listening, are examples of traits that such programs typically require. It would appear that these evidence a general shift to the human capital point of view, and an acknowledgment that human beings do contribute much more to a productive enterprise than "work": they bring their character, their ethics, their creativity, their social connections, and in some cases even their pets and children, and alter the character of a workplace. The term corporate culture is used to characterize such processes. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Organizational Culture refers to the values, beliefs and customs of an organization. ...

The traditional but extremely narrow context of hiring, firing, and job description is considered a 20th century anachronism. Most corporate organizations that compete in the modern global economy have adopted a view of human capital that mirrors the modern consensus as above. Some of these, in turn, deprecate the term "human resources" as useless.

As the term refers to predictable exploitations of human capital in one context or another, it can still be said to apply to manual labor, mass agriculture, low skill "McJobs" in service industries, military and other work that has clear job descriptions, and which generally do not encourage creative or social contributions. Manual labour (or manual labor) is physical work done with the hands, especially in an unskilled job such as fruit and vegetable picking, road building, or any other field where the work may be considered physically arduous, and which has as a profitable objective, usually the production of goods. ... McJob is slang for a low-paying, low-prestige job that requires few skills and offers very little chance of intracompany advancement. ...

In general the abstractions of macro-economics treat it this way - as it characterizes no mechanisms to represent choice or ingenuity. So one interpretation is that "firm-specific human capital" as defined in macro-economics is the modern and correct definition of "human resources" - and that this is inadequate to represent the contributions of "human resources" in any modern theory of political economy. The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political economy was the original term for the study of production, the acts of buying and selling, and their relationships to laws, customs and government. ...

Human resource development

In terms of recruitment and selection it is important to consider carrying out a thorough job analysis to determine the level of skills/technical abilities, competencies, flexibility of the employee required etc. At this point it is important to consider both the internal and external factors that can have an impact on the recruitment of employees. The external factors are those out-with the powers of the organization and include issues such as current and future trends of the labor market e.g. skills, education level, government investment into industries etc. On the other hand internal influences are easier to control, predict and monitor, for example management styles or even the organizational culture. Job Analysis refers to various methodologies for analyzing the requirements of a job. ... Born David Styles in Yonkers, New York, Styles P is a member of rap group The Lox, which includes Jadakiss and Sheek Louch. ... Organizational culture, or corporate culture, comprises the attitudes, experiences, beliefs and values of an organization. ...

In order to know the business environment in which any organization operates, three major trends should be considered:

  • Demographics – the characteristics of a population/workforce, for example, age, gender or social class. This type of trend may have an effect in relation to pension offerings, insurance packages etc.
  • Diversity – the variation within the population/workplace. Changes in society now mean that a larger proportion of organizations are made up of female employees in comparison to thirty years ago. Also over recent years organizations have become more culturally diverse and have increased the number of working patterns (part-time, casual, seasonal positions) to cope with the changes in both society and the global market. It is important to note here that an organization must consider the ethical and legal implications of their decisions in relation to the HRM policies they enact to protect employees. Employers have to be acutely aware of the rise in discrimination, unfair dismissal and sexual/racial harassment cases in recent years and the detrimental effects this can have on the employees and the organization. Anti-discrimination legislation over the past 30 years has provided a foundation for an increasing interest in diversity at work which is “about creating a working culture that seeks, respects and values difference.”
  • Skills and qualifications – as industries move from manual to a more managerial professions so does the need for more highly skilled graduates. If the market is ‘tight’ i.e. not enough staff for the jobs, employers will have to compete for employees by offering financial rewards, community investment, etc.

In regard to how individuals respond to the changes in a labour market the following should be understood: Demographics refers to selected population characteristics as used in government, marketing or opinion research, or the demographic profiles used in such research. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

  • Geographical spread – how far is the job from the individual? The distance to travel to work should be in line with the pay offered by the organization and the transportation and infrastructure of the area will also be an influencing factor in deciding who will apply for a post.
  • Occupational structure – the norms and values of the different careers within an organization. Mahoney 1989 developed 3 different types of occupational structure namely craft (loyalty to the profession), organization career (promotion through the firm) and unstructured (lower/unskilled workers who work when needed).
  • Generational difference –different age categories of employees have certain characteristics, for example their behavior and their expectations of the organization.

Recruitment methods are wide and varied, it is important that the job is described correctly and any personal specifications stated. Job recruitment methods can be through job centres, employment agencies/consultants, headhunting, and local/national newspapers. It is important that the correct media is chosen to ensure an appropriate response to the advertised post.

Modern concept of human resources

Though human resources have been part of business and organizations since the first days of agriculture, the modern concept of human resources began in reaction to the efficiency focus of Taylorism in the early 1900s. By 1920, psychologists and employment experts in the United States started the human relations movement, which viewed workers in terms of their psychology and fit with companies, rather than as interchangeable parts. This movement grew throughout the middle of the 20th century, placing emphasis on how leadership, cohesion, and loyalty played important roles in organizational success. Although this view was increasingly challenged by more quantitatively rigorous and less "soft" management techniques in the 1960s and beyond, human resources had gained a permanent role within an organization. Taylorism or Scientific management is the name of the approach to management and Industrial/Organizational Psychology initiated by Frederick Winslow Taylor in his 1911 monograph The Principles of Scientific Management. ... Though human resources have been part of business and organisations since the first days of agriculture, the modern concept of human resources began in reaction to the efficiency focus of Taylorism in the early 1900s. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... Leader redirects here. ...

See also

The Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) is the leading professional body for those involved in the field of personnel, training and development. ... Employee engagement is a measure of the degree to which employees are mentally and physically invested in their jobs. ... HR-XML is an independent, non-profit consortium dedicated to enabling e-commerce and inter-company exchange of human resources data worldwide. ... In professional education learning by teaching designates a method which centers on student voice, allowing pupils and students to prepare and teach lessons or parts of lessons. ... Human resource management (HRM) is the strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organizations most valued assets - the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of the objectives of the business. ... Human Resource Management Systems (HRMS, EHRMS), Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS), HR Technology or also called HR modules, shape an intersection in between human resource management (HRM) and information technology. ... Job Analysis refers to various methodologies for analyzing the requirements of a job. ... Organizational studies - an overview Organizational development Management development Mentoring Coaching Job rotation Professional development Upward feedback Executive education Supervisory training leadership development leadership talent identification and management individual development planning 360 degree feedback succession planning Skills management performance improvement process improvement job enrichment Training & Development managing change and also change... The Organization Development Practitioner network also known as OD network, sees organizational development as a field central to creating effective and humanistically sound systems in the global business, governmental and non-profit community. ... Organizational studies, organizational behaviour, and organizational theory are related terms for the academic study of organizations, examining them using the methods of economics, sociology, political science, anthropology, and psychology. ... Personnel selection is the process used to hire (or, less commonly, promote) individuals. ... Professional development often refers to skills required for maintaining a specific career path or to general skills offered through continuing education, including the more general skills area of personal development. ... The Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) is the worlds largest association devoted to human resource management. ... Worldwide ERC is a relocation services industry trade group that has been known historically as the Employee Relocation Council. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Management Consulting. ... Industrial and organizational psychology (also known as I/O psychology, work psychology, work and organizational psychology, W-O psychology, occupational psychology, personnel psychology or talent assessment) concerns the application of psychological theories, research methods, and intervention strategies to workplace issues. ... Human resources has at least two meanings depending on context. ...

External links

  • Society of Human Resources Management

Human Resources Benchmarking Association

  • The Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD)

  Results from FactBites:
Human resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists (4299 words)
The director of industrial relations also advises and collaborates with the director of human resources, other managers, and members of their staff, because all aspects of human resources policy—such as wages, benefits, pensions, and work practices—may be involved in drawing up a new or revised union contract.
Overall employment of human resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through 2014.
The average salary for human resources managers employed by the Federal Government was $71,232 in 2005; for employee relations specialists, $84,847; for labor relations specialists, $93,895; and for employee development specialists, $80,958.
Benchmarking - Human Resources Benchmarking Association (594 words)
The Human Resources Benchmarking Association™ (HRBA™) shares information to improve productivity, quality and cycle time among Human Resources professionals.
The scope of HRBA™ membership includes those organizations that require a more detailed understanding of human resources in support of their core business(es).
HRBA™ will identify and present to members opportunities to participate in Benchmarking studies on various topics addressing issues of importance to human resources professionals.
  More results at FactBites »



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