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Encyclopedia > Human physiology

Human Physiology is the science of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of humans in good health, their organs, and the cells of which they are composed. The principal level of focus of physiology is at the level of organs and systems. Most aspects of human physiology are closely homologous to corresponding aspects of animal physiology, and animal experimentation has provided much of the foundation of physiological knowledge. Anatomy and physiology are closely related fields of study: anatomy, the study of form, and physiology, the study of function, are intrinsically tied and are therefore often studied in tandem as part of a medical curriculum. Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) in the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... In biology, homology is any similarity between structures that is due to their shared ancestry. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... Medicine is the science and art of maintaining andor restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of patients. ...


Integration, Communication, and Homeostasis

The biological basis of the study of physiology, integration refers to the overlap of many functions of the systems of the human body, as well as its accompanied form. Integration is achieved through communication which occurs in a variety of ways, both electrically as well as chemically. In terms of the human body the endocrine and nervous systems play major roles in the reception and transmission of signals which integrate function. Homeostasis is the process by which the body maintains a stable internal environment, or one of “similar condition” as described by Walter Bradford Cannon, in Cannon’s Postulate. Cannon’s Postulate recognizes the body's ability to regulate pH, temperature, fluid volume, pressure, and osmolarity through highly evolved feedback systems which act to finely tune many different chemical and electrical responses. The concentration of ions in relations to one another (e.g. Na+, K+, H+) determine the body's pH, which is closely regulated by the respiratory and urinary systems; temperature in the body is determined by both the external environment of the organism as well as the amount of heat produced by anabolic reactions within the body regulated by respiratory and cardiovascular systems; fluid volume and pressure, and osmolarity are regulated by the urinary, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems. Physiology is the study of these systems' integrated functions and the processes by which they maintain the [['milieu interieur']], or internal environment. The endocrine system is a control system of ductless endocrine glands that secrete chemical messengers called hormones that circulate within the body via the bloodstream to affect distant organs. ... The Human Nervous System A human being coordinates its nervous system, the activity of the muscles, monitors the organs, constructs and also stops input from the senses, and initiates actions. ... Homeostasis is the property of either an open system or a closed system,[1] especially a living organism, to regulate its internal environment to maintain a stable, constant condition. ... Walter Bradford Cannon (Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin, October 19, 1871 – Lincoln, Massachusetts, October 19, 1945) was an American physiologist. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Feedback loop. ...


Systems

Traditionally, the academic discipline of physiology views the body as a collection of interacting systems, each with its own combination of functions and purposes.

System Clinical study Physiology
The nervous system consists of the central nervous system (which is the brain and spinal cord) and peripheral nervous system. The brain is the organ of thought, emotion, and sensory processing, and serves many aspects of communication and control of various other systems and functions. The special senses consist of vision, hearing, taste, and smell. The eyes, ears, tongue, and nose gather information about the body's environment. neuroscience, neurology (disease), psychiatry (behavioral), ophthalmology (vision), otolaryngology (hearing, taste, smell) neurophysiology
The musculoskeletal system consists of the human skeleton (which includes bones, ligaments, tendons, and cartilage) and attached muscles. It gives the body basic structure and the ability for movement. In addition to their structural role, the larger bones in the body contain bone marrow, the site of production of blood cells. Also, all bones are major storage sites for calcium and phosphate. osteology (skeleton), orthopedics (bone disorders) cell physiology
The circulatory system consists of the heart and blood vessels (arteries, veins, capillaries). The heart propels the circulation of the blood, which serves as a "transportation system" to transfer oxygen, fuel, nutrients, waste products, immune cells, and signalling molecules (i.e., hormones) from one part of the body to another. The blood consists of fluid that carries cells in the circulation, including some that move from tissue to blood vessels and back, as well as the spleen and bone marrow. cardiology (heart), hematology (blood) cardiovascular physiology
The gastrointestinal system consists of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, gut (small and large intestines), and rectum, as well as the liver, pancreas, gallbladder, and salivary glands. It converts food into small, nutritional, non-toxic molecules for distribution by the circulation to all tissues of the body, and excretes the unused residue. gastroenterology gastrointestinal physiology
The respiratory system consists of the nose, nasopharynx, trachea, and lungs. It brings oxygen from the air and excretes carbon dioxide and water back into the air. pulmonology. respiratory physiology
The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. It removes water from the blood to produce urine, which carries a variety of waste molecules and excess ions and water out of the body. nephrology (function), urology (structural disease) renal physiology
The immune system consists of the white blood cells, the thymus, lymph nodes and lymph channels, which are also part of the lymphatic system. The immune system provides a mechanism for the body to distinguish its own cells and tissues from alien cells and substances and to neutralize or destroy the latter by using specialized proteins such as antibodies, cytokines, and toll-like receptors, among many others. immunology immunology
The endocrine system consists of the principal endocrine glands: the pituitary, thyroid, adrenals, pancreas, parathyroids, and gonads, but nearly all organs and tissues produce specific endocrine hormones as well. The endocrine hormones serve as signals from one body system to another regarding an enormous array of conditions, and resulting in variety of changes of function. endocrinology endocrinology
The reproductive system consists of the gonads and the internal and external sex organs. The reproductive system produces gametes in each sex, a mechanism for their combination, and a nurturing environment for the first 9 months of development of the offspring. gynecology (women), andrology (men), sexology (behavioral aspects) embryology (developmental aspects) reproductive physiology
The integumentary system consists of the covering of the body (the skin), including hair and nails as well as other functionally important structures such as the sweat glands and sebaceous glands. The skin provides containment, structure, and protection for other organs, but it also serves as a major sensory interface with the outside world. dermatology cell physiology

The traditional divisions by system are somewhat arbitrary. Many body parts participate in more than one system, and systems might be organized by function, by embryological origin, or other categorizations. In particular, is the "neuroendocrine system", the complex interactions of the neurological and endocrinological systems which together regulate physiology. Furthermore, many aspects of physiology are not as easily included in the traditional organ system categories. Image File history File links Human_brain_NIH.jpg NIH image of human brain Source: http://lbc. ... The Human Nervous System A human being coordinates its nervous system, the activity of the muscles, monitors the organs, constructs and also stops input from the senses, and initiates actions. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... In animals, the brain or encephalon (Greek for in the head), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behaviour. ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... The peripheral nervous system or PNS, is part of the nervous system, and consists of the nerves and neurons that reside or extend outside the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) to serve the limbs and organs, for example. ... The traditional five senses in human kind are the senses of vision, hearing, taste, and smell, and touch. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Hearing is the following: Hearing is the sense by which sound is perceived. ... Taste is one of the traditional five senses and refers to the ability to detect the flavor of foodstuffs and other substances (e. ... Young boy smelling a flower Olfaction, which is also known as Olfactics is the sense of smell, and the detection of chemicals dissolved in air. ... This article refers to the sight organ. ... The ear is the sense organ that detects sounds. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... For the article about nose in humans, see human nose. ... Drawing of the cells in the chicken cerebellum by S. Ramón y Cajal Neuroscience is a field that is devoted to the scientific study of the nervous system. ... Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. ... Psychiatry is a branch of medicine dealing with the prevention, assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of the mind and mental illness. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Otolaryngology is the branch of medicine that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of ear, nose, throat, and head & neck disorders. ... Neurophysiology is a part of physiology as a science, which is concerned with the study of the nervous system. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (874x2089, 235 KB) Original caption: Fig. ... The musculoskeletal system is an organ system that gives animals the ability to physically move, by using the muscles and skeletal system. ... A human skeleton The human skeleton consists of both fused and individual bones supported and supplemented by ligaments, tendons, muscles and cartilage. ... Grays Anatomy illustration of a human femur. ... A ligament is a short band of tough fibrous connective tissue composed mainly of long, stringy collagen fibres. ... A tendon (or sinew) is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone and is built to withstand tension. ... Cartilage is a type of dense connective tissue. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Muscle (from Latin musculus little mouse [1]) is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Calcium plays a vital role in the anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of organisms and of the cell, particularly in signal transduction pathways. ... Above is a ball-and-stick model of the inorganic hydrogenphosphate anion (HPO42−). Colour coding: P (orange); O (red); H (white). ... Osteology is the scientific study of bones. ... Orthopedic surgery or orthopedics (BE: orthopaedics) is the branch of surgery concerned with acute, chronic, traumatic and recurrent injuries and other disorders of the locomotor system, its musclular and bone parts. ... Cell physiology is the study of its mechanism and interaction in its environment. ... Image File history File links Diagram_of_the_human_heart_(cropped). ... Diagram of the human circulatory system. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... Section of an artery For other uses, see Artery (disambiguation). ... In the circulatory system, a vein is a blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Hormone is also the NATO reporting name for the Soviet/Russian Kamov Ka-25 military helicopter. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell. Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ... The spleen is an organ located in the abdomen, where it functions in the destruction of old red blood cells and holding a reservoir of blood. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A diagram of a heart with an ECG indicator; diagrams like this are used in Cardiology. ... Hematology is the branch of medicine that is concerned with blood and its disorders. ... A circulatory system (sometimes cardiovascular system) is an organ system that moves substances to and from cells; it can also help stabilize body temperature and pH (part of homeostasis). ... Image File history File links Stomach_colon_rectum_diagram. ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... Human mouth The mouth, also known as the buccal cavity or the oral cavity, is the orifice through which an organism takes in food and water. ... The esophagus (also spelled oesophagus/Å“sophagus, Greek ), or gullet is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... In biology the small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract (gut) between the stomach and the large intestine and includes the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colon (anatomy). ... The rectum (from the Latin rectum intestinum, meaning straight intestine) is the final straight portion of the large intestine in some mammals, and the gut in others, terminating in the anus. ... The liver is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine systems of vertebrates[2]. It is both exocrine (secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes) and endocrine (producing several important hormones, including insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin). ... The gallbladder (or cholecyst, sometimes gall bladder) is a pear-shaped organ that stores about 50 ml of bile (or gall) until the body needs it for digestion. ... The salivary glands produce saliva, which keeps the mouth and other parts of the digestive system moist. ... In science, a molecule is a group of atoms in a definite arrangement held together by chemical bonds. ... Gastroenterology or gastrology is the medical specialty concerned with digestive diseases. ... Gastrointestinal physiology is a branch of human physiology addressing the physical function of the gastrointestinal system. ... Image File history File links Heart-and-lungs. ... The Respiratory System Among four-legged animals, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ... For the article about nose in humans, see human nose. ... The nasopharynx (nasal part of the pharynx) lies behind the nose and above the level of the soft palate: it differs from the oral and laryngeal parts of the pharynx in that its cavity always remains patent (open). ... The trachea, or windpipe, is a tube that has an inner diameter of about 12mm and a length of about 10-16cm. ... The heart and lungs (from an older edition of Grays Anatomy) The lung is an organ belonging to the respiratory system and interfacing to the circulatory system of air-breathing vertebrates. ... In order to meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article requires cleanup. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... In medicine, pulmonology (aka pneumology) is the specialty that deals with diseases of the lungs and the respiratory tract. ... It has been suggested that Gas exchange be merged into this article or section. ... Position of kidneys, view from behind with spine removed. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Excretory system. ... The kidneys are organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... Transverse section of ureter. ... In anatomy, the urinary bladder is a hollow, muscular, and distensible (or elastic) organ that sits on the pelvic floor in mammals. ... In anatomy, the urethra is a tube which connects the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. ... An electrostatic potential map of the nitrate ion (NO3−). Areas coloured red are lower in energy than areas colored yellow An ion is an atom or group of atoms which have lost or gained one or more electrons, making them negatively or positively charged. ... A drawing of the human kidney from Grays Anatomy. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This illustration demonstrates the normal kidney physiology. ... Image File history File links PBNeutrophil. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... A scanning electron microscope image of normal circulating human blood. ... Thymus, see Thyme. ... Lymph nodes are components of the lymphatic system. ... In mammals including humans, the lymphatic vessels (or lymphatics) are a network of thin tubes that branch, like blood vessels, into tissues throughout the body. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Cytokines are small protein molecules that are the core of communication between immune system cells, and even between immune system cells and cells belonging to other tissue types. ... Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are primary transmembrane proteins of immune cells that serve as a key part of the innate immune system; in addition they show a link between the innate and adaptive immune systems in vertebrates. ... Immunology is a broad branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms. ... Endocrine system Pineal gland Pituitary gland Thyroid gland Thymus Adrenal gland Pancreas Ovary Testis [1] File links The following pages link to this file: Endocrine system Categories: United States government images ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Located at the base of the skull, the pituitary gland is protected by a bony structure called the sella turcica. ... In mammals, the adrenal gland (also known as suprarenal glands) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad, near or at + renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of corticosteroids and catecholamines... The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine systems of vertebrates[2]. It is both exocrine (secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes) and endocrine (producing several important hormones, including insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin). ... Categories: Anatomy stubs | Endocrine system ... The gonad is the organ that makes gametes. ... Norepinephrine A hormone (from Greek όρμή - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... Endocrinology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the endocrine system and its specific secretions called hormones. ... Image File history File links Drawing of the Male Internal Sexual Anatomy From alt. ... The reproductive system is the ensembles and interactions of organs and/or substances within an organism that strictly pertain to reproduction. ... The gonad is the organ that makes gametes. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A gamete is a specialized germ cell that fuses with another gamete during fertilization (conception) in organisms that reproduce sexually. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The shamefulness associated with the examination of female genitalia has long inhibited the science of gynaecology. ... Andrology (from the Greek andros, man) is the medical specialty that deals with male health, particularly relating to the problems of the male reproductive system and urological problems that are unique to men. ... Sexology is the systematic study of human sexuality. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Reproductive endocrinology (RE) is a medical subspecialty that addresses hormonal functioning as it pertains to reproduction. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... In zootomy, the integumentary system is the external covering of the body, comprised of the skin, hair, feathers, scales, nails, sweat glands and their products (sweat and mucus). ... Beyond overall skin structure, refer below to: See-also. ... For the film, see Hair (film). ... Anatomy In anatomy, a nail is a horn-like piece at the end of a humans or an animals finger or toe. ... In humans, there are four kinds of sudoriferous or sweat glands which differ greatly in both the composition of the sweat and its purpose. ... Schematic view of a hair follicle with sebaceous gland. ... Dermatology (from Greek derma, skin) is a branch of medicine dealing with the skin and its appendages (hair, nails, sweat glands etc). ... Neuroendocrinology is the study of the interactions between the nervous system and the endocrine system. ...


The study of how physiology is altered in disease is pathophysiology. Pathophysiology is the study of the disturbance of normal mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions, either caused by a disease, or resulting from a disease or abnormal syndrome or condition that may not qualify to be called a disease. ...


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  Results from FactBites:
 
Human physiology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1132 words)
Human physiology is the science of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of normal humans or human tissues or organs.
Most aspects of human physiology are closely homologous to corresponding aspects of animal physiology, and animal experimentation has provided much of the foundation of physiological knowledge.
Human physiology is one of the basic sciences of medical study, and as such is most often applied as medical care.
Physiology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (450 words)
Physiology (in Greek physis = nature and logos = word) is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms.
Physiology has traditionally been divided into plant physiology and animal physiology but the principles of physiology are universal, no matter what particular organism is being studied.
Herman Boerhaave is sometimes referred to as the father of physiology due to his exemplary teaching in Leiden and textbook 'Institutiones medicae'(1708).
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