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Encyclopedia > Human parainfluenza viruses

Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are a group of four distinct serotypes of single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the paramyxovirus family. They are the second most common cause of lower respiratory tract infection in younger children. Repeated infection throughout the life of the host is not uncommon. Symptoms of later breakouts include upper respiratory tract illness as in a cold and sore throat. The incubation period of all four serotypes is 1 to 7 days. Parainfluenza viruses can be detected via cell culture, immunofluorescent microscopy, and PCR. Though no vaccines currently exist, research into vaccines for HPIV-1, -2, and -3 is underway. Parainfluenza viruses last only a few hours in the environment and are inactivated by soap and water. Serotypes refer to a group of related microorganisms or viruses distinguished by responses to different antigens. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stop editing pages god ... Genera See text Paramyxoviruses are viruses of the Paramyxoviridae family of the Mononegavirales order; they are negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses responsible for a number of human and animal diseases. ... While often used as a synonym for pneumonia, the rubric of lower respiratory tract infection can also be applied to other types of infection including lung abscess, acute bronchitis, and empyema. ... The Upper respiratory tract refers to the the following parts of the respiratory system: nose and nasal passages paranasal sinuses throat or pharynx Upper respiratory tract infections are among the most common infections in the world. ... // Acute viral nasopharyngitis, often known as the common cold, is a mild viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system (nose and throat). ... Incubation period is the time elapsed between exposure to a pathogenic organism and when symptoms and signs are first apparent. ... Epithelial cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) Cell culture is the term applied when cells are grown in a synthetic environment. ... Immunofluorescence is the labeling of antibodies or antigens with fluorescent dyes. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into microscope. ... PCR redirects here. ... A bottle and a syringe containing the influenza vaccine. ...


The four serotypes include:

  • HPIV-1 (most common cause of croup; also other upper and lower respiratory tract illnesses typical)
  • HPIV-2 (causes croup and other upper and lower respiratory tract illnesses)
  • HPIV-3 (associated with bronchiolitis and pneumonia)
  • HPIV-4 (includes subtypes 4a and 4b)

This term also refers to the rump of a quadruped; see croup. ... Bronchiolitis is inflammation of the bronchioles, the smallest air passages of the lungs. ... Pneumonia is an illness of the lungs and respiratory system in which the alveoli (microscopic air-filled sacs of the lung responsible for absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere) become inflamed and flooded with fluid. ...


  • American Academy of Pediatrics. Parainfluenza Viral Infections. In: Peter G, ed. 1997 Red Book: Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 24th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 1997: 379.
  • Collins PL, Chanock RM, McIntosh K. Parainfluenza viruses. In: Fields BN, Knipe DM, Howley PM, eds. Fields Virology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven; 1995: 1205-41.
  • Glezen WP, Denny FW. Parainfluenza Viruses In: Evans A, Kaslow R, eds. Viral Infections in Humans: epidemiology and control. 4th ed. New York: Plenum; 1997:551-67.

  Results from FactBites:
MerckMedicus : Dorland's Medical Dictionary (4661 words)
Viruses are customarily separated into three subgroups on the basis of host specificity, namely bacterial viruses, animal viruses, and plant viruses.
a human calicivirus that is a common cause of epidemics of acute gastroenteritis, with diarrhea and vomiting lasting 24 to 48 hours.
Those infecting humans have been classified in two genera: Paramyxovirus (human parainfluenza viruses 1 and 3) and Rubulavirus (human parainfluenza viruses 2 and 4).
Pneumonia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5033 words)
Pneumonia is an illness of the lungs and respiratory system in which the alveoli (microscopic air-filled sacs of the lung responsible for absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere) become inflamed and flooded with fluid.
Viral pneumonia is commonly caused by viruses such as influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenovirus, and metapneumovirus.
The discovery of x-rays made it possible to determine the anatomic type of pneumonia without direct examination of the lungs at autopsy and led to the development of a radiological classification.
  More results at FactBites »



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