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Encyclopedia > Human papillomavirus
Human papillomavirus

EM of papillomavirus
Virus classification
Group: Group I (dsDNA)
Order: Unranked
Family: Papillomaviridae
Genera

Alphapapillomavirus
Betapapillomavirus
Gammapapillomavirus
Mupapillomavirus
Nupapillomavirus Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... An electron microscope is a type of microscope that uses electrons as a way to illuminate and create an image of a specimen. ... Virus classification involves naming and placing viruses into a taxonomic system. ... A DNA virus is a virus that has DNA as its genetic material and does not use an RNA intermediate during replication. ... Species See text Papillomaviruses are viruses that commonly cause warts. ...

Human Papilloma Viruses
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 B97.7
ICD-9 078.1 079.4
DiseasesDB 6032
eMedicine med/1037 
MeSH D030361

Papillomaviruses are a diverse group of DNA-based viruses that infect the skin and mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. Approximately 130 human papillomavirus (HPV) types have been identified. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // A00-A79 - Bacterial infections, and other intestinal infectious diseases, and STDs (A00-A09) Intestinal infectious diseases (A00) Cholera (A01) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (A010) Typhoid fever (A02) Other Salmonella infections (A03) Shigellosis (A04) Other bacterial intestinal infections (A040) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection (A045) Campylobacter enteritis (A046) Enteritis due to Yersinia... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... HPV is an initialism that can mean : Human Powered Vehicle Human papillomavirus a virus which causes warts, including, but not limited to genital warts, a type of STD High Production Volume Chemicals Health Purchasing Victoria Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction, a physiological phenomenon of the lungs This is a disambiguation page: a... Species See text Papillomaviruses are viruses that commonly cause warts. ... Species See text Papillomaviruses are viruses that commonly cause warts. ... A DNA virus is a virus belonging to either Group I or Group II of the Baltimore classification system for viruses. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of mostly endodermal origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ...


Some HPV types can cause warts while others may cause a subclinical infection resulting in precancerous lesions. All HPVs are transmitted by skin-to-skin contact and/or by fomites.


About 30-40 HPV types are typically transmitted through sexual contact and infect the anogenital region. Some sexually transmitted HPVs may cause genital warts. However, other HPV types which may infect the genitals do not cause any noticeable signs of infection. Genital warts (or Condyloma, Condylomata acuminata, or venereal warts) is a highly contagious sexually transmitted infection caused by some sub-types of human papillomavirus (HPV). ...


Persistent infection with a "high-risk" subset of sexually transmitted HPVs — different from the ones that cause warts — may lead to potentially precancerous lesions and can progress to invasive cancer. HPV infection is a necessary factor in the development of nearly all cases of cervical cancer.[1] Cervical cancer is a malignant cancer of the cervix. ...


A cervical Pap smear is used to detect cellular abnormalities. This allows targeted surgical removal of condylomatous and/or potentially precancerous lesions prior to the development of invasive cervical cancer. Although the widespread use of Pap testing has reduced the incidence and lethality of cervical cancer in developed countries, the disease still kills several hundred thousand women per year worldwide.[2] HPV vaccines Gardasil and Cervarix, which block initial infection with some of the most common sexually transmitted HPV types may lead to further decreases in the incidence of HPV-induced cancer.[3] The pap smear as we know it is an invention of Dr. Georgios Papanikolaou (1883-1962), an American of Greek birth, the father of cytopathology. ... Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is a vaccine that targets certain sexually transmitted strains of human papillomavirus that are associated with the development of cervical cancer and genital warts. ... Gardasil (Merck & Co. ... Cervarix is a vaccine against certain types of the human papillomavirus (HPV) that cause cervical cancer. ...

Contents

Prevalence in the United States

Estimates of prevalence vary from 14% to 90%.[4] One reason for the difference is that some studies report women who are currently infected, while other studies report women who have ever been infected.[5][6]


HPV is estimated to be the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States.[7] According to the National Cervical Cancer Coalition (NCCC), 11% of American women do not have regular cervical cancer screenings; women who do not have cervical cancer screenings on a regular basis dramatically increase their chances of developing cervical cancer.[2] The American Cancer Society estimates that in 2008, about 11,070 women in the United States will be diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer, and that about 3,870 US women will die from this disease.[8]


At a given time

One study found that, during 2003–2004, at any given time, 26.8% of women aged 14 to 59 were infected with at least one type of HPV. This was higher than previous estimates. 15.2% were infected with one or more of the high-risk types that can cause cancer. However only 3.4% were infected with one or more of the four types prevented by the Gardasil vaccine, which was lower than previous estimates. [7][9] In epidemiology, the prevalence of a disease in a statistical population is defined as the total number of cases of the disease in the population at a given time, or the total number of cases in the population, divided by the number of individuals in the population. ... Gardasil (Merck & Co. ...

HPV prevalence by age[7]
Age (years) Prevalence (%)
14 to 19 24.5%
20 to 24 44.8%
25 to 29 27.4%
30 to 39 27.5%
40 to 49 25.2%
50 to 59 19.6%
14 to 59 26.8%

It was estimated that in the year 2000, there were approximately 6.2 million new HPV infections among Americans aged 15-44; of these, an estimated 74% occurred to people between ages 15-24.[10] Of the STDs studied, genital HPV was the most commonly acquired.[10]


Lifetime

Genital HPV infection is very common, with estimates suggesting that most (>50%) sexually active women will become infected with one or more of the sexually transmitted HPV types.[11] The American Social Health Association reported estimates that about 75-80% of sexually active Americans will be infected with HPV at some point in their lifetime.[12][13] According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), by the age of 50 more than 80% of American women will have contracted at least one strain of genital HPV.[14] The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta is recognized as the lead United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people by providing credible information to enhance health decisions, and promoting health through strong partnerships with state health departments and other organizations. ...


HPV lifecycle

The HPV lifecycle strictly follows the differentiation program of the host keratinocyte. It is thought that the HPV virion infects epithelial tissues through micro-abrasions, whereby, the virion associates with putative receptors such as alpha integrins and laminins, leading to entry of the virions into basal epithelial cells through clathrin-mediated endocytosis and/or caveolin-mediated endocytosis depending on the type of HPV. At this point, the viral genome is transported to the nucleus by unknown mechanisms and establishes itself at a copy number between 10-200 viral genomes per cell. A sophisticated transcriptional cascade then occurs as the host keratinocyte begins to divide and become increasingly differentiated in the upper layers of the epithelium. The viral oncogenes, E6 and E7, are thought to modify the cell cycle so as to retain the differentiating host keratinocyte in a state that is amiable to the amplification of viral genome replication and consequent late gene expression. E6 in association with host E6 AP (associated protein), which has ubiquitin ligase activity act to ubiquitinate p53 leading to its proteosomal degradation. E7 (inoncogenic HPV's) acts as the primary transforming protein. E7 competes for pRb binding, freeing the transcription factor E2F to transactivate its targets, thus pushing the cell cycle forwards. All HPV can induce transient proliferation, but only 16 and 18 can immortalise cell intes (in vitro). It has also been shown that HPV 16 and 18 cannot immortalise primary rat cells alone, there needs to be activation of the ras oncogene. In the upper layers of the host epithelium, the late genes L1 and L2 are transcribed/translated and serve as structural proteins which encapsidate (Encapsidation is the process of incorporating a nucleic acid sequence (e.g., a vector, or a viral genome) into a viral particle) the amplified viral genomes. Virions can then be sloughed off in the dead squames of the host epithelium and the viral lifecycle continues.[citation needed] The keratinocyte is the major cell type of the epidermis, making up about 90% of epidermal cells. ... A common alternate meaning of virus is computer virus. ... In zootomy, epithelium is a tissue composed of a layer of cells. ... Integrins are cell surface receptors that interact with the extracellular matrix and mediate various intracellular signals. ... Laminins are the major non-collagenous component of the basal lamina, such as those on which cells of an epithelium sit. ... The basal lamina (often erroneously called basement membrane) is a layer on which epithelium sits. ... Clathrin is a protein that is the major constituent of the coat of the coated pits and coated vesicles formed during endocytosis of materials at the surface of cells. ... Receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME) is a process by which cells internalize molecules (endocytosis) into a cell by the inward budding of plasma membrane vesicles containing proteins with receptor sites specific to the molecules being internalized. ... The caveolin gene family has three members in vertebrates: Caveolin-1, Caveolin-2, and Caveolin-3. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... A micrograph of ongoing gene transcription of ribosomal RNA illustrating the growing primary transcripts. ... An oncogene is a modified gene that increases the malignancy of a tumor cell. ... PRB is short for: Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, a group of English painters, poets and critics, founded in 1848 by John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and William Holman Hunt Poudrieres Reunies de Belgique, owned by Astra Company PRB The Australian Automotive Manufacturer PRB = permeable reactive barrier Retinoblastoma protein, an important... E2F stands for family of transcription factors (TF) in higher eukaryotes. ... In molecular biology, Ras is the name of a protein, the gene that encodes it, and the family and superfamily of proteins to which it belongs. ... Squamous epithelium is one of several types of epithelia. ...


The concern about life-long recurrences may be based on a misconception rather than a myth. It is true that at present there is no cure for genital human papillomavirus. As a virus, it will remain in the infected person's cells for an indefinite time--most often in a latent state, but occasionally producing symptoms or disease.[citation needed]


Recent studies from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine and from the University of Washington suggest that HPV may eventually be cleared, or rooted out altogether, in most people with well functioning immune systems. It appears that in some cases the virus does remain in the body indefinitely, producing symptoms if the immune system weakens.[citation needed]


Latency period

Once cells are invaded by HPV, a latency (quiet) period of months to years may occur. The latency period means the HPV virus is in an incubation period. Having sex with a partner whose HPV infection is in the incubation period still leaves one vulnerable to becoming infected. HPV virus can last from 3 months to 2 years without visible changes, making it difficult for an infectee to establish the source of infection.


HPV types and associated diseases

Notable HPV types and associated diseases
Notable HPV types and associated diseases

Over 100 different HPV types have been identified and are referred to by number. Image File history File links HPV_tree_1. ... Image File history File links HPV_tree_1. ...

Disease HPV type
Common warts 2, 7
Plantar warts 1, 2, 4
Flat warts 3, 10
Anogenital warts 6, 11, 42, 43, 44, 55 and others
Genital cancers 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51
Epidermodysplasia verruciformis more than 15 types
Focal epithelial hyperplasia (oral) 13, 32
Oral papillomas 6, 7, 11, 16, 32

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, or CIN, is the abnormal growth of precancerous cells in the cervix. ... The term vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) denotes a squamous intraepithelial lesion of the vulva that shows dysplasia with varying degrees of atypia. ... For the Nintendo character, see Wart (Nintendo). ... A plantar wart (verruca plantaris, VP; also commonly called a verruca) is a wart caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). ... Verruca plana, also know as a flat wart, is a reddish brown or flesh-colored, slightly raised, flat-surfaced, well-demarcated papule of 2- to 5mm in diameter. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (also called Lewandowsky-Lutz dysplasia or Lutz-Lewandowsky epidermodysplasia verruciformis) is an extremely rare skin disease characterized by the growth of scaly macules and papules, particularly on the hands. ... Focal epithelial hyperplasia is an oral infection caused by a virus similar to the wart-producing papillomavirus. ...

Cancer

HPV-induced cancers
HPV-induced cancers
See also: Cervical cancer

About a dozen HPV types (including types 16, 18, 31 and 45) are called "high-risk" types because they can lead to cervical cancer, as well as anal cancer, vulvar cancer, and penile cancer.[15] Several types of HPV, particularly type 16, have been found to be associated with oropharyngeal squamous-cell carcinoma, a form of head and neck cancer.[16] HPV-induced cancers often have viral sequences integrated into the cellular DNA. Some of the HPV "early" genes, such as E6 and E7, are known to act as oncogenes that promote tumor growth and malignant transformation. Image File history File links Cases_of_HPV_cancers_graph. ... Image File history File links Cases_of_HPV_cancers_graph. ... Cervical cancer is a malignant cancer of the cervix. ... Cervical cancer is a malignant cancer of the cervix. ... Anal cancer is a distinct entity from the more common colorectal cancer. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Penile cancer is a malignant growth found on the skin or in the tissues of the penis, usually originating in the glans and/or foreskin. ... Head and neck cancers are malignant growths originating in the lip and oral cavity (mouth), nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, thyroid, paranasal sinuses, salivary glands and cervical lymph nodes of the neck. ... An oncogene is a modified gene that increases the malignancy of a tumor cell. ... In medicine, malignant is a clinical term that means to be severe and become progressively worse, as in malignant hypertension. ...


The p53 protein prevents cell growth in the presence of DNA damage primarily through the BAX domain, which blocks the anti-apoptotic effects of the mitochondrial BCL-2 receptor. In addition, p53 also upregulates the p21 protein, which blocks the formation of the Cyclin D/Cdk4 complex, thereby preventing the phosphorylation of RB and, in turn, halting cell cycle progression by preventing the activation of E2F. In short, p53 is a tumor suppressor gene that arrests the cell cycle when there is DNA damage. The E6 and E7 proteins work by inhibiting tumor suppression genes involved in that pathway: E6 inhibits p53, while E7 inhibits p53, p21, and RB. TP53 bound to a short DNA fragment. ... BAX may stand for: Burlington Air Express bcl 2 associated x protein BAX is the IATA airport code for Barnaul, Russia. ... B cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 is a mammalian protein family whose members govern mitochondrial membrane permeabilisation (MMP), a key event in apoptosis. ... TP53 bound to a short DNA fragment. ... . The initial letter is shown capitalized due to technical restrictions. ... The Cyclin D/Cdk4 complex is a compound structure of Cyclin D and Cdk4, regulated by the GATA-1 transcription factor. ... RB or Rb may stand for: the chemical element Rubidium. ... E2F stands for family of transcription factors (TF) in higher eukaryotes. ... TP53 bound to a short DNA fragment. ... TP53 bound to a short DNA fragment. ... . The initial letter is shown capitalized due to technical restrictions. ... RB or Rb may stand for: the chemical element Rubidium. ...

Genome organization of human papillomavirus type 16, one of the subtypes known to cause cervical cancer. (E1-E7 early genes, L1-L2 late genes: capsid)
Genome organization of human papillomavirus type 16, one of the subtypes known to cause cervical cancer. (E1-E7 early genes, L1-L2 late genes: capsid)

An infection with one or more high-risk HPV types is believed to be a prerequisite for the development of cervical cancer (the vast majority of HPV infections are not high risk); according to the American Cancer Society, women with no history of the virus do not develop this type of cancer. However, most HPV infections are cleared rapidly by the immune system and do not progress to cervical cancer. Because the process of transforming normal cervical cells into cancerous ones is slow, cancer occurs in people who have been infected with HPV for a long time, usually over a decade or more.[17][18] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1393x1441, 37 KB) Genomic structure of Human papillomavirus I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1393x1441, 37 KB) Genomic structure of Human papillomavirus I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The American Cancer Society (ACS) is the nationwide community-based voluntary health organization dedicated to eliminating cancer as a major health problem by preventing cancer, saving lives, and diminishing suffering from cancer, through research, education, advocacy and service. ...


Sexually transmitted HPVs also cause a major fraction of anal cancers and approximately 25% of cancers of the mouth and upper throat (known as the oropharynx) (see figure). The latter commonly present in the tonsil area and HPV is linked to the increase in oral cancers in non-smokers.[19][20] Engaging in anal sex or oral sex with an HPV-infected partner may increase the risk of developing these types of cancers.[16] Anal cancer is a distinct entity from the more common colorectal cancer. ... Roman men having anal sex. ... Oral sex consists of all sexual activities that involve the use of the mouth, which may include use of the tongue, teeth, and throat, to stimulate genitalia. ...


Studies show a link between HPV infection and penile and anal cancer, and the risk for anal cancer is 17 to 31 times higher among gay and bisexual men than among heterosexual men.[21][22]


Warts

Skin warts

Some HPV infections can cause warts, which are noncancerous skin growths. Infection with these types of HPV causes a rapid growth of cells on the outer layer of the skin.[23] Types of warts include:

  • Common warts: Some "cutaneous" HPV types, such as HPV-1 and HPV-2,[citation needed] cause common skin warts. Common warts are often found on the hands and feet, but can also occur in other areas, such as the elbows or knees. Common warts have a characteristic cauliflower-like surface and are typically slightly raised above the surrounding skin. Cutaneous HPV types do not usually cause genital warts and are not associated with the development of cancer.
  • Plantar warts are found on the soles of the feet. Plantar warts grow inward, generally causing pain when walking.
  • Subungual or periungual warts form under the fingernail (subungual), around the fingernail or on the cuticle (periungual). They may be more difficult to treat than warts in other locations.[citation needed]
  • Flat warts: Flat warts are most commonly found on the arms, face or forehead. Like common warts, flat warts occur most frequently in children and teens. In people with normal immune function, flat warts are not associated with the development of cancer.[24]

Genital warts are quite contagious, while common, flat, and plantar warts are much less likely to spread from person to person. All warts can spread from one part of your own body to another.[25] For the Nintendo character, see Wart (Nintendo). ... For the Nintendo character, see Wart (Nintendo). ... A plantar wart (verruca plantaris, VP; also commonly called a verruca) is a wart caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). ... For the Nintendo character, see Wart (Nintendo). ... This article discusses the anatomical nail. ... Eponychium is the anatomical term for the human cuticle In biology, the term cuticle or cuticula is given to to a variety of tough but flexible, non-mineral outer coverings of an organism, or part of an organism, that provide prtoection. ... Verruca plana, also know as a flat wart, is a reddish brown or flesh-colored, slightly raised, flat-surfaced, well-demarcated papule of 2- to 5mm in diameter. ...


Genital warts

Genital or anal warts (condylomata acuminata or venereal warts) are the most easily recognized sign of genital HPV infection. Although a wide variety of HPV types can cause genital warts, types 6 and 11 account for about 90% of all cases.[26][27] Genital warts (or Condyloma, Condylomata acuminata, or venereal warts) is a highly contagious sexually transmitted infection caused by some sub-types of human papillomavirus (HPV). ...


Most people who acquire genital wart-associated HPV types clear the infection rapidly without ever developing warts or any other symptoms. People may transmit the virus to others even if they don't display overt symptoms of infection. However, in the vast majority of cases, this is not a cause for concern if proper tests are routinely administered.


HPV types that tend to cause genital warts are not the same ones that cause cervical cancer. However, since an individual can be infected with multiple types of HPV, the presence of warts does not rule out the possibility of high risk types of the virus also being present.


Respiratory papillomatosis

HPV types 6 and 11 can cause a rare condition known as recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, in which warts form on the larynx or other areas of the respiratory tract.[28][18] Laryngeal papillomatosis, also known as recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, is a rare medical condition, caused by an HPV infection of the throat. ...


These warts can recur frequently, may require repetitive surgery, may interfere with breathing, and in extremely rare cases can progress to cancer.[29][18]


HPV in immunocompromised patients

In very rare cases, HPV may cause epidermodysplasia verruciformis in immunocompromised individuals. The virus, unchecked by the immune system, causes the overproduction of keratin by skin cells, resulting in lesions resembling warts or cutaneous horns.[30] Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (also called Lewandowsky-Lutz dysplasia or Lutz-Lewandowsky epidermodysplasia verruciformis) is an extremely rare skin disease characterized by the growth of scaly macules and papules, particularly on the hands. ... Cutaneous horns, also known by the Latin name cornu cutaneum, are unusual keratinous skin tumors with the appearance of horns, or sometimes of wood or coral. ...


Cervical cancer prevention

Most people become infected with various cutaneous HPV types during childhood. Papillomaviruses have a sturdy outer protein shell or "capsid" that renders them capable of lingering in the environment for long periods of time. Avoiding contact with contaminated surfaces, such as the floors of communal showers or airport security lines, might reduce the risk of cutaneous HPV infection. Treating common warts soon after they first appear may also reduce the spread of the infection to additional sites. A capsid is the outer shell of a virus. ...


Genital HPV infections may be distributed widely over genital skin and mucosal surfaces, and transmission can occur even when there are no overt symptoms. Several strategies should be employed to minimize the risk of developing diseases caused by genital HPVs:


Pap smear screening

Main article: Pap smear
ThinPrep Pap smear with group of normal cervical cells on left and HPV-infected cells on right. The HPV-infected cells show features typical of koilocytes: enlarged (x2 or x3) nuclei and hyperchromasia.
ThinPrep Pap smear with group of normal cervical cells on left and HPV-infected cells on right. The HPV-infected cells show features typical of koilocytes: enlarged (x2 or x3) nuclei and hyperchromasia.

Certain types of sexually transmitted HPVs can cause cervical cancer. Persistent infection with one or more of about a dozen of these "high-risk" HPV types is an important factor in nearly all cases of cervical cancer. The development of HPV-induced cervical cancer is a slow process that generally takes many years. During this development phase, pre-cancerous cells can be detected by regular cervical cytology Papanicolaou screening, colloquially known as "Pap" smear testing. The Pap test is an effective strategy for reducing the risk of invasive cervical cancer. The Pap test involves taking cells from the cervix and putting them on a small glass slide and examining them under a microscope to look for abnormal cells. This method is 70% to 80% effective in detecting HPV-caused cellular abnormalities.[citation needed] A more sensitive method is a “Thin Prep,” in which the cells from the cervix are placed in a liquid solution. This test is 85% to 95% effective in detecting HPV-caused cellular abnormalities.[citation needed] The last Pap test method is mainly used on women over 30. It is a combination Pap-HPV DNA test. If this test comes back negative women can usually wait 3 years before having the test done again. Detailed inspection of the cervix by colposcopy may be indicated if abnormal cells are detected by routine Pap smear. A frequently occurring example of an abnormal cell found in association with HPV is the koilocyte. (See figure.) The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists states that the newer liquid based cytology methods (Thinprep and Surepath) may miss 15-35% of CIN3's and cancer. The pap smear as we know it is an invention of Dr. Georgios Papanikolaou (1883-1962), an American of Greek birth, the father of cytopathology. ... Image File history File linksMetadata ThinPrep_Pap_smear_HPV.jpeg‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Human papillomavirus Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata ThinPrep_Pap_smear_HPV.jpeg‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Human papillomavirus Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Cervical cancer is a malignant cancer of the cervix. ... George Papanikolaou on a Greek 10,000 Drachma note. ... The pap smear as we know it is an invention of Dr. Georgios Papanikolaou (1883-1962), an American of Greek birth, the father of cytopathology. ... A colposcopy or colcoscopy is a diagnostic procedure in which a colposcope is utilized to examine an illuminated, magnified view of the cervix, vagina, and vulva. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) is a professional association of medical doctors specializing in obstetrics and gynecology in the United States. ...


The Center for Disease Control (CDC) recommends that women get a Pap test no later than 3 years after their first sexual encounter and no later than 21 years of age. Women should have a Pap test every year until age 30. After age 30, women should discuss risk factors with their health care provider to determine whether a Pap test should be done yearly. If risk factors are low and previous Pap tests have been negative, most women only need to have tests every 2-3 years until 65 years of age (Centers for Disease Control 2005). All women are encouraged to get a yearly pap smear solely to detect cellular abnormalities caused by HPV.[14] The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta is recognized as the lead United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people by providing credible information to enhance health decisions, and promoting health through strong partnerships with state health departments and other organizations. ... The pap smear as we know it is an invention of Dr. Georgios Papanikolaou (1883-1962), an American of Greek birth, the father of cytopathology. ...


Since the Pap test was developed there has been a 70% decrease in cervical cancer deaths over the last 50 years.[citation needed] Pap smear testing has proven to be one of the most successful screening tests in the history of medicine.[citation needed]


A study published in April 2007 suggests that the act of performing a Pap smear produces an inflammatory cytokine response, which may initiate immunologic clearance of HPV, therefore reducing the risk of cervical cancer. Women who had even a single Pap smear in their history had a lower incidence of cancer. "A statistically significant decline in the HPV positivity rate correlated with the lifetime number of Pap smears received."[31] Cytokines are a category of less-widely-known signalling proteins and glycoproteins that, like hormones and neurotransmitters, are used extensively in cellular communication. ...


It has been suggested that Pap smear screening for anal cancer might be of benefit for some sub-populations of gay men.[32]


HPV testing

An HPV test detects certain types of human papillomavirus (HPVs), depending on the test. A method for detecting the DNA of high-risk HPVs has recently been added to the range of clinical options for cervical cancer screening. In March 2003, the US FDA approved a "hybrid-capture" test, marketed by Digene, as a primary screening tool for detecting high-risk HPV infections that may lead to cervical cancer. This test was also approved for use as an adjunct to Pap testing, and may be ordered in response to abnormal Pap smear results. The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... FDA redirects here. ... ...


When patients are screened with both HPV testing and Pap testing the sensitivity reaches 100%. HPV testing can diagnose CIN 2-3 among women older than 30 years.[33] The sensitivity of HPV testing alone was 94.6% and specificity was 94.1%. For patients at similar risk to those in this study (0.4% had CIN 2-3), this leads to a positive predictive value of 6.0% and negative predictive value of 100.0% (click here to adjust these results for patients at higher or lower risk of CIN 2-3). The sensitivity of a binary classification test or algorithm, such as a blood test to determine if a person has a certain disease, or an automated system to detect faulty products in a factory, is a parameter that expresses something about the tests performance. ... The specificity is a statistical measure of how well a binary classification test correctly identifies the negative cases, or those cases that do not meet the condition under study. ... The positive predictive value is the proportion of patients with positive test results who are correctly diagnosed. ... Binary classification is the task of classifying the members of a given set of objects into two groups on the basis of whether they have some property or not. ...


The CDC states on its "STD Facts-HPV Vaccine" page that "An HPV test or a Pap test can tell that a woman may have HPV, but these tests cannot tell the specific HPV type(s) that a woman has."


In Australia, a self-sampling HPV DNA test - that women can do at home using an ordinary tampon - is being marketed by Tam Pap. It has been approved by the Therapeutic Goods Administration for distribution in Australia.[citation needed] The Therapeutic Goods Administration or TGA is the regulatory body for therapeutic goods (including medicines, medical devices, gene technology, and blood products) in Australia. ...


HPV testing in males

Although it is possible to test for HPV DNA in men,[34] there are no FDA-approved tests for general screening, since the testing is inconclusive and considered medically unnecessary.[21][35]


Genital warts are the only visible sign of HPV in men, and can be identified with a visual check of the genital area. These visible growths, however, are usually the result of non-carcinogenic HPV types. Vinegar solutions have been used to identify flat warts (with limited success[21]) by making them more distinct, but most providers have found this technique helpful only in moist areas, such as the female genital tract.[21]


HPV vaccine

Main article: HPV vaccine

On June 8, 2006, the US Food and Drug Administration approved Gardasil, a prophylactic HPV vaccine which is marketed by Merck. The vaccine trial,[36] conducted in adult women with a mean age of 23, showed protection against initial infection with HPV types 16 and 18, which together cause 70% of cervical cancers, and can cause other cancers, such as anal cancer. The vaccine also protects against HPV types 6 and 11, which cause 90 percent of genital warts. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is a vaccine that targets certain sexually transmitted strains of human papillomavirus that are associated with the development of cervical cancer and genital warts. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... FDA redirects here. ... Gardasil (Merck & Co. ... Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is a vaccine that targets certain sexually transmitted strains of human papillomavirus that are associated with the development of cervical cancer and genital warts. ... Merck & Co. ... Anal cancer is a distinct entity from the more common colorectal cancer. ...


GlaxoSmithKline is seeking approval for a prophylactic vaccine known as Cervarix targeting HPV types 16 and 18. It is delivered in three shots over six months. It is intended for females from 10 years of age onwards.[37] GlaxoSmithKline plc (LSE: GSK NYSE: GSK) is a United Kingdom-based pharmaceutical, biological, and healthcare company. ... Cervarix is a vaccine against certain types of the human papillomavirus (HPV) that cause cervical cancer. ...


Gardasil vaccine is delivered in a series of three shots over six months at a cost of approximately $360 (US dollars). The CDC recommends that girls and women between the ages of 11 and 26 be vaccinated,[14] though girls as young as 9 may benefit.[38] Females not yet sexually active can be expected to receive the full benefit of vaccination.


HPV vaccine is made up of proteins from the outer coat of the virus (HPV). There is no infectious material in this vaccine. There is also no thimerosal, a mercury based preservative, in the HPV vaccine.[14] This vaccine has been tested in over 11,000 females (ages 9-26 years) around the world. These studies have shown no serious side effects. The most common side effect is soreness at the injection site. CDC, working with the FDA, will continue to monitor the safety of the vaccine after it is in general use.[39] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The vaccine does not appear to protect against HPV types that females are infected with at the time of vaccination. However, females already infected with one or more vaccine HPV types before vaccination would be protected against disease caused by the other vaccine HPV types covered by the vaccine. Therefore, although overall vaccine effectiveness would be lower when administered to females who have been sexually active, and would decrease with age and likelihood of HPV exposure with increasing number of sex partners, the majority of females in this age group will derive at least partial benefit from vaccination. The vaccine will not have any therapeutic effect on existing HPV infection or cervical lesions.[40]


Since the current vaccine will not protect women against all the HPV types that cause cervical cancer, women should continue to seek Pap smear testing, even after receiving the vaccine. Cervical cancer screening recommendations have not changed for females who receive HPV vaccine.[40]


Both men and women are carriers of HPV. [41] Possible benefits or efficacy of vaccinating men are being studied.


Smoking avoidance

Main article: Smoking cessation

Carcinogens from tobacco and second-hand smoke are concentrated in the cervix, increasing rate of dysplasia by four to five times, and doubling the risk of cervical cancer.[42] A No Smoking sign Smoking cessation (commonly known as quitting, or kicking the habit) is the effort to stop smoking tobacco products. ... Look up carcinogen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ...


Condoms

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says that "While the effect of condoms in preventing HPV infection is unknown, condom use has been associated with a lower rate of cervical cancer, an HPV-associated disease."[43] The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ...


According to Marcus Steiner and Willard Cates in the New England Journal of Medicine, "the protection that condoms offer cannot be precisely quantified."[44] However, in a study reported in the same issue,[45] of 82 female university students followed for eight months, the incidence of genital HPV infection was 37.8 per 100 patient-years among women whose partners used condoms for all instances of intercourse, compared with 89.3 per 100 patient-years in women whose partners used condoms less than 5% of the time. The researchers concluded that "Among newly sexually active women, consistent condom use by their partners appears to reduce the risk of cervical and vulvovaginal HPV infection."


Other studies have suggested that regular condom use can effectively limit the ongoing persistence and spread of HPV to additional genital sites in individuals who are already infected.[46][47]


Thus, condom use may reduce the risk that infected individuals will progress to cervical cancer or develop additional genital warts. Planned Parenthood recommends condom use to reduce the risk of contracting HPV.[48] This article is about Planned Parenthood Federation of America. ...


Microbicides

Ongoing research has suggested that several inexpensive chemicals might serve to block HPV transmission if applied to the genitals prior to sexual contact.[49] These candidate agents, known as topical microbicides, are currently undergoing clinical efficacy testing. A recent study indicates that some sexual lubricant brands that use a gelling agent called carrageenan can inhibit papillomavirus infection in vitro.[50] See Carrageenan#Sexual lubricant and microbicide for details. A microbicide is any compound or substance whose purpose is to reduce the infectivity of microbes, viruses or bacteria. ... Personal lubricants are specialized lubricants which serve to reduce friction with the vagina, the anus, or other body parts. ... Carrageenans or carrageenins (pronounced ) are a family of linear sulphated polysaccharides extracted from red seaweeds. ... In vitro (Latin: within the glass) refers to the technique of performing a given experiment in a test tube, or, generally, in a controlled environment outside a living organism. ... Carrageenans or carrageenins (pronounced ) are a family of linear sulphated polysaccharides extracted from red seaweeds. ...


Clinical trials are needed to determine whether carrageenan-based sexual lubricant gels are effective for blocking the sexual transmission of HPVs in vivo. In vivo (Latin for (with)in the living). ...


Nutrition

Fruits and vegetables

Higher levels of vegetable consumption were associated with a 54% decrease risk of HPV persistence.[51] Consumption of papaya at least once a week was inversely associated with persistent HPV infection.[52]


Vitamin A

There is weak evidence to suggest a significant deficiency of retinol can increase chances of cervical dysplasia, independently of HPV infection. A small (n~=500) case-control study of a narrow ethnic group (native Americans in New Mexico) assessed serum micro-nutrients as risk factors for cervical dysplasia. Subjects in the lowest serum retinol quartile were at increased risk of CIN I compared with women in the highest quartile.[53] Retinol, the animal form of vitamin A, is a yellow fat-soluble, antioxidant vitamin important in vision and bone growth. ... HPV is an initialism that can mean : Human Powered Vehicle Human papillomavirus a type of STD High Production Volume Chemicals Health Purchasing Victoria Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share... Retinol, the animal form of vitamin A, is a yellow fat-soluble, antioxidant vitamin important in vision and bone growth. ... Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, or CIN, is the abnormal growth of precancerous cells in the cervix. ...


However, the study population had low overall serum retinol, suggesting deficiency. A study of serum retinol in a well-nourished population reveals that the bottom 20% had serum retinol close to that of the highest levels in this New Mexico sub-population.[54]


Vitamin C

Risk of type-specific, persistent HPV infection was lower among women reporting intake values of vitamin C in the upper quartile compared with those reporting intake in the lowest quartile.[55] This article is about the nutrient. ...


Vitamin E

HPV clearance time was significantly shorter among women with the highest compared with the lowest serum levels of tocopherols, but significant trends in these associations were limited to infections lasting </=120 days. Clearance of persistent HPV infection (lasting >120 days) was not significantly associated with circulating levels of tocopherols. Results from this investigation support an association of micronutrients with the rapid clearance of incident oncogenic HPV infection of the uterine cervix.[56] Tocopherol, or vitamin E, is a fat-soluble vitamin in eight forms that is an important antioxidant. ...


A statistically significantly lower level of alpha-tocopherol was observed in the blood serum of HPV-positive patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The risk of dysplasia was four times higher for an alpha-tocopherol level < 7.95 mumol/l.[57] α-Tocopherol (Vitamin E) Tocopherol, or Vitamin E, is a fat-soluble vitamin in eight forms that is an important antioxidant. ...


Folic acid

Higher folate status was inversely associated with becoming HPV test-positive. Women with higher folate status were significantly less likely to be repeatedly HPV test-positive and more likely to become test-negative. Studies have shown that lower levels of antioxidants coexisting with low levels of folic acid increases the risk of CIN development. Improving folate status in subjects at risk of getting infected or already infected with high-risk HPV may have a beneficial impact in the prevention of cervical cancer.[58][59]


However, another study showed no relationship between folate status and cervical dysplasia.[53]


Carotenoids

Higher circulating levels of carotenoids were associated with a significant decrease in the clearance time of type-specific HPV infection, particularly during the early stages of infection (</=120 days). Clearance of persistent HPV infection (lasting >120 days) was not significantly associated with circulating levels of carotenoids.[56] Carotenoids are organic pigments naturally occurring in plants and some other photosynthetic organisms like algae, some types of fungus and some bacteria. ...


The likelihood of clearing an oncogenic HPV infection is significantly higher with increasing levels of lycopenes.[60] A 56% reduction in HPV persistence risk was observed in women with the highest plasma [lycopene] concentrations compared with women with the lowest plasma lycopene concentrations. These data suggests that vegetable consumption and circulating lycopene may be protective against HPV persistence.[51][52][61] Lycopene is a bright red carotenoid pigment, a phytochemical found in tomatoes and other red fruits. ...


CoQ10

Women who had either CIN or cervical cancer had markedly lower levels of CoQ10 in their blood and in their cervical cells than the women who were healthy.[citation needed] Coenzyme Q (CoQ), also known as ubiquinone or ubiquinol, is a biologically active quinone with an isoprenoid side chain, related in structure to vitamin K and vitamin E. The oxidized structure of CoQ, or Q, is given here: The various kinds of Coenzyme Q can be distinguished by the number...


Fish oil

In a 1999 study, Docosahexaenoic acid inhibited growth of HPV16 immortalized cells.[62] Docosahexaenoic acid (commonly known as DHA; 22:6(ω-3), all-cis-docosa-4,7,10,13,16,19-hexaenoic acid; trivial name cervonic acid) is an omega-3 essential fatty acid. ...


Treatment

"There is currently no cure or treatment for HPV infection."[42][14]


Therapies for conditions caused by HPV are addressed in main articles covering the various HPV-related diseases.


Epidemiology

Cutaneous HPVs

Infection with cutaneous HPVs is ubiquitous.[63] Some HPV types, such as HPV-5, may establish infections that persist for the lifetime of the individual without ever manifesting any clinical symptoms. Like remora suckerfish that hitchhike harmlessly on sharks, these HPV types can be thought of as human commensals. Other cutaneous HPVs, such as HPV types 1 or 2, may cause common warts in some infected individuals. Skin warts are most common in childhood and typically appear and regress spontaneously over the course of weeks to months. About 10% of adults also suffer from recurring skin warts. All HPVs are believed to be capable of establishing long-term "latent" infections in small numbers of stem cells present in the skin. Although these latent infections may never be fully eradicated, immunological control is thought to block the appearance of symptoms such as warts. Immunological control is likely HPV type-specific, meaning that an individual may become immunologically resistant to one HPV type while remaining susceptible to other types. Genera Echeneis Phtheiricthys Remora Remorina See text for species. ... For other uses, see Shark (disambiguation). ... In ecology, commensalism is a kind of relationship between two organisms where one benefits and the other is not significantly harmed or helped (like a bird living in a tree). ... Mouse embryonic stem cells with fluorescent marker. ...


Genital HPVs

A large increase in the incidence of genital HPV infection occurs at the age when individuals begin to engage in sexual activity. The great majority of genital HPV infections never cause any overt symptoms and are cleared by the immune system in a matter of months. As with cutaneous HPVs, immunity is believed to be HPV type-specific. Some infected individuals may fail to bring genital HPV infection under immunological control. Lingering infection with high-risk HPV types, such as HPVs 16, 18, 31 and 45, can lead to the development of cervical cancer or other types of cancer.[64] In addition to persistent infection with high-risk HPV types, epidemiological and molecular data suggest that co-factors such as the cigarette smoke carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) enhance development of certain HPV-induced cancers.[65]


High-risk HPV types 16 and 18 are together responsible for over 65% of cervical cancer cases.[66][11] Type 16 causes 41 to 54% of cervical cancers,[67][11] and accounts for an even greater majority of HPV-induced vaginal/vulvar cancers,[68] penile cancers, anal cancers and head and neck cancers.[69]


Public health and genital HPVs

According to the Centers for Disease Control, "At least 50% of sexually active people will get HPV at some time in their lives."[14] All women who have had sex are encouraged to get a regular pap smear to detect cellular abnormalities caused by HPV and help prevent cervical cancer.[70] The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta is recognized as the lead United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people by providing credible information to enhance health decisions, and promoting health through strong partnerships with state health departments and other organizations. ... The pap smear as we know it is an invention of Dr. Georgios Papanikolaou (1883-1962), an American of Greek birth, the father of cytopathology. ...


The HPV vaccine Gardasil protects against the two strains of HPV that cause 70% of cervical cancer cases, and two strains of HPV that cause 90% of genital warts. The CDC recommends that girls and women between the ages of 11 and 26 be vaccinated.[14] Gardasil (Merck & Co. ...


Perinatal transmission

Although genital HPV types are sometimes transmitted from mother to child during birth, the appearance of genital HPV-related diseases in newborns is rare. Perinatal transmission of HPV types 6 and 11 can result in the development of juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (JORRP). JORRP is very rare, with rates of about 2 cases per 100,000 children in the United States.[18] Although JORRP rates are substantially higher if a woman presents with genital warts at the time of giving birth, the risk of JORRP in such cases is still less than 1%. Laryngeal papillomatosis, also known as recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, is a rare medical condition, caused by an HPV infection of the throat. ...


History of discovering link between virus and cancer

See also: Cervical cancer#History

The fact that prostitutes have much higher rates of cervical cancer than nuns was a key early observation leading researchers to speculate about a causal link between sexually transmitted HPVs and cervical cancer.[71] Cervical cancer is a malignant cancer of the cervix. ... Whore redirects here. ... For other uses, see Nun (disambiguation). ...


See also

The loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP or LLETZ) is currently one of the most commonly used approaches to treating high grade cervical dysplasia discovered on colposcopic examination. ...

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A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Philadelphia Inquirer is one of a two Knight Ridder newspaper duopoly daily for the Philadelphia area. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... -1... Todays San Francisco Chronicle was founded in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle by teenage brothers Charles de Young and Michael H. de Young. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... -1... ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

  • March 23, 2007 Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 56 / RR-2: Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine "Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)"
  • HPV Fact sheets from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • Myths and misconceptions about HPV — American Social Health Association
  • HPV's links to oral cancers peer reviewed information from The Oral Cancer Foundation
  • HPV and pregnancy Answers for those pregnant with HPV
  • NOW on PBS: "Vaccine Debate" — The political controversy over requiring HPV vaccinations for girls.
  • HPV found under the fingernails of young men The Daily, University of Washington
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) is a weekly epidemiological digest for the United States published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... The American Social Health Association (ASHA) was founded as the American Social Hygiene Association in 1914 by a group of public health reformers committed to attacking an undesirable social condition—sexually transmitted infections—that they believed could be improved through medical and educational means. ... A sexually transmitted disease (STD) or venereal disease (VD), is an illness that has a significant probability of transmission between humans or animals by means of sexual contact, including vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and anal sex. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Chancroid is a sexually transmitted disease characterized by painful sores on the genitalia. ... Binomial name Haemophilus ducreyi A chancroid is an STD characterized by painful sores on the genitalia. ... The term Chlamydia refers to an infection by any one of the species in the bacterial genus, Chlamydia—Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia suis or Chlamydia muridarum—but of these, only C. trachomatis is found in humans. ... Binomial name Chlamydia trachomatis Busacca, 1935 Chlamydia trachomatis is a species of the chlamydiae, a group of obligately intracellular bacteria. ... Granuloma inguinale or Donovanosis is a bacterial disease caused by the organism Calymmatobacterium granulomatis. ... Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), also known as lymphopathia venerea, tropical bubo, climatic bubo, strumous bubo, poradenitis inguinales, Durand-Nicolas-Favre disease and lymphogranuloma inguinale, is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the invasive serovars L1, L2, or L3 of Chlamydia trachomatis. ... The clap redirects here. ... Binomial name Neisseria gonorrhoeae Zopf, 1885 Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a species of Gram-negative bacteria responsible for the disease gonorrhoea. ... Syphilis is a curable sexually transmitted disease caused by the Treponema pallidum spirochete. ... Binomial name Treponema pallidum Schaudinn & Hoffmann, 1905 Treponema pallidum is a gram-negative spirochaete bacterium and is considered to be metabolically crippled. ... Binomial name Ureaplasma urealyticum Shepard et al. ... Leishmania donovani, (a species of protozoan) in a bone marrow cell Protozoa (in Greek proton = first and zoa = animals) are unicellular eukaryotes, (singular protozoan). ... Trichomoniasis, sometimes referred to as trich, is a common sexually transmitted disease that affects 7. ... Binomial name Trichomonas vaginalis (Donné 1836) Trichomonas vaginalis, an anaerobic, parasitic flagellated protozoan, is the causative agent of trichomoniasis, and is the most common pathogenic protozoan infection of humans in industrialized countries. ... This article is about a relationship between organisms. ... Binomial name (L., 1758, originally Pediculus pubis) The pubic or crab louse (Phthirus pubis) is a parasitic insect which spends its entire life on human hair and feeds exclusively on blood. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... Cervical cancer is a malignant cancer of the cervix. ... Genital warts (or Condyloma, Condylomata acuminata, or venereal warts) is a highly contagious sexually transmitted infection caused by some sub-types of human papillomavirus (HPV). ... “HBV” redirects here. ... This article is about the disease. ... Species Herpes simplex virus 1 (HWJ-1) Herpes simplex virus 2 (HWJ-2) This article is about the virus. ... Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a viral infection of the skin or occasionally of the mucous membranes. ... Inflammation of the tissues of the cervix is known as cervicitis. ... Epididymitis is a medical condition in which the epididymis becomes inflamed. ... Infertility primarily refers to the biological inability of a man or a woman to contribute to conception. ... Non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) is an inflammation of the urethra which is not caused by gonorrheal infection. ... Pelvic inflammatory disease (or disorder) (PID) is a generic term for inflammation of the female uterus, fallopian tubes, and/or ovaries as it progresses to scar formation with adhesions to nearby tissues and organs. ... In most systems of human pregnancy, the condition, premature birth (also known as a preterm birth), occurs when the baby is born within sooner than 36 weeks of completed gestation. ... Proctitis (Noun) Inflammation of the rectum. ... Prostatitis is any form of inflammation of the prostate gland. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Urethritis is inflammation of the urethra. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... // A00-A79 - Bacterial infections, and other intestinal infectious diseases, and STDs (A00-A09) Intestinal infectious diseases (A00) Cholera (A01) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (A010) Typhoid fever (A02) Other Salmonella infections (A03) Shigellosis (A04) Other bacterial intestinal infections (A040) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection (A045) Campylobacter enteritis (A046) Enteritis due to Yersinia... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... -1... Post-polio syndrome (PPS) is a condition that frequently affects survivors of poliomyelitis, a viral infection of the nervous system, after recovery from an initial paralytic attack of the virus. ... Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare chronic, progressive encephalitis that affects primarily children and young adults, caused by defective measles virus (which can be a result of a mutation of the virus itself). ... This article is about the viral disease. ... Encephalitis lethargica (EL) is an atypical form of encephalitis. ... Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM), is a rodent-borne viral infectious disease that presents as aseptic meningitis, encephalitis or meningoencephalitis. ... Tick-borne meningoencephalitis or Tick-borne encephalitis is a tick-borne viral infection of the central nervous system affecting humans as well as most other mammals. ... Tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) is an infection of the spinal cord by Human T-lymphotropic virus resulting in paraparesis or weakness of the legs. ... Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are a group of illnesses that are caused by several distinct families of viruses: Arenavirus, Filoviridae, Bunyaviridae and Flavivirus. ... Dengue Fever redirects here. ... Chikungunya is a relatively rare form of viral fever caused by an alphavirus that is spread by mosquito bites from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, though recent research by the Pasteur Institute in Paris claims the virus has suffered a mutation that enables it to be transmitted by Aedes albopictus (Tiger mosquito). ... Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a viral zoonosis (affects primarily domestic livestock, but can be passed to humans) causing fever. ... Onyongnyong virus was first isolated by the Uganda Virus Research Institute in Entebbe, Uganda. ... West Nile virus (or WNV) is a virus of the family Flaviviridae; part of the Japanese encephalitis (JE) antigenic complex of viruses, it is found in both tropical and temperate regions. ... Red areas show the distribution of Japanese Enecphalitis in Asia 1970-1998 Japanese encephalitis (Japanese: 日本脳炎, Nihon-nōen; previously known as Japanese B encephalitis to distinguish it from von Economos A encephalitis) is a disease caused by the mosquito-borne Japanese encephalitis virus. ... St. ... Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) is a flavivirus endemic to northern Australia and Papua New Guinea. ... Ross River virus (RRV) is an arbovirus of the genus Alphavirus. ... Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a widespread tick-borne viral disease, a zoonosis of domestic animals and wild animals, that may affect humans. ... Omsk hemorrhagic fever is a viral hemorrhagic fever caused by a Flavivirus. ... Kyasanur forest disease is a tick-borne viral hemorrhagic fever endemic to South Asia. ... Alkhurma virus is a member of the Flaviviridae virus family (class IV) so has a positive sense single stranded RNA genome and the virus will replicate in the cytoplasm of the infected host cell. ... The Powassan virus is a tick-borne encephalitis virus related to the classic TBE flavivirus. ... Zoonosis is any infectious disease that can be transmitted from animals, both wild and domestic, to humans. ... In epidemiology, a vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another. ... Menangle virus is a virus that infects pigs, humans and bats. ... Species Hendravirus Nipahvirus Henipavirus is a genus of the family Paramyxoviridae, order Mononegavirales containing two members, Hendravirus and Nipahvirus. ... Borna disease is an infectious neurological syndrome of warm-blooded animals, which causes abnormal behaviour and fatality. ... Lassa fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic fever first described in 1969 in the Nigerian town of Lassa in the Yedseram River valley. ... Species Guanarito virus Venezualan hemorrhagic fever (VHF) is a zoonotic human illness, first identified in 1989, causing fever and malaise followed by hemorrhagic manifestations and convulsions. ... Species Junín virus Argentine hemorrhagic fever, known locally as mal de los rastrojos, is a hemorrhagic fever and zoonotic infectious disease occurring in Argentina. ... Species Machupo virus Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF), also known as black typhus or Machupo virus, is a hemorrhagic fever and zoonotic infectious disease occurring in Bolivia. ... Puumala virus is a species of hantavirus, and causes nephropathia epidemica. ... Andes virus (ANDV) is a hantavirus, which, in South America, is the major causative agent of Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS or HPS). ... The Sin Nombre virus (Spanish for virus without name) (SNV) is the prototypical etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS). ... Species Andes virus (ANDV) Bayou virus (BAYV) Black Creek Canal virus (BCCV) Cano Delgadito virus (CADV) Choclo virus (CHOV) Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) Hantaan virus (HTNV) Isla Vista virus (ISLAV) Khabarovsk virus (KHAV) Laguna Negra virus (LANV) Muleshoe virus (MULV) New York virus (NYV) Prospect Hill virus (PHV) Puumala virus... Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) is a zoonotic virus closely related to rabies virus. ... For other uses, see Ebola (disambiguation). ... The Marburg virus is the causative agent of Marburg hemorrhagic fever. ... Mokola virus is one of four members of the lyssavirus genome found in Africa, the others being Duvenhage virus, Lagos bat virus and classical rabies virus. ... Duvenhage virus is a member of the lyssavirus genus which also contains rabies virus. ... This article is about the organ. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of mostly endodermal origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ... Skin lesions caused by Chickenpox A lesion is any abnormal tissue found on or in an organism, usually damaged by disease or trauma. ... This article is about the disease. ... For other uses, see Chickenpox (disambiguation). ... Shingles redirects here, for other uses of the term, see Shingle. ... This article is about the disease. ... (Cricetomys sp. ... This page is for the disease. ... Cowpox is a disease of the skin caused by a virus (Cowpox virus) that is related to the Vaccinia virus. ... Vaccinia virus (VACV or VV) is a large, complex enveloped virus belonging to the poxvirus family of viruses. ... Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a viral infection of the skin or occasionally of the mucous membranes. ... species Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) Human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) Exanthem subitum (meaning sudden rash), also referred to as roseola infantum (or rose rash of infants), sixth disease and (confusingly) baby measles, or three day fever, is a benign disease of children, generally under two years old, whose manifestations... Fifth disease is also referred to as erythema infectiosum (meaning infectious redness) and as slapped cheek syndrome, slap face or slapped face. ... Not to be confused with Foot-and-mouth disease. ... Not to be confused with hand, foot and mouth disease. ... Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the eighth human herpesvirus; its formal name according to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses is HHV-8. ... For the Nintendo character, see Wart (Nintendo). ... Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver characterised by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. ... Species Hepatitis A virus Hepatitis A (formerly known as infectious hepatitis) is an acute infectious disease of the liver caused by the hepatovirus hepatitis A virus. ... “HBV” redirects here. ... This page is for the disease. ... Hepatitis D is a disease caused by a small circular RNA virus (Hepatitis delta virus); this virus is replication defective and therefore cannot propagate in the absence of another virus. ... Hepatitis E is an acute viral hepatitis (liver inflammation) caused by infection with a virus called hepatitis E virus (HEV). ... Hepatitis G and GB virus C (GBV-C) are RNA viruses that were independently identified in 1995, and were subsequently found to be two isolates of the same virus. ... Among quadrupeds, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ... For the H5N1 subtype of Avian influenza see H5N1. ... Acute viral nasopharyngitis, or acute coryza, usually known as the common cold, is a highly contagious, viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system, primarily caused by picornaviruses or coronaviruses. ... Flu redirects here. ... -1... Viral pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung caused by a virus. ... Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are a group of four distinct serotypes of single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the paramyxovirus family. ... Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a negative sense, single-stranded RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae, which includes common respiratory viruses such as those causing measles and mumps. ... Species Turkey rhinotracheitis virus Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) was isolated for the first time in 2001 in the Netherlands by using the RAP-PCR technique for identification of unknown viruses growing in cultured cells. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... AIDS dementia complex (ADC; also known as HIV dementia, HIV encephalopathy and HIV-associated dementia) has become a common neurological disorder associated with HIV infection and AIDS. It is is a metabolic encephalopathy induced by HIV infection and fueled by immune activation of brain macrophages and microglia. ... Genital warts (or Condyloma, Condylomata acuminata, or venereal warts) is a highly contagious sexually transmitted infection caused by some sub-types of human papillomavirus (HPV). ... Cervical cancer is a malignant cancer of the cervix. ... Human T cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is believed to be the cause of several diseases, including adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), a rare cancer of the immune systems own T-cells. ... See also Bacterial gastroenteritis and Diarrhea Gastroenteritis is a general term referring to inflammation or infection of the gastrointestinal tract, primarily the stomach and intestines. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Norovirus, an RNA virus of the Caliciviridae taxonomic family, causes approximately 90% of epidemic non-bacterial outbreaks of gastroenteritis around the world,[1][2] and is responsible for 50% of all foodborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the US.[3] Norovirus affects people of all ages. ... Astroviruses that infect humans have been poorly studied due to the fact that they do not grow in culture. ... Coronavirus is a genus of animal virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae. ... Genera Mastadenovirus Aviadenovirus Atadenovirus Siadenovirus Adenoviruses are viruses of the family Adenoviridae. ... Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) is a human, single-stranded RNA retrovirus that causes T-cell leukemia and T-cell lymphoma in adults and may also be involved in certain demyelinating diseases, including tropical spastic paraparesis. ... Leukemia or leukaemia (Greek leukos λευκός, white; aima αίμα, blood) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a virus in the family Rhabdoviridae, order Mononegavirales. ... An oncolytic virus is a virus used to treat cancer due to their ability to specifically infect cancer cells, while leaving normal cells unharmed. ... Species see text Cytomegalovirus (CMV) (from the Greek cyto-, cell, and -mega-, large) is a viral genus of the Herpesviruses group: in humans it is commonly known as human herpesvirus 5 (HHV-5). ... Bornholm disease or pleurodynia is a disease caused by the Coxsackie virus. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
human papillomavirus Gentital-Wart-Treatment (952 words)
Warts are human papillomavirus are usually skin-colored and feel rough to the touch, but they can be dark, flat and smooth.
These are often called seed warts because the human papillomavirus the blood vessels to the wart produce fl dots that look like seeds.
Some people human papillomavirus are just more likely to catch the wart virus than are others, just as some people catch colds very easily.
HPV - STD information from CDC (1052 words)
Genital HPV infection is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV).
Human papillomavirus is the name of a group of viruses that includes more than 100 different strains or types.
Human Papillomavirus: HPV Information for Clinicians - Brochure on transmission, prevention, detection and clinical management of HPV.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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