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Encyclopedia > Human migration
Net migration rates for 2006: positive (blue), negative (orange) and stable (green).
Net migration rates for 2006: positive (blue), negative (orange) and stable (green).

"Human migration" denotes any movement by humans from one locality to another (migration), often over long distances or in large groups. Humans are known to have migrated extensively throughout history and prehistory. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 48 KB) Summary Net migration rate showing positive, negative and 0, based on CIA factbook data, accessed April 2006. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 48 KB) Summary Net migration rate showing positive, negative and 0, based on CIA factbook data, accessed April 2006. ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) in the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... mtDNA-based chart of large human migrations. ...


Migration and population isolation is one of the four evolutionary forces (along with natural selection, genetic drift, and mutation). The study of the distribution of and change in allele (gene variations) frequencies under such influences is the discipline of Population genetics. Darwins illustrations of beak variation in the finches of the Galápagos Islands, which hold 13 closely related species that differ most markedly in the shape of their beaks. ... In population genetics, genetic drift is the statistical effect that results from the influence that chance has on the success of alleles (variants of a gene). ... It has been suggested that mutant be merged into this article or section. ... For the hard rock band, see Allele (band). ... Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and migration. ...


The movement of populations in modern times has continued under the form of both voluntary migration within one's region, country, or beyond, and involuntary migration (which includes slave trade, Trafficking in human beings and ethnic cleansing). The people who migrate are called migrants, or, more specifically, emigrants, immigrants or settlers, depending on historical setting, circumstance and perspective. Forced migration refers to the coerced movement of a person or persons away from their home or home region. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Trafficking of human beings is the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of people for the purpose of exploitation. ... Ethnic cleansing refers to various policies or practices aimed at the displacement of an ethnic group from a particular territory in order to create a supposedly ethnically pure society. ... Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. ... Emigration is the action and the phenomenon of leaving ones native country to settle abroad. ... Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. ... A family of Russian settlers in the Caucasus region, ca. ...

Contents

Overview

There is only one evolutionary mechanism: this mechanism is 'selection' both in natural form and in un-natural form(i.e. breeding by cultural (human) intervention); selection acts on physical structures both at the gene level (indirectly) and at the cultural (see memes)level (directly); all other phenomena, such as population isolation, are results of the selection mechanisms at work, they are not evolutionary forces.


Different types of migration include:

  • Daily human commuting.
  • Seasonal human migration is mainly related to agriculture.
  • Permanent migration, for the purposes of permanent or long-term stays.
  • Local
  • Regional
  • Rural to Urban, more common in developing countries as industrialization takes effect
  • Urban to Rural, more common in developed countries due to a higher cost of urban living
  • International migration

Human migration has taken place at all times and in the greatest variety of circumstances. It has been tribal, national, class and individual. Its causes have been climatic, political, economic, religious, or more love of adventure. Its causes and results are fundamental for the study of ethnology, of political and social history, and of political economy. Commuters on the New York City Subway during rush hour Rush hour at Shinjuku Station, Yamanote Line Traffic jam Commuting is the process of travelling between a place of residence and a place of work. ... Seasonal human migration is very common in agricultural cycles. ... International migration occurs when persons cross state boundaries and stay in the host state for some minimum length of time. ... Ethnology (from the Greek ethnos, meaning people) is the branch of anthropology that compares and analyses the origins, distribution, technology, religion, language, and social structure of the racial or national divisions of humanity. ...


The pressures of human migrations, whether as outright conquest or by slow cultural infiltration and resettlement, have affected the grand epochs in history (e.g. the fall of the Western Roman Empire); under the form of colonization, migration has transformed the world (e.g. the prehistoric and historic settlements of Australia and the Americas). Population genetics studied in traditionally settled modern populations have opened a window into the historical patterns of migrations, a technique pioneered by Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza. The Roman Empire is not the Holy Roman Empire (843-1806). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colonialism. ... Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and migration. ... Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza (born January 25, 1922) is an Italian population geneticist born in Genoa, who has been a professor at Stanford University since 1970 (now emeritus). ...

mtDNA-based chart of large human migrations.

Forced migration (see population transfer) has been a means of social control under authoritarian regimes, yet under free initiative migration is a powerful factor in social adjustment (e.g. the growth of urban populations). Map of Human migrations by mitochondrial population genetics. ... Map of Human migrations by mitochondrial population genetics. ... Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is DNA which is not located in the nucleus of the cell but in the mitochondria. ... Population transfer is a term referring to a policy by which a state, or international authority, forces the movement of a large group of people out of a region, most frequently on the basis of their ethnicity or religion. ...


In December 2003 The Global Commission on International Migration (GCIM) was launched with the support of Kofi Annan and several countries, with an independent 19-member Commission, threefold mandate and a finite life-span, ending December 2005. Its report, based on regional consultation meetings with stakeholders and scientific reports from leading international migration experts, was published and presented to UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan on 5 October 2005. The 90-page Report, along with supporting evidence, is available on the GCIM website [1] Kofi Atta Annan (born April 8, 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1997 to January 1, 2007, serving two five-year terms. ...


Push and Pull Factors

Push and Pull factors are those factors which either forcefully push someone into migration or attract them. A push factor is a forceful factor, and a factor which relates to the country the person is migrating from. It is generally a problem which the results in people wanting to migrate. Different types of Push Factors can be seen further below. A pull factor is something concerning the country a person migrates to. It is generally a good thing that attracts people to a certain place. Push and Pull factors are usually considered as north and south poles on a magnet. The idea is to have the attraction in the middle, i.e the place.


Push Factors

  • Poor Medical Care.
  • Not enough jobs.
  • Few opportunities.
  • Primitive Conditions
  • Political fear
  • Fear of torture and mistreatment
  • Not being able to practice religion
  • Loss of wealth
  • Natural Disasters

Pull Factors

  • Chances of getting a job
  • Better living standards
  • Enjoyment
  • Education
  • Better Medical Care
  • Security
  • Family Links

Pre-modern migrations

Main article: Historical migration

Historical migration of human populations begins with the movement of Homo erectus out of Africa across Eurasia about a million years ago. Homo sapiens appears to have colonised all of Africa about 150 millennia ago, moved out of Africa some 80 millennia ago, and spread across Eurasia and to Australia before 40 millennia ago. Migration to the Americas took place about 20 to 15 millennia ago, and by 2 millennia ago, most of the Pacific Islands were colonised. Later population movements notably include the Neolithic revolution, Indo-European expansion, and the Early Medieval Great Migrations including Turkic expansion. The Age of Exploration and European Colonialism led to an accelerated pace of migration since Early Modern times. mtDNA-based chart of large human migrations. ... Binomial name †Homo erectus (Dubois, 1892) Synonyms † Pithecanthropus erectus † Sinanthropus pekinensis † Javanthropus soloensis † Meganthropus paleojavanicus Homo erectus (Latin: upright man) is an extinct species of the genus Homo. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Eurasia Eurasia African-Eurasian aspect of Earth Eurasia is an immense landmass covering about 54,000,000 km² (or about 10. ... Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man) is the scientific name for the human species. ... There are several popular models of migration to the New World proposed by the anthropological community. ... →this is tuff i mean kyle carters tuff Tuamotu, French Polynesia The Pacific Ocean contains an estimated 20,000 to 30,000 islands; the exact number has not been precisely determined. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age. ... Great Migration is a term often used to describe the early medieval migrations of peoples in Europe. ... The present distribution of Turkic languages bears witness to the Early Medieval westward expansion of Turkic tribes. ... The so-called Age of Exploration was a period from the early 15th century and continuing into the early 17th century, during which European ships were traveled around the world to search for new trading routes and partners to feed burgeoning capitalism in Europe. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ...


Modern migrations

Industrialization

While the pace of migration had accelerated since the 18th century already (including the involuntary slave trade), it would increase further in the 19th century. Manning distinguishes three major types of migration: labour migration, refugee migrations and lastly: urbanization. Millions of agricultural workers left the countryside and moved to the cities causing unprecedented levels of urbanization. This phenomenon began in Britain in the late 18th century and spread around the world and continues to this day in many areas.


Industrialization encouraged migration wherever it appeared. The increasingly global economy globalised the labour market. Atlantic slave trade diminished sharply after 1820, which gave rise to self-bound contract labour migration from Europe and Asia to plantations. Also overpopulation, open agricultural frontiers and rising industrial centres attracted voluntary, encouraged and sometimes coerced migration. Moreover, migration was significantly eased by improved transportation techniques. The Atlantic slave trade was the trade of African slaves by Europeans that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean. ... An Indentured servant is an unfree labourer under contract to work (for a specified amount of time) for another person, often without any pay, but in exchange for accommodation, food, other essentials and/or free passage to a new country. ...


Between 1846 and 1940 mass migrations occurred world wide. The size and speed of transnational migratory movements were unprecedented. Some 55 millions of migrants moved from Europe to America, and an additional 2,5 million moved from Asia to America. Of this transatlantic migrations, 65% went to the United States. Other major receiving countries were Argentina, Canada, Brazil and Cuba. (see also Immigration to the United States, Italian diaspora, Irish diaspora etc.)
The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Transatlantic migration refers to the movement of people across the Atlantic Ocean in order to settle on the continents of North and South America. ... 2000 Census Population Ancestry Map Immigration to the United States of America is the movement of non-residents to the United States, and has been a major source of population growth and cultural change throughout much of the American history even though the foreign born have never been more than... The term Italian Diaspora refers to the large-scale migration of Italians away from Italy in the period roughly between the unification of Italy in 1861 and the beginning of World War I in 1914. ... The Irish diaspora consists of Irish emigrants and their descendants in countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Argentina, Chile, New Zealand, South Africa and states of the Caribbean and continental Europe. ...


During this same period similar large numbers of people migrated over large distances within Asia. Southeastern Asia received 50 million migrants, mainly from India and south China. North Asia, that be Manchuria, Siberia, Central Asia and Japan together, received another 50 million. A movement that started in the 1890s with migrants from China, Russia and Korea, and was especially large due to coerced migration from the Soviet Union and Japan in the 1930s. Less is known about exact numbers of the migrations from and within Africa in this period, but Africa experienced a small nett immigration between 1850 and 1950, from a variety of origins. This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ...


Transnational labour migration reached a peak of three million migrants per year in the early twentieth century. Italy, Norway, Ireland and the Quongdong region of China were regions with especially high emigration rates during these years. These large migration flows influenced the process of nation state formation in many ways. Immigration restrictions have been developed, as well as diaspora cultures and myths that reflect the importance of migration to the foundation of certain nations, like the American melting pot. The transnational labour migration fell to a lower level from 1930s to the 1960s and then rebounded. There have been a number of Immigration Acts in the United States. ... For other uses, see Diaspora (disambiguation). ... Alternate meaning: crucible (science) The melting pot is a metaphor for the way in which heterogenous societies develop, in which the ingredients in the pot (iron, tin; people of different backgrounds and religions, etc. ...


The twentieth century experienced also an increase in migratory flows caused by war and politics. Muslims moved from the Balkan to Turkey, while Christians moved the other way, during the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. 400.000 Jews moved to Palestine in the early twentieth century. The Russian Civil War caused some 3 million Russians, Poles and Germans to migrate out of the Soviet Union. World War II and decolonization also caused migrations, see below. Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... Combatants Red Army Latvian Reds Finnish Reds White Army Czech Legion Allied intervention UK France United States Japan Italy  Canada  Greece  Romania  Serbia New states Poland Finland  Latvia  Estonia  Lithuania Ukrainian Peoples Republic Green Army (Cossacks) Black Army (Anarchists) Blue Army (Peasants) Commanders Trotsky Mikhail Tukhachevsky Kamenev Budyonny Frunze... Colonialism in 1945 Decolonization refers to the achievement of independence by the various Western colonies and protectorates in Asia and Africa following World War II. This conforms with an intellectual movement known as Post-Colonialism. ...


sources:
Patrick Manning, Migration in World History (2005) p 132-162.
Adam McKeown, 'Global migration, 1846-1940' in: Journal of Global History (june 2004).


World War II

See World War II evacuation and expulsion for World War II forced migrations. World War II evacuation and expulsion refers to forced deportation, mass evacuation and displacement of peoples spurred on by the hostilities between Axis and Allied powers, and the border changes enacted in the post-war settlement. ...


The Jewish diaspora across Europe, the Mediterranean and the Middle East formed from voluntary migrations, enslavement, threats of enslavement and pogroms. After the Nazis brought the Holocaust upon Jewish people in the 1940s, there was increased migration to the British Mandate of Palestine, which became the modern day state of Israel as a result of the 1947 UN Partition Plan. The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, scattered, or Galut גלות, exile, Yiddish: tfutses) is the expulsion of the Jewish people out of the Roman province of Judea. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centers. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... On 29 November 1947 the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine or United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181, a plan to resolve the Arab-Israeli conflict in the British Mandate of Palestine, was approved by the United Nations General Assembly. ...


Provisions of the Potsdam Agreement from 1945 signed by victorious Western Allies and the Soviet Union led to one of the largest European migrations, and definitely the largest in the 20th century. It involved the migration and resettlement of close to or over 20 million people. The largest affected group were 16.5 million Germans expelled from Eastern Europe westwards. The second largest group were Poles, millions of whom were expelled westwards from eastern Kresy region and resettled in the so-called Recovered Territories (see Allies decide Polish border in the article on the Oder-Neisse line). Hundreds of thousands of Poles, Ukrainians, Lithuanians, Latvians, Estonians and some Belarusians, were in the meantime expelled eastwards from Europe to the Soviet Union. Finally, many of the several hundred thousand Jews remaining in the Eastern Europe after the Holocaust migrated outside Europe to Israel. The Potsdam Agreement, or the Potsdam Proclamation, was an agreement on policy for the occupation and reconstruction of Germany and other nations after fighting in the European Theatre of World War II had ended with the German surrender of May 8, 1945. ... The Western Allies were the democracies and their colonial peoples, within the broader coalition of Allies during World War II. The term is generally understood to refer to the countries of the Commonwealth of Nations (from 1939), exiled forces from Occupied Europe (from 1940), the United States, (from 1941), Italy... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the forced migration of people considered Germans (Reichsdeutsche and some Volksdeutsche) from various European states and territories during 1945 and in the first three years after World War II 1946-48. ... Polish voivodeships 1922-1939. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Oder-Neisse line (Polish: , German: ) marked the border between German Democratic Republic and Poland between 1950 and 1990. ... The Oder-Neisse line (Polish: , German: ) marked the border between German Democratic Republic and Poland between 1950 and 1990. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... Berihah (literally escape in Hebrew) was the organized effort to help Jews escape post-Holocaust Europe for the British Mandate of Palestine. ...

See also: Minorities in Poland after the War

The history of Poland from 1945 to 1989 spans the period of Soviet Communist dominance over the Peoples Republic of Poland in the decades following World War II. These years, while featuring many improvements in the standards of living in Poland, were marred by political instability, social unrest, and...

Contemporary migration

Further information: immigrationforced migration, and refugees
Net migration rates for 2006: positive (blue) and negative (orange)
Net migration rates for 2006: positive (blue) and negative (orange)

Target countries with currently high immigration rates are North America, Western Europe, Central Europe, Southern Europe, Australia. Due to refugee movements within Africa, there are African countries with high positive as well as negative migration rates. [2] Forced migration refers to the coerced movement of a person or persons away from their home or home region. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 48 KB) Summary Net migration rate showing positive, negative and 0, based on CIA factbook data, accessed April 2006. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 48 KB) Summary Net migration rate showing positive, negative and 0, based on CIA factbook data, accessed April 2006. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Southern Europe is a region of the European continent. ... For the description of refugee as casually used for any person who has been forced to leave their home, see displaced person. ...

Countries of origin with high emigration rates are in Africa, Eastern Europe, Central Asia, South and Central America: A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ...

Small countries like island states can have extremely high migration rates that fluctuate over short times due to their low overall population: Micronesia -2% per year, Grenada -1.6%, Samoa -1.2%, Dominica -0.93%, Suriname and Virgin Islands -0.87%, Greenland -0.83%, Guyana and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines -0.75%; Liberia 2.7%, Kuwait 1.6%, [[1.4%, Turks and Caicos Islands 1.1%, San Marino 1.1%.


For more data on contemporary migration see:

  • Net Human Migration Rate
  • OECD International Migration Data 2006

Migrations and climate cycles

The modern field of climate history suggests that the successive waves of Eurasian nomadic movement throughout history have had their origins in climatic cycles, which have expanded or contracted pastureland in Central Asia, especially Mongolia and the Altai. People were displaced from their home ground by other tribes trying to find land that could be grazed by essential flocks, each group pushing the next further to the south and west, into the highlands of Anatolia, the plains of Hungary, into Mesopotamia or southwards, into the rich pastures of China. Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... The Pannonian Plain is a large plain in Central Europe that remained when the Pliocene Pannonian Sea (see below) dried out. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, and parts of eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and southwest Iran. ...


Toward an understanding of migration

Types of migrations

  • The cyclic movement which involves commuting, a seasonal movement, and nomadism.
  • The periodic movement which consists of migrant labor, military services, and pastoral farming Transhumance.
  • The migratory movement that moves from the eastern part of the United States to the western part. It also moves from China to southeast Asia, from Europe to North America, and from South America to the middle part of the Americas.
  • Internal migration

Kazakh nomads in the steppes of the Russian Empire, ca. ... A foreign worker (cf expatriate), is a person who works in a country other than the one of which he or she is a citizen. ... Transhumance is the seasonal movement of livestock between mountainous and lowland pastures. ...

Ravenstein's 'laws of migration'

Certain laws of social science have been proposed to describe human migration. The following was a standard list after Ravenstein's proposals during the time frame of 1834 to 1913. The laws are as follows:
1) Most migrants travel short distances and with increasing distance the numbers of migrants decrease. This law is based upon the assumptions that the higher travel costs and a lack of knowledge of more distant places acts against large volumes of migration.
2) Migration occurs in stages and with a wave-like motion. Based on his observations in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries that migration occurred in steps with people gradually moving up the settlement hierarchy - from rural areas to villages, to towns, to cities and finally the capital city.
3) Migration increases in volume as industries and commerce develop and transport improves, and the major direction of movement is from agricultural areas to centres of industry and commerce.
4) Most Migrants are adult. Families rarely migrate out of their country of birth.
5) Women are more migratory than men within their country of birth but men more frequently venture beyond it.
6) Urban dwellers are less likely to move than their rural counterparts. The social sciences are groups of academic disciplines that study the human aspects of the world. ... Ravenstein is the name of two municipalities Ravenstein, Germany in the district Neckar-Odenwald, Baden-Württemberg Ravenstein, Netherlands in mun. ...


Other migration models

  • Zipf's Inverse distance law (1946)
  • Gravity model and the Friction of distance
  • Buffer Theory
  • Stouffer's Theory of intervening opportunities (1940)
  • Lee's Push-pull theory (1966)
  • Zelinsky's Mobility Transition Model (1971)
  • Bauder's Regulation of labor markets (2006) "suggests that the international migration of workers is necessary for the survival of industrialized economies...[It] turns the conventional view of international migration on its head: it investigates how migration regulates labor markets, rather than labor markets shaping migration flows." (from the book description)

Trip distribution (or destination choice or zonal interchange analysis), is the second component (after trip generation, but before mode choice and route assignment) in the traditional 4-step transportation planning (or forecasting) model. ... The concept of friction of distance is based on the notion that distance usually requires some amount of effort, money, and/or energy to overcome. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Stouffer argued that the volume of migration was less to do with distance and population totals than the opportunities in each location. ... Construction workers generally work long hours for their pay Labor economics seeks to understand the functioning of the market and dynamics for labor. ...

Causes of migrations

Causes of migrations have modified over hundreds of years. Some cases are constant, some of them do not carry the same importance as years ago (for example: in 18th and 19th centuries labor migration did not have the same character like today).


In general we can divide factors causing migrations into two groups of factors: Push and pull factors. In general: A push factor is a feature or event that pushes a person away from or encourages a person to leave his or her current residence (especially the parental home), city, state or country (especially of origin); organization, or religion (especially ones original religion). ...

  • Push Factors are economic, political, cultural, and environmentally based.
  • Pull Factors are economic, political, cultural, and environmentally based.
  • Barriers/Obstacles which is an example of Nigeria in the 1970s and 1980s.

Some certain factors are both push and pull like education, industry etc.


On the macro level, the causes of migration can be distilled into two main categories: security dimension of migration (natural disasters, conflicts, threats to individual safety, poor political prospects) and economic dimension of migration (poor economic situation, poor situation of national market). [AIV document]


Effects of migration

Migration like any other process shapes many fields of life, having both advantages and disadvantages. Effects of migrations are:

  • changes in population distribution
  • mixing of different cultures and races, what often leads to negative social behaviors – tensions in society between majorities and minorities, followed often by local struggles and racism and racial discrimination[citation needed]. Also criminality growth can be caused[citation needed]. But effects in different societies can be different. It is possible also some positive cultural effects of migration, for example exchange of cultural experience, new knowledge.
  • demographic consequences: since migration is selective of particular age groups, migrants are mostly young and in productive age. It can cause a demographic crisis – population ageing, what in turn can be followed by economic problems (shrinking group of economically active population has to finance extending group of inactive population).
  • economic results, which are of the greatest importance for the development of the countries.

THE FUTURE OF BRITAIN, LONG LIVE THE WHITES!!!!! ... In demographics, population ageing or population aging (see English spelling differences) occurs when the median age of a country or region rises. ... One of the most important dimension of migrations’ effects. ...

Migration in the European Union

The wages in the European Union are generally higher than the rest of Europe- thus explaining why a large number of Eastern Europeans choose to migrate to the EU. However, such migration is becoming increasingly difficult with the EU's ever more stringent immigration laws. Immigrants from the ten mostly Eastern European states admitted to the EU in 2004, however, can freely migrate to Great Britain, Ireland and Sweden. Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ...


For more information go to:

  • OECD International Migration Data 2006
  • Net Human Migration Rate in OECD Countries
  • Inflows of assylum seekers into OECD countries

Literature

Books

  • Bauder, Harald Labor Movement: How Migration Regulates Labor Markets, New York: Oxford University Press 2006
  • Behdad, Ali, A Forgetful Nation: On Immigration and Cultural Identity in the United States, Duke UP 2005
  • Hoerder, Dirk Cultures in Contact. World Migrations in the Second Millennium, Duke University Press 2002
  • Manning, Patrick Migration in World History, New York and London: Routledge 2005
  • Migration for Employment Paris: OECD Publications, 2004.
  • OECD International Migration Outlook 2007, Paris: OECD Publications, 2007
  • Abdelmalek Sayad, The Suffering of the Immigrant, Preface by Pierre Bourdieu, Polity Press 2004

Journals Pierre Bourdieu (August 1, 1930 – January 23, 2002) was an acclaimed French sociologist whose work employed methods drawn from a wide range of disciplines: from philosophy and literary theory to sociology and anthropology. ...

  • International Migration Review

Online Books

  • OECD International Migration Outlook 2007 (subscription service)

Online Databases

  • International Migration Data 2006

Documentary films

  • The Short Life of José Antonio Gutierrez
  • El Inmigrante, Directors: David Eckenrode, John Sheedy, John Eckenrode. 2005. 90 min. (U.S./Mexico)

José Antonio Gutierrez was the second American to die in the Iraq war. ... El Inmigrante is a 2005 documentary directed and written by brothers David and John Eckenrode along with John Sheedy, about Immigrant deaths along the U.S.-Mexico border. ...

See also

Population mobility, geographic mobility or more simply mobility is a statistic that measures migration within a population. ... A KFC franchise in Kuwait. ... The most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of any set of organisms is the most recent individual from which all organisms in the group are directly descended. ... Migrant literature, that is, writings by and to a lesser extent about migrants, is a topic which has commanded growing interest within literary studies since the 1980s. ... The term Snowbird is used to describe Canadians and people from the Pacific Northwest, Northeast or Midwestern United States who spend a large portion of winter in warmer locales such as Arizona, Florida, or elsewhere along the Sunbelt region of the southern United States, areas of the Caribbean, and even...

External links

References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  • Erectus Ahoy
  1. ^ Immigration to Germany – A Decade in Review Federal Ministry of the Interior, Germany

  Results from FactBites:
 
Human migration - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2866 words)
Migration and population isolation is one of the four evolutionary forces (along with natural selection, genetic drift, and mutation).
The pressures of human migrations, whether as outright conquest or by slow cultural infiltration and resettlement, have affected the grand epochs in history (e.g.
Notable examples of this phenomenon include mass migration of Protestants from the Spanish Netherlands to the Dutch Republic after the 1580s, the expelling of Jews and Moriscos from Spain in the 1590s and the expulsion of the Huguenots from France in the 1680s.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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