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Encyclopedia > Human ecology

Human ecology is an academic discipline that deals with the relationship between humans and their natural, social and created environments. Human ecology investigates how humans and human societies interact with nature and with their environment. Contents | Overviews | Academia | Topics | Basic topics | Tables | Glossaries | Portals | Categories // This is a list of academic disciplines. ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) under the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... Young people interacting within an ethnically diverse society. ... Galunggung in 1982, showing a combination of natural events. ...

Contents

Establishing the field of human ecology

In the USA, human ecology was established as a sociological field in the 1920's, although geographers were using the term much earlier. Amos H. Hawley published Human Ecology -- A Theory of Community Structure in 1950. He dedicated the book to one of the pioneers in the field who had begun writing the work with Hawley, R.D. McKenzie. Hawley contributed other works to the development of the field. In 1961, an important reader, Studies in Human Ecology, was published (edited by George A. Theodorson). This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


In the 1970's William R. Catton and Riley E. Dunlap built on earlier works by Chicago School's Robert E. Park and Hawley. One main idea of Catton and Dunlap was to go away from the Durkheimian paradigm of explaining social facts only with social facts. Instead, they included physical and biological facts as independent variables influencing social structure and other social phenomena. This change of paradigm can be described as a change from a classical sociological view of human exemptionalism to a new view (named new ecological paradigm by Catton and Dunlap). Humans are no longer seen as an exceptional species that uses culture to adapt to new environments and environmental change, influenced more by social than by biological variables, but rather as one species out of many that interacts with a bounded natural environment. In sociology and, later, criminology, the Chicago School (sometimes described as the Ecological School) refers to the first major body of works emerging during the 1920s and 1930s specialising in urban sociology, and the research into the urban environment by combining theory and ethnographic fieldwork in Chicago, now applied elsewhere. ... Robert Ezra Park (February 14, 1864–February 7, 1944) was an American urban sociologist, one of the main founders of the original Chicago School of sociology. ... Emile Durkheim. ... Since the late 1960s, the word paradigm (IPA: ) has referred to a thought pattern in any scientific discipline or other epistemological context. ... See Social structure of the United States for an explanation of concepts exsistance within US society. ... Culture (from the [[Latin)) cultura stemming from colere, meaning to cultivate), generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ...


In contrast to the Chicago School of Human Ecology developed by Park, Burgess, and Mckenzie during the 1920s, contemporary research in the School of Social Ecology at the University of California, Irvine goes beyond the biological and economic foundations of human ecology to provide a broader, cross-disciplinary perspective on the ways in which human-environment relations are jointly influenced by physical environmental, political, legal, psychological, cultural, and societal forces (http://www.seweb.uci.edu/index.uci; http://eee.uci.edu/05f/51000/index.html). This emphasis is shared by the Centre for Human Ecology, Scotland (http://www.che.ac.uk). The University of California, Irvine is a public research university primarily situated in suburban Irvine, California; a significant portion of the campus falls into the neighboring community of Newport Beach. ...


A line of conflict between this new paradigm and the classical sociological approach is the de-valuating of society and culture. Human ecology views human communities and human populations as part of the ecosystem of earth. In this view, sociology would be only a sub-discipline of ecology -- the special ecology of the species homo sapiens sapiens. Of course, this is seen as an affront by most sociologists. A community usually refers to a group of people who interact and share certain things as a group, but it can refer to various collections of organisms sharing an environment, plant or animal. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ernst Haeckel coined the term oekologie in 1866. ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ...


It is disputed whether human ecology is properly seen as a sub-discipline of sociology or of ecology. A point that strengthens the latter position is the methodological approach of human ecology, that is orientation rather along the lines of natural science than the social sciences. The inclusion or exclusion of human ecology in sociology proper varies between countries and schools of sociological thinking. Environmental sociology is a field of sociology which encompasses the interactions between humans and nature/natural environment, but is rooted in the methodological and theoretical canon of sociology. Sometimes human ecology is seen as part of environmental sociology, sometimes it is seen as something completely different. Influences can also be seen between human ecology and the field of political ecology. Environmental sociology is typically defined as the study of societal-environmental interactions, or the relationships between modern societies and their biophysical environments. ... Political ecology is an umbrella term for a variety of projects that involve politics and the environment. ...


Historically, University departments of Human Ecology have drawn, to some degree, on faculty from Women's and Gender Studies and other faculty specializing in child development and other studies of the family.


Quotes on human ecology

Human Ecology is an interdisciplinary applied field that uses a holistic approach to help people solve problems and enhance human potential within their near environments - their clothing, family, home, and community. Human Ecologists promote the well-being of individuals, families, and communities through education, prevention, and empowerment. [1]
Human ecology explores not only the influence of humans on their environment but also the influence of the environment on human behaviour, and their adaptive strategies as they come to understand those influences better. [...] For us, human ecology is a methodology as much as an area of research. It is a way of thinking about the world, and a context in which we define our questions and ways to answer those questions [...] [2]

Interdisciplinarity is a type of academic collaboration in which specialists drawn from two or more academic disciplines work together in pursuit of common goals. ... Holism (from holos, a Greek word meaning all, entire, total) is the idea that all the properties of a given system (biological, chemical, social, economic, mental, linguistic, etc. ...

See also

Robert Ezra Park (February 14, 1864–February 7, 1944) was an American urban sociologist, one of the main founders of the original Chicago School of sociology. ... Ernest W. Burgess (May 16, 1886 - December 27, 1966) was an urban sociologist at the University of Chicago. ... Background John Paul Goode was one the key geographers in American Geography’s Incipient Period from 1900-1940 (McMaster and McMaster 306). ... Garrett Hardin Garrett James Hardin (April 21, 1915 – September 14, 2003) was a controversial ecologist from Dallas, Texas who was most known for his 1968 paper, The Tragedy of the commons. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Daniel Stokols is Professor of Planning, Policy, and Design and Dean Emeritus of the School of Social Ecology at the University of California, Irvine. ... Louis Wirth was born in Germany, but studied in the United States and became a leading figure in Chicago School sociology. ... Peter Wessel Zapffe (December 18, 1899-October 12, 1990) was a Norwegian author and philosopher. ... Environmental Communication refers to the study and practice of how individuals, institutions, societies, and cultures craft, distribute, receive, understand, and use messages about the environment and human interactions with the environment. ... Ernst Haeckel coined the term oekologie in 1866. ... Ernst Haeckel coined the term oekologie in 1866. ... This article is about integral theory in philosophy, psychology, and society. ... Environmental psychology is an interdisciplinary field focused on the interplay between humans and their surroundings. ... Human behavioral ecology (HBE) or human evolutionary ecology applies the principles of evolutionary theory and optimization to the study of human behavioral and cultural diversity. ... Sociobiology is a synthesis of scientific disciplines that explains behaviour in all species by considering the evolutionary advantages of social behaviours. ... Rural sociology is a field of sociology associated with the study of life in small towns and the country. ... Environmental sociology is typically defined as the study of societal-environmental interactions, or the relationships between modern societies and their biophysical environments. ... Personal life (or everyday life or human existence) is an individual humans personal, private career (including, but not the same as, their employment career), and is a common notion in modern existence -- although more so in more prosperous parts of the world, such as Western Europe and North America... // Foundations The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism Max Weber Die protestantische Ethik und der Geist des Kapitalismus, 1904 Online version Description: In The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, Weber puts forward a thesis that Puritan ethic and ideas had influenced the development of capitalism. ...

External links

Resources

  • Buttel, Frederick H. (1986): »Sociology and the Environment: The Winding Road toward Human Ecology,« International Social Science Journal 38: 337-356.
  • University of Alberta, Human Ecology Degree programs. http://www.hecol.ualberta.ca/
  • Ehrlich, Paul R; Anne H. Ehrlich; John P. Holdren. (1973): Human Ecology: Problems and Solutions. San Francisco: Freeman.
  • Glaeser, Bernhard (1996): »Humanökologie: Der sozialwissenschaftliche Ansatz,« in Naturwissenschaften,' 83: 145-152.
  • Gross, Matthias (2004): »Human Geography and Ecological Sociology: The Unfolding of a Human Ecology, 1890 to 1930 – and Beyond,« Social Science History 28 (4): 575-605.[[Category:Branches of sociology (interdisciplinary)

  Results from FactBites:
 
human ecology - definition of human ecology in Encyclopedia (644 words)
In the USA, human ecology was established as a sociological field in the 1950's or earlier.
Humans are no longer the exceptional species that can use culture to adapt onto new environments and environmental change, and that is influenced more by social than by biological variables, but they are seen as one species out of many that interacts with a bounded natural environment.
Human ecology views human communities and human populations as part of the ecosystem of earth.
Human ecology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (714 words)
Human ecology is an academic discipline that deals with the relationship between humans and their (natural) environment.
Humans are no longer seen as an exceptional species that uses culture to adapt to new environments and environmental change, influenced more by social than by biological variables, but rather as one species out of many that interacts with a bounded natural environment.
Human Ecology is an interdisciplinary applied field that uses a holistic approach to help people solve problems and enhance human potential within their near environments - their clothing, family, home, and community.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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