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Encyclopedia > Human cloning


Although genes are recognized as influencing [behavior] and [cognition], "genetically identical" does not mean altogether identical; identical twins, despite being natural human clones with near identical DNA, are separate people, with separate experiences and not altogether overlapping personalities. The relationship between an "original" and a clone is rather like that between identical twins raised apart; they share nearly all of the same DNA, but little of the same environment. A lively scientific debate on this topic occurred in the journal Nature in 1997.[1] Ultimately, the question of how similar an original and a clone would be boils down to how much of personality is determined by genetics, an area still under active scientific investigation. (See nature versus nurture and cloning.) Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... For other uses, see Twin (disambiguation). ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... The nature versus nurture debates concern the relative importance of an individuals innate qualities (nature) versus personal experiences (nurture) in determining or causing individual differences in physical and behavioral traits. ... For other uses, see clone. ...

Contents

Techniques

The most successful common cloning technique in non-human mammals is the process which produced Dolly the sheep. It is also the technique used by Advanced Cell Technology (ACT), the first company to successfully[2] clone early human embryos that stopped at the six cell stage. The process is as follows: an egg cell taken from a donor has its nucleus removed. Another cell with the genetic material to be cloned is fused with the original egg cell. In theory, this process, known as somatic cell nuclear transfer, could be applied to human beings. Dolly (July 5, 1996 – February 14, 2003), a ewe, was the first mammal to have been successfully cloned from an adult somatic cell. ... Human cloning is supposed to be band, if anyone cared why is this web page blank!!!!! you mean banned--^ ... For the video-related acronym, see OVA. A human ovum An ovum (or loosely, egg or egg cell) is a female sex cell or gamete. ... HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. ... In genetics and developmental biology, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a laboratory technique for creating an ovum with a donor nucleus (see process below) . It can be used in embryonic stem cell research, or in regenerative medicine where it is sometimes referred to as therapeutic cloning. ...


ACT also reported its attempts to clone stem cell lines by parthenogenesis, where an unfertilized egg cell is induced to divide and grow as if it were fertilized, but only incomplete blastocysts resulted. Even if it were practical with mammals, this technique could work only with females. Discussion of human cloning generally assumes the use of somatic cell nuclear transfer, rather than parthenogenesis. For the religious belief, see Virgin Birth of Jesus. ...


Claims of success in human cloning beyond the embryo stage

In 1978 David Rorvik claimed in his book In His Image: The Cloning of a Man that he had personal knowledge of the creation of a human clone. A court case followed. He failed to produce corroborating evidence to back up his claims; now regarded as a hoax. Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... David Rorvik (B ?) Is a US journalist who wrote a book In His Image for an alleged cloning of a human being. ...


Severino Antinori made claims in November, 2002 that a project to clone human beings had succeeded, with the first human clone due to be born [in January 2003.] His claims were received with skepticism from many observers. Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the psychological term. ...


In December 2002, Clonaid, the medical arm of a religion called Raëlism, who believe that aliens introduced human life on Earth, claimed to have successfully cloned a human being. They claim that aliens taught them how to perform cloning, even though the company has no record of having successfully cloned any previous animal. A spokesperson said an independent agency would prove that the baby, named Evá, is in fact an exact copy of her mother. Shortly thereafter, the testing was cancelled, with the spokesperson claiming the decision would ultimately be left up to Evá's parents. Also see: 2002 (number). ... The device at the bottom of this picture is the RMX2010 embryonic cell fusion machine developed by Clonaid. ... A gathering of Raëlians in South Korea Raëlism is an UFO religion that is known by the names of Raëlian Church, MADECH from 1974 to 1976,[1] and International Raëlian Movement afterwards. ... For other uses, see clone. ...


In December 2004 Dr. Brigitte Boisselier, claimed in a letter [1] to the UN that Clonaid has successfully cloned 13 children, however their identities cannot be revealed to the public in order to protect them. Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On October 9, 2003, newspaper Le journal de Montréal published an article accusing Clonaid and the Raelian religion of maintaining an outright hoax in its claims regarding cloning a human baby.


In 2004 a group of scientists led by Hwang Woo-Suk of Seoul National University in South Korea claimed to have grown 30 cloned human embryos to the one-week stage, and then successfully harvested stem cells from them. The results of their experiment were published in the peer-reviewed journal Science.[citation needed] Hwang Woo-suk (황우석) (born 29 January 1953) is a South Korean biomedical scientist. ... Not to be confused with the University of Seoul. ... Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ...


On May 30, 2005, Hwang's team announced the creation of 11 lines of human stem cells, using a different technique (Hwang et al. 2005). The journal Science later retracted Hwang's publications when investigations into the matter revealed that the claims were fraudulent.


Possible advantages

Human cloning might produce many benefits. Human therapeutic cloning could provide genetically identical cells for regenerative medicine, and tissues and organs for transplantation.[citation needed] Such cells, tissues, and organs would neither trigger an immune response nor require the use of immunosuppressive drugs.[citation needed] Both basic research and therapeutic development for serious diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes, as well as improvements in burn treatment and reconstructive and cosmetic surgery, are areas that might benefit from such new technology.[citation needed] Blastocyst. ... Mouse embryonic stem cells. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and as of 2007 it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] and England and Wales. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... Plastic surgery is a general term for operative manual and instrumental treatment which is performed for functional or aesthetic reasons. ...


Human reproductive cloning also might produce benefits. Antinori and Zavos hope to create a fertility treatment that allows parents who are both infertile to have children with at least some of their DNA in their offspring.[citation needed] Reproductive cloning is a form of artificial reproduction technique based on cloning. ...


Some scientists, including Dr. Richard Seed, suggest that human cloning might obviate the human aging process.[citation needed] How this might work is not entirely clear since the brain or identity would have to be transferred to a cloned body. Dr. Preston Estep has suggested the terms "replacement cloning" to describe the generation of a clone of a previously living person, and "persistence cloning" to describe the production of a cloned body for the purpose of obviating aging, although he maintains that such procedures currently should be considered science fiction.[citation needed] Preston W. Estep III (also known as Pete Estep) is an American geneticist and evolutionary biologist. ...


The current law on human cloning

U.N.

On December 12, 2001 the United Nations General Assembly began elaborating an international convention against the reproductive cloning of human beings. Lawrence S. B. Goldstein, college professor of cellular and molecular medicine at the University of California at San Diego, claims that the United States, unable to pass a national law, forced Costa Rica to start this debate in the UN over the international cloning ban. Unable to reach a consensus on a binding convention, in March 2005 a vaguely worded and non-binding United Nations Declaration on Human Cloning was finally adopted.[3] is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... The United Nations General Assembly (GA, UNGA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations and the only one which all member nations have equal representation. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Australia

Australia had prohibited human cloning, though as of December 2006, a bill legalising therapeutic cloning and the creation of human embryos for stem cell research passed the House of Representatives. Within certain regulatory limits, and subject to the effect of state legislation, therapeutic cloning is now legal in Australia.


European Union

The European Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine prohibits human cloning in one of its additional protocols, but this protocol has been ratified only by Greece, Spain and Portugal. The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union explicitly prohibits reproductive human cloning, though the Charter currently carries no legal standing. The proposed Reform Treaty would, if ratified, make the charter legally binding for the institutions of the European Union. The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union is a document containing human rights provisions, solemnly proclaimed by the European Parliament, the Council of the European Union, and the European Commission in December 2000. ... The Reform Treaty is a European Union treaty designed to reform the European Union following the failed European Constitution. ...


U.S.

In 1998, 2001, and 2003 the U.S. House of Representatives voted whether to ban all human cloning, both reproductive and therapeutic. Each time, divisions in the Senate over therapeutic cloning prevented either competing proposal (a ban on both forms or reproductive cloning only) from passing. President George W. Bush is opposed to human cloning in any form. Some American states ban both forms of cloning, while some others outlaw only reproductive cloning. Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...


Current regulations prohibit federal funding for research into human cloning, which effectively prevents such research from occurring in public institutions and private institutions such as universities which receive federal funding. However, there are currently no federal laws in the United States which ban cloning completely, and any such laws would raise difficult Constitutional questions similar to the issues raised by abortion.


U.K.

The British government introduced legislation in order to allow licensed therapeutic cloning in a debate in January 2001 after an amendment to the Human Fertilisation & Embryology Act 1990. However on November 15, 2001 a prolife group won a High Court legal challenge that effectively left cloning unregulated in the UK. Their hope was that Parliament would fill this gap by passing prohibitive legislation.[4] The government was quick to pass legislation prohibiting reproductive cloning Human Reproductive Cloning Act 2001. The remaining gap with regard to therapeutic cloning was closed when the appeals courts reversed the previous decision of the High Court. Currently therapeutic cloning is allowed under license from the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority. The first licence was granted on August 11, 2004 to researchers at the University of Newcastle to allow them to investigate treatments for diabetes, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. The United Kingdom is a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) is a statutory body in the United Kingdom that regulates and inspects all UK clinics providing in vitro fertilisation, artificial insemination or the storage of human ova, sperm or embryos. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Newcastle University is a British university located in Newcastle upon Tyne in the north of England. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ...


External links

Wikibooks
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of
Genes, Technology and Policy
  • "Variations and voids: the regulation of human cloning around the world" academic article by S. Pattinson & T

Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ...

References

  1. ^ Baker MR (1997). "Cloning humans" (PDF). Nature 387 (6629): 119. PMID 9144274. Retrieved on 2007-01-28.  Availability: text is available on a pay-for-access basis.
  2. ^ Jose B. Cibelli, Robert P. Lanza, and Michael D. West. "The First Human Cloned Embryo". Scientific American. November 24, 2001. Last accessed November 13, 2007.
  3. ^ Codification Division, Office of Legal Affairs, United Nations (18 May 2005). Ad Hoc Committee on an International Convention against the Reproductive Cloning of Human Beings. United Nations. Retrieved on 2007-01-28.
  4. ^ SD Pattinson, Medical Law and Ethics, Sweet & Maxwell, 2006.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Human cloning - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1864 words)
Human cloning is the creation of a genetically identical copy of an existing, or previously existing, human being or growing cloned tissue from that individual.
The term is generally used to refer to artificial human cloning; human clones in the form of identical twins are commonplace, with their cloning occurring during the natural process of reproduction.
In reproductive cloning, the cloned embryo is implanted in a woman's uterus.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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