FACTOID # 9: The bookmobile capital of America is Kentucky.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Human blood group systems

The International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) currently recognises 29 major blood group systems (including the ABO and Rh systems). Thus, in addition to the ABO antigens and Rhesus antigens, many other antigens are expressed in the red blood cell surface membrane. For example, an individual can be AB RhD positive, and at the same time M and N positive (MNS system), K positive (Kell system) and Lea or Leb positive (Lewis system). Many of the blood group systems were named after the patients in whom the corresponding antibodies were initially encountered. The International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) is a scientific society, founded in 1935, which aims to promote the study of blood transfusion, and to spread the know-how about the manner in which blood transfusion medicine and science best can serve the patients interests. ... A total of 29 human blood group systems are recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT). ... Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and are the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen from the lungs or gills to body tissues via the blood. ...


The ISBT definition of a major blood group system is where one or more antigens are "governed either by a single gene locus or by a complex of two or more very closely linked homologous genes with virtually no recombination occurring between them". [1] An antigen is a substance that stimulates an immune response, especially the production of antibodies. ... The word locus (plural loci) is Latin for place: In biology and evolutionary computation, a locus is the position of a gene (or other significant sequence) on a chromosome. ... In biology, two or more structures are said to be homologous if they are alike because of shared ancestry. ... Recombination usually denotes a genetic event that occurs during the formation of sperm and egg cells (especially in areas of study of biology topics). ...


Table

Human blood group systems
ISBT Common name Official abbreviation Epitope or carrier, notes Locus
001 ABO ABO Carbohydrate (N-Acetylgalactosamine, galactose). A, B and H antigens mainly elicit powerful IgM antibody reactions, although anti-H is very rare, see the Hh antigen system (Bombay phenotype) section. 9
002 MNS MNS GPA / GPB (glycophorins A and B). Main antigens M, N, S, s. 4
003 P P1 Glycolipid. 22
004 Rhesus RH Protein. C, c, D, E, e antigens (there is no "d" antigen; lowercase "d" indicates the absence of D). 1
005 Lutheran LU Protein (member of the immunoglobulin superfamily). Set of 21 antigens. 19
006 Kell KEL Glycoprotein. K1 can cause hemolytic disease of the newborn (anti-Kell), which can be severe. 7
007 Lewis LE Carbohydrate (fucose residue). Main antigens Lea and Leb - associated with tissue ABH antigen secretion. 19
008 Duffy FY Protein (chemokine receptor). Main antigens Fya and Fyb. Individuals lacking Duffy antigens altogether are immune to malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi. 1
009 Kidd JK Protein (urea transporter). Main antigens Jka and Jkb. 1
010 Diego DI Glycoprotein (band 3, AE 1, or anion exchange). Positive blood is found only among East Asians and Native Americans. 17
011 Yt or Cartwright YT Protein (AChE, acetylcholinesterase). 7
012 XG XG Glycoprotein. X
013 Scianna SC Glycoprotein. 1
014 Dombrock DO Glycoprotein (fixed to cell membrane by GPI, or glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol). 12
015 Colton CO Aquaporin 1. Main antigens Co(a) and Co(b). 7
016 Landsteiner-Wiener LW Protein (member of the immunoglobulin superfamily). 19
017 Chido/Rodgers CH/RG C4A C4B (complement fractions). 6
018 Hh H Carbohydrate (fucose residue). 19
019 Kx XK Glycoprotein. X
020 Gerbich GE GPC / GPD (Glycophorins C and D). 2
021 Cromer CROM Glycoprotein (DAF or CD55, regulates complement fractions C3 and C5, attached to the membrane by GPI). 1
022 Knops KN Glycoprotein (CR1 or CD35, immune complex receptor). 1
023 Indian IN Glycoprotein (CD44 adhesion function?). 11
024 Ok OK Glycoprotein (CD147). 19
025 Raph MER2 Transmembrane glycoprotein. 11
026 JMH JMH Protein (fixed to cell membrane by GPI). 6
027 Ii I Branched (I) / unbranched (i) polysaccharide. 6
028 Globoside P Glycolipid. 3
029 GIL GIL Aquaporin 3. 9

The International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) is a scientific society, founded in 1935, which aims to promote the study of blood transfusion, and to spread the know-how about the manner in which blood transfusion medicine and science best can serve the patients interests. ... An epitope is that part of a macromolecule that is being recognized by the immune system, specifically by antibodies, B cells, or cytotoxic T cells. ... The ABO system is the most important blood type system in human blood transfusion. ... ... Galactose (also called brain sugar) is a type of sugar found in dairy products, in sugar beets and other gums and mucilages. ... Schematic of antibody binding to an antigen An antibody is a protein complex used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. ... Individuals with the rare Bombay phenotype (hh) do not express substance H (the antigen that defines blood group O) on their red blood cells, and therefore do not agglutinate (bind with) A or B antigens of the ABO blood group system. ... Chromosome 4 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. ... Chromosome 22 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. ... Chromosome 1 is, by convention, the designation for the largest human chromosome. ... Chromosome 19 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. ... Hemolytic disease of the newborn (anti-Kell 1) ranges from mild disease to a very severe disease. ... Chromosome 7 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. ... Fucose is a hexose sugar with the chemical formula C6H12O5. ... Chromosome 19 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. ... Discovery In 1950 the Duffy antigen was discovered in a multiply transfused hemophiliac in whose serum contained the first example of anti-Fya. ... Malaria (Medieval Italian: mala aria — bad air) and formerly called ague or marsh fever in English, is an infectious disease which causes about 350–500 million infections in humans and approximately 1. ... Binomial name Plasmodium vivax Grassi & Feletti 1890 The parasite Plasmodium vivax is the most frequent and widely distributed cause of benign, but recurring (tertian), malaria. ... Binomial name Plasmodium knowlesi Plasmodium knowlesi is a primate malaria parasite commonly found in Southeast Asia. ... Chromosome 1 is, by convention, the designation for the largest human chromosome. ... Chromosome 1 is, by convention, the designation for the largest human chromosome. ... The definition of continental subregions in use by the United Nations. ... A Hupa man, 1923 The term indigenous peoples of the Americas encompasses the inhabitants of the Americas before the arrival of the first European explorers in the late 15th century, as well as many present-day ethnic groups who identify themselves with those historical peoples. ... Chromosome 17 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. ... Chromosome 7 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. ... The X chromosome is one of the two sex chromosomes in mammals (the other is the Y chromosome). ... Chromosome 1 is, by convention, the designation for the largest human chromosome. ... The Colton antigen system (Co) is present on the membranes of red blood cells and in the tubules of the kidney[1] and helps determine a persons blood type. ... Chromosome 7 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. ... Chromosome 19 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. ... Chromosome 6 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. ... Individuals with the rare Bombay phenotype (hh) do not express substance H (the antigen that defines blood group O) on their red blood cells, and therefore do not agglutinate (bind with) A or B antigens of the ABO blood group system. ... Fucose is a hexose sugar with the chemical formula C6H12O5. ... Chromosome 19 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. ... The X chromosome is one of the two sex chromosomes in mammals (the other is the Y chromosome). ... Chromosome 1 is, by convention, the designation for the largest human chromosome. ... Chromosome 1 is, by convention, the designation for the largest human chromosome. ... Chromosome 19 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. ... Chromosome 6 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. ... Chromosome 6 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. ...

External links

Notes

  1. ^ ISBT Committee on Terminology for Red Cell Surface Antigens
Transfusion medicine - edit
Blood transfusion | Cross-matching | Coombs test | Intraoperative blood salvage | Transfusion reactions | International Society of Blood Transfusion | ISBT 128 | Platelet transfusion |
Human blood group systems - Blood type
ABO | Rhesus | Duffy | Hh | Kell | Kidd | Kx | Colton | Yt
Blood products
Blood donation | Blood | Plasma | Platelets | Cryoprecipitate | Plasmapheresis | Red blood cells 

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m