FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Human back
Illustration of a human back from Gray's Anatomy.
Illustration of a human back from Gray's Anatomy.
"Back" redirects here. For other uses, please see Back (disambiguation).

The human back is the large posterior area of the human body, rising from the top of the buttocks to the back of the neck and the shoulders. It is the surface opposite to the chest, its height being defined by the vertebral column (commonly referred to as the spine or backbone) and its breadth being supported by the ribcage and shoulders. The spinal canal runs through the spine and provides nerves to the rest of the body. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... An illustration from the 1918 edition Henry Grays Anatomy of the Human Body (or Grays Anatomy as it has more commonly become known) is an anatomy textbook widely regarded as a classic work on human anatomy. ... Look up Back in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The English word POSTERIOR is identical to the original Latin adjective, and has two different uses : as an ADJECTIVE, it indicates that someone or something is behind another, either spatially or chronologically it also became a SUBSTANTIVE, indicating the rear-end, especially of a person, i. ... Physical Features of the Human Body The human body is the entire physical structure of a human organism. ... Bith buttocks. ... For other uses, see Neck (disambiguation). ... Male Chest The chest is a part of the anatomy of humans and various other animals. ... The vertebral column seen from the side Different regions (curvatures) of the vertebral column The vertebral column (backbone or spine) is a column of vertebrae situated in the dorsal aspect of the abdomen. ... This article is about the bones called ribs. ... This article is about the body part. ... The spinal canal is the space in vertebrae through which the spinal cord passes. ...

Contents

Anatomy of the back

Skeletal structure of the back

Figure 3 : Posterior view of the thorax and shoulder girdle. (Morris.)
Figure 3 : Posterior view of the thorax and shoulder girdle. (Morris.)

The central feature of the human back is the vertebral column, specifically the length from the top of the thoracic vertebrae to the bottom of the lumbar vertebrae, which houses the spinal cord in its spinal canal, and which generally has some curvature that gives shape to the back. The ribcage extends from the spine at the top of the back (with the top of the ribcage corresponding to the T1 vertebra), more than halfway down the length of the back, leaving an area with less protection between the bottom of the ribcage and the hips. The width of the back at the top is defined by the scapula, the broad, flat bones of the shoulders. Image File history File links From Grays Anatomy File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links From Grays Anatomy File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The vertebral column seen from the side Different regions (curvatures) of the vertebral column The vertebral column (backbone or spine) is a column of vertebrae situated in the dorsal aspect of the abdomen. ... A typical thoracic vertebra The thoracic vertebrae (vertebrae thoracales) compose the middle segment of the vertebral column, between the cervical vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae. ... The lumbar vertebrae are the largest segments of the movable part of the vertebral column, and are characterized by the absence of the foramen transversarium within the transverse process, and by the absence of facets on the sides of the body. ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... The spinal canal is the space in vertebrae through which the spinal cord passes. ... A diagram of a thoracic vertebra. ... Left scapula - front view () Left scapula - rear view () In anatomy, the scapula, or shoulder blade, is the bone that connects the humerus (arm bone) with the clavicle (collar bone). ...


Muscles of the back

The spine is bordered by several groups of muscles, including the intertransversarii muscle which facilitate movement between the individual vertabrae, and the multifidus spinae, which facilitate the movement of the spine as a whole. For other uses of Muscles, see Muscles (disambiguation). ... Intertransversarii muscles The Intertransversarii are small muscles placed between the transverse processes of the vertebræ. In the cervical region they are best developed, consisting of rounded muscular and tendinous fasciculi, and are placed in pairs, passing between the anterior and the posterior tubercles respectively of the transverse processes of two... A diagram of a thoracic vertebra. ... The Multifidus (Multifidus spinæ) consists of a number of fleshy and tendinous fasciculi, which fill up the groove on either side of the spinous processes of the vertebræ, from the sacrum to the axis. ...


Other muscles in the back are associated with the movement of the neck and shoulders. The trapezius muscle, which is named from its trapezium-like shape, runs between the neck, the anterior chain, the two shoulders, and the thoracic vertebra, T12. The large latissimus dorsi make a triangle from the shoulder to the hip. The significant mass of muscles in the back can be developed through back exercises. This article is about the human skeletal muscle. ... Other uses: Quadrilateral (disambiguation) In geometry, a quadrilateral is a polygon with four sides and four vertices. ... For other uses, see Neck (disambiguation). ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... This article is about the body part. ... Latissimus dorsi is a large flat muscle located on the back. ...


Function of the back

The intricate anatomy of the back is designed to both provide support for the head and trunk of the body, strength in the trunk of the body, as well as a great deal of flexibility and movement. The upper back has the most structural support, with the ribs attached firmly to each level of the thoracic spine and very limited movement. The lower back allows for flexibility and movement in all directions.


Back pain

Main article: Back pain

The back comprises interconnecting nerves, bones, muscles, ligaments and tendons, all of which can be a source of pain. Back pain is one of the most common types of pain in adults. By far the most common cause of back pain is muscle strain. The back muscles can usually heal themselves within a couple of weeks, but the pain can be intense and debilitating. Other common sources of back pain include disc problems, such as degenerative disc disease or a lumbar disc herniation, many types of fractures, such as spondylolisthesis or an osteoporotic fracture, or osteoarthritis. Back pain (also known dorsalgia) is pain felt in the back that may originate from the muscles, nerves, bones, joints or other structures in the spine. ... Back pain (also known dorsalgia) is pain felt in the back that may originate from the muscles, nerves, bones, joints or other structures in the spine. ... Degeneration of the intervertebral disc, which is often called degenerative disc disease (DDD) of the spine, is a common disorder of the lower spine. ... In anatomy, lumbar is an adjective that means of or pertaining to the abdominal segment of the torso, between the diaphragm and the sacrum (pelvis). ... A spinal disc herniation, incorrectly called a slipped disc, is a medical condition affecting the spine, in which a tear in the outer, fibrous ring (annulus fibrosus) of an intervertebral disc allows the soft, central portion (nucleus pulposus) to bulge out. ... Not to be confused with spondylosis or spondylolysis. ... Osteoarthritis (OA, also known as degenerative arthritis, degenerative joint disease, or in more colloquial terms wear and tear), is a condition in which low-grade inflammation results in pain in the joints, caused by wearing of the cartilage that covers and acts as a cushion inside joints and destruction or...

Back of an obese male.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 604 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1007 × 1000 pixel, file size: 104 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Back of an Obese (150kg/330lb) Young Males Back. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 604 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1007 × 1000 pixel, file size: 104 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Back of an Obese (150kg/330lb) Young Males Back. ...

Organs of the back

The lungs are within the ribcage, and extend to the back of the ribcage, making it possible for them to be listened into through the back. The kidneys are situated beneath the muscles in the area below the end of the ribcage, loosely connected to the peritoneum. A strike to the lower back can damage the kidneys of the person being hit. Human respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... In higher vertebrates, the peritoneum is the serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity - it covers most of the intra-abdominal organs. ...


Surface of the back

The skin of the human back is thicker and has fewer nerve endings than the skin on any other part of the torso. With some notable exceptions (see, e.g. George "The Animal" Steele), it tends to have less hair than the chest on men. The upper-middle back is also the one area of the body which a typical human under normal conditions might be unable to physically touch. When this area is itchy, a backscratcher can be used to ease the discomfort. For other uses, see Skin (disambiguation). ... George Steele, better known as George The Animal Steele, real name William James (Jim) Myers (b. ... An itch (Latin: pruritus) is an uncomfortable sensation felt on an area of skin that causes a person or animal to desire to scratch that area. ...


Significance in human society

Painting of a woman's back by Edgar Degas.
Painting of a woman's back by Edgar Degas.
A tattoo on the lower back.
A tattoo on the lower back.

The curvature of the female back is a frequent theme in paintings, because the sensibilities of many cultures permit the back to be shown nude - implying full nudity without actually displaying it. Indeed, the practice of showing explicitness on the lower back has been performed for centuries. Certain articles of clothing, such as the haltertop and the backless dress, are designed to expose the back in this manner. The back also serves as the largest canvas for body art on the human body. Because of its size and the relative lack of hair, the back presents an ideal canvas on the human body for Lower back tattoos. Indeed, some individuals have tattoos that cover the entirety of the back. Others have smaller tattoos at significant locations, such as the shoulder blade or the bottom of the back. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2024x2112, 299 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Edgar Degas User:Markaci/Nudity Wikipedia talk:WikiProject Wikipedians against censorship/Gallery Human back ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2024x2112, 299 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Edgar Degas User:Markaci/Nudity Wikipedia talk:WikiProject Wikipedians against censorship/Gallery Human back ... Edgar Degas (19 July 1834 – 27 September 1917), born Hilaire-Germain-Edgar Degas (IPA ), was a French artist famous for his work in painting, sculpture, printmaking and drawing. ... Image File history File links Lower back tattoo, also known as a tramp stamp or California license plate. ... Image File history File links Lower back tattoo, also known as a tramp stamp or California license plate. ... Various styles of halterneck attire. ... A backless dress is a dress designed so as to expose the wearers back and. ... Look up Canvas in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Complex Kadakali makeup is a form of body art Body art is art made on, with, or consisting of, the human body. ... A lower back tattoo, and its guardian, at an outdoor concert. ... For other uses, see Tattoo (disambiguation). ...


Many English idioms mention the back, usually highlighting it as an area of vulnerability; one must "watch one's back", or one may end up "with one's back up against the wall"; worse yet, someone may "stab one in the back", but hopefully a friend "has got one's back". The back is also a symbol of strength and hard work, with those seeking physical labor looking for "strong backs", and workers being implored to "put their back into it". The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... [[An idiom is an expression (i. ...


References

  • Spinal anatomy and back pain
  • Tattoos on Lower Backs

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m