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Encyclopedia > Human artificial chromosome

A human artificial chromosome (short HAC) is a microchromosome that can act as a new chromosome in a population of human cells. That is, instead of 46 chromosomes, the cell could have 47 with the 47th being very small, roughly 6-10 megabases in size, and able to carry new genes introduced by human researchers. Yeast artificial chromosomes and bacterial artificial chromosomes were invented before human artificial chromosomes, which first appeared in 1997. They are useful in expression studies as gene transfer vectors and are a tool for elucidating human chromosome function. Figure 1: Chromosome. ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin for wise man or knowing man) under the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... In molecular biology, two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds are called a base pair (often abbreviated bp). ... A yeast artificial chromosome (short YAC) is a vector used to clone large DNA fragments (larger than 100 kb and up to 3000 kb). ... A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) is a DNA construct, based on a fertility plasmid, used for transforming and cloning in bacteria, usually E. coli. ... See also: Other events of 1997 List of years in science . ... Traditionally in medicine, a vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another. ...

John J. Harrington, Gil Van Bokkelen, Robert W. Mays, Karen Gustashaw & Huntington F. Willard of Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine published the first report of them in 1997. They were first synthesized by combining portions of alpha satellite DNA with telomeric DNA and genomic DNA into linear microchromosomes. Grown in HT1080 cells, they are mitotically and cytogenetically stable for up to six months. Case Western Reserve University is a private research university located in Cleveland, Ohio, USA. It was formed in 1967 by the federation of Case Institute of Technology (founded in 1880 by philanthropist Leonard Case Jr. ... Satellite DNA consists of highly repetitive DNA, and is so called because repetitive DNA sequences tend to have a relatively high frequency of the nucleotides Adenine and Thymine, and thus have lower density - such that they form a second satellite band when genomic DNA is separated along a density gradient. ... A telomere is a region of highly repetitive DNA at the end of a chromosome that functions as a disposable buffer. ... Light micrograph of a newt kidney cell in early anaphase of mitosis. ...

See also

Figure 1: Schematic drawing of a bacterium with plasmids enclosed. ... A cosmid is a type of plasmid (often used as a cloning vector) constructed by the insertion of cos sequences, DNA-Sequences of the Phage Lambda Virus. ...


  • [1] - Formation of de novo centromeres and construction of first-generation human artificial microchromosomes Nature Genetics 15, 345 - 355 (1997) Harrington and Bokkelen et al.

  Results from FactBites:
Human Artificial Chromosome. (815 words)
Artificial chromosomes also should allow the construction and testing of progressively more complex genetic structures as experience is gained.
Artificial human chromosomes should be well suited both for germline manipulations and for ex-vivo somatic manipulations (those done on tissue such as blood, which can be removed from the body, manipulated in the lab, and then returned to the body).
Artificial chromosomes tantalize gene therapists, who face serious problems using viruses and other means to add genes to cells.
  More results at FactBites »



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