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Encyclopedia > Human anatomy

Human anatomy is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body.[1] Anatomy is subdivided into gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy.[1] Gross anatomy (also called topographical anatomy, regional anatomy, or anthropotomy) is the study of anatomical structures that can be seen by unaided vision.[1] Microscopic anatomy is the study of minute anatomical structures assisted with microscopes, which includes histology (the study of the organization of tissues),[1] and cytology (the study of cells). Anatomy, physiology (the study of function) and biochemistry (the study of the chemistry of living structures) are complementary basic medical sciences where are usually tought together (or in tandem). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (492x1426, 61 KB)ΜSkeleton. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (492x1426, 61 KB)ΜSkeleton. ... A typical adult human skeleton consists of the following 206 bones depending on age, though this number does vary owing to a variety of anatomical variations; for example, a small portion of the human population have an extra rib, or an extra lumbar vertebra. ... The term morphology in biology refers to the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern) of an organism or taxon and its component parts. ... Physical Features of the Human Body The human body is the entire physical structure of a human organism. ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... A microscope (Greek: (micron) = small + (skopein) = to look at) is an instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye. ... A thin section of lung tissue stained with hematoxylin and eosin. ... Cytology (also known as Cell biology) is the scientific study of cells. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Biochemistry (from Greek: , bios, life and Egyptian kēme, earth[1]) is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. ...


In some of its facets human anatomy is closely related to embryology, comparative anatomy and comparative embryology,[1] through common roots in evolution; for example, much of the human body maintains the ancient segmental pattern that is present in all vertebrates with basic units being repeated, which is particularly obvious in the vertebral column and in the ribcage, and can be traced from very early embryos. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in the anatomy of organisms. ... Phylogenetic groups, or taxa, can be monophyletic, paraphyletic, or polyphyletic. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The human body consists of biological systems, that consist of organs, that consist of tissues, that consist of cells and connective tissue. For other uses, see Life (disambiguation), Lives (disambiguation) or Living (disambiguation), Living Things (disambiguation) Look up life, living in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the biological unit. ... Biological tissue is a collection of interconnected cells that perform a similar function within an organism. ... Cells in culture, stained for keratin The cell is the structural and functional unit of all living organisms. ... Connective tissue is one of the four types of tissue in traditional classifications (the others being epithelial, muscle, and nervous tissue. ...


The history of anatomy has been characterized, over time, by a continually developing understanding of the functions of organs and structures in the body. Methods have also advanced dramatically, advancing from examination of animals through dissection of preserved cadavers (dead human bodies) to technologically complex techniques developed in the 20th century. The history of anatomy as a science extends from the earliest examinations of sacrificial victims to the sophisticated analyses of the body performed by modern scientists. ... This article is about the biological unit. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the...

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A full articulated human skeleton used in education
A full articulated human skeleton used in education

Generally, medical students, dentists, physiotherapists, nurses, paramedics, radiographers, artists, and students of certain biological sciences, learn gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy from anatomical models, skeletons, textbooks, diagrams, photographs, lectures, and tutorials. The study of microscopic anatomy (or histology) can be aided by practical experience examining histological preparations (or slides) under a microscope; and in addition, medical students generally also learn anatomy with practical experience of dissection and inspection of cadavers (dead human bodies). A thorough working knowledge of anatomy is required by all medical doctors, especially surgeons, and doctors working in some diagnostic specialities, such as histopathology and radiology. Front view of a skeleton of an adult human Back view of a skeleton of an adult human The human skeleton consists of both fused and individual bones supported and supplemented by ligaments, tendons, muscles and cartilage. ... Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center in Lubbock, Texas, USA. A medical school or faculty of medicine is a tertiary educational institution or part of such an institution that teaches medicine. ... X-rays can reveal if a person has cavities Dentistry is the practical application of knowledge of dental science (the science of placement, arrangement, function of teeth) to human beings. ... Physical therapy (or physiotherapy[1]) is the provision of services to people and populations to develop, maintain and restore maximum movement and functional ability throughout the lifespan. ... This article is about the occupation. ... The Star of Life, a globally recognised symbol for emergency medical services A paramedic is a medical professional, usually a member of the emergency medical service, who responds to medical and trauma emergencies in the pre-hospital environment, provides emergency treatment and, when appropriate, transports a patient to definitive care... A radiologic technologist (also called a radiographer ) is a person who uses ionizing radiation to create medical images of the body to help diagnose and treat illness and injury. ... The definition of an artist is wide-ranging and covers a broad spectrum of activities to do with creating art, practicing the arts and/or demonstrating an art. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... A thin section of lung tissue stained with hematoxylin and eosin. ... A microscope (Greek: (micron) = small + (skopein) = to look at) is an instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye. ... Dissected rat showing major organs. ... For other uses, see Doctor. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... Histopathology is a field of pathology which specialises in the histologic study of diseased tissue. ... Image A: A normal chest X-ray. ...


Human anatomy, physiology and, biochemistry are complementary basic medical sciences, which are generally taught to medical students in their first year at medical school. Human anatomy can be taught regionally or systemically;[1] that is, respectively, studying anatomy by bodily regions such as the head and chest, or studying by specific systems, such as the nervous or respiratory systems. The major anatomy textbook, Gray's Anatomy, has recently been reorganized from a systems format to a regional format,[2][3] in line with modern teaching methods. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Biochemistry (from Greek: , bios, life and Egyptian kēme, earth[1]) is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. ... An illustration from the 1918 edition Henry Grays Anatomy of the Human Body (or Grays Anatomy as it has more commonly become known) is an anatomy textbook widely regarded as a classic work on human anatomy. ...


Regional groups

For other uses, see Head (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Neck (disambiguation). ... This article uses a few professional terms to explain certain anatomical details. ... In humans, the upper limb is an anatomical term for the limb that is attached to the pectoral girdle. ... For other uses, see Hand (disambiguation). ... For the municipality in Germany, see Wrist, Germany. ... // The Human Forearm The forearm is the structure on the upper limb, between the elbow and the wrist. ... This article is about the joint in the arm. ... Look up ARM in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the body part. ... Diagram of a tsetse fly, showing the head, thorax and abdomen The thorax is a division of an animals body that lies between the head and the abdomen. ... This article uses a few professional terms to explain certain anatomical details. ... For other types of diaphragm, see Diaphragm. ... The human abdomen (from the Latin word meaning belly) is the part of the body between the pelvis and the thorax. ... For other types of diaphragm, see Diaphragm. ... The pelvis is divided by an oblique plane passing through the prominence of the sacrum, the arcuate and pectineal lines, and the upper margin of the symphysis pubis, into the greater pelvis and the lesser pelvis. ... Look up Back in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The vertebral column seen from the side Different regions (curvatures) of the vertebral column The vertebral column (backbone or spine) is a column of vertebrae situated in the dorsal aspect of the abdomen. ... A diagram of a thoracic vertebra. ... For the record label, see Sacrum Torch. ... The coccyx is formed of up to five vertebrae. ... Intervertebral discs lie in between adjacent vertebrae in the spine. ... The pelvis (pl. ... In human anatomy, the perineum, also called the taint, or gooch, is generally defined as the surface region in both males and females between the pubic symphysis and the coccyx. ... The lesser pelvis (or true pelvis) is that part of the pelvic cavity which is situated below and behind the pelvic brim. ... The Levator ani and the Coccygeus together form the pelvic diaphragm and are associated with the pelvic viscera. ... A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, narrowly defined, is any of those parts of the body (which are not always bodily organs according to the strict definition) which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in an complex organism; namely: Male: penis (notably the glans penis... In humans, the lower limb is an anatomical term for the limb that is attached to the pelvic girlde, what is commonly referred to as the leg. ... The inguinal ligament is a band running from the pubic tubercle to the anterior superior iliac spine. ... Bones of the Hip In anatomy, the hip is the bony projection of the femur, known as the greater trochanter, and the overlying muscle and fat. ... In humans the thigh is the area between the pelvis and buttocks and the knee. ... For other uses, see Knee (disambiguation). ... For a review of anatomical terms, see Anatomical position and Anatomical terms of location. ... For other uses, see Foot (disambiguation). ...

Major organ systems

For transport in plants, see Vascular tissue. ... For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ... f you all The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... what was here was sick and improperly spelled. ... The salivary glands produce saliva, which keeps the mouth and other parts of the digestive system moist. ... The esophagus (also spelled oesophagus/Å“sophagus, Greek ), or gullet is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... For the bird, see Liver bird. ... The gallbladder (or cholecyst, sometimes gall bladder) is a pear-shaped organ that stores about 50 ml of bile (or gall) until the body needs it for digestion. ... The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine systems of vertebrates. ... In anatomy, the intestine is the segment of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. ... The rectum (from the Latin rectum intestinum, meaning straight intestine) is the final straight portion of the large intestine in some mammals, and the gut in others, terminating in the anus. ... This article is about the bodily orifice. ... The endocrine system is an integrated system of small organs that involve the release of extracellular signaling molecules known as hormones. ... For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ... An endocrine gland is one of a set of internal organs involved in the secretion of hormones into the blood. ... The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... Located at the base of the skull, the pituitary gland is protected by a bony structure called the sella turcica. ... The pineal gland (pronunciation: pI-nE-&l, pI-), or epiphysis, is a small endocrine gland located near the middle of the brain. ... Categories: Anatomy stubs | Endocrine system ... In mammals, the adrenal gland (also known as suprarenal glands) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad, near or at + renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of corticosteroids and catecholamines... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... This article is about the medical term. ... A pathogen (literally birth of pain from the Greek παθογένεια) is a biological agent that can cause disease to its host. ... For malignant tumors specifically, see cancer. ... In zootomy, the integumentary system is the external covering of the body, comprising the skin, hair, scales, nails, sweat glands and their products (sweat and mucus). ... For other uses, see Skin (disambiguation). ... For the 1968 stage production, see Hair (musical), for the 1979 film, see Hair (film). ... For other uses, see Nail. ... The human lymphatic system The lymphatic system is a complex network of lymphoid organs, lymph nodes, lymph ducts, lymphatic tissues, lymph capillaries and lymph vessels that produce and transport lymph fluid from tissues to the circulatory system. ... In mammals including humans, the lymphatic vessels (or lymphatics) are a network of thin tubes that branch, like blood vessels, into tissues throughout the body. ... Lymph nodes are components of the lymphatic system. ... In anatomy, lymph vessels are thin walled, valved structures that carry lymph. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... White Blood Cells is also the name of a White Stripes album. ... This article or section contains too much jargon and may need simplification or further explanation. ... Adenoids (or pharyngeal tonsils, or nasopharyngeal tonsils) are a mass of lymphoid tissue situated at the very back of the nose, in the roof of the nasopharynx, where the nose blends into the mouth. ... Thymus, see Thyme. ... The spleen is an organ located in the abdomen, where it functions in the destruction of old red blood cells and holding a reservoir of blood. ... The muscular system is the biological system of an organism that allows it to move. ... For other uses of Muscles, see Muscles (disambiguation). ... The nervous system is a highly specialized network whose principal components are cells called neurons. ... Human brain In animals, the brain (enkephale) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... The peripheral nervous system or PNS, is part of the nervous system, and consists of the nerves and neurons that reside or extend outside the central nervous system--to serve the limbs and organs, for example. ... For other uses, see Nerve (disambiguation). ... A pictorial illustration of the human female reproductive system. ... // For ovary as part of plants see ovary (plants) An ovary is an egg-producing reproductive organ found in female organisms. ... The Fallopian tubes, also known as oviducts, uterine tubes, and salpinges (singular salpinx) are two very fine tubes leading from the ovaries of female mammals into the uterus. ... This article is about female reproductive anatomy. ... The vagina, (from Latin, literally sheath or scabbard ) is the tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female placental mammals and marsupials, or to the cloaca in female birds, monotremes, and some reptiles. ... Mammary glands are the organs that, in the female mammal, produce milk for the sustenance of the young. ... Human male anatomy The testicles, known medically as testes (singular testis), are the male generative glands in animals. ... The vas deferens (plural: vasa deferentia), also called ductus deferens, (Latin: carrying-away vessel) is part of the male anatomy of some species, including humans. ... The seminal vesicles are a pair of simple tubular glands posterinferior to the urinary bladder of males. ... The prostate is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male mammalian reproductive system. ... The penis (plural penises, penes) is an external male sexual organ. ... The Respiratory System Among four-legged animals, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ... The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the neck and throat situated immediately posterior to the mouth and nasal cavity, and cranial, or superior, to the esophagus, larynx, and trachea. ... The larynx (plural larynges), colloquially known as the voicebox, is an organ in the neck of mammals involved in protection of the trachea and sound production. ... Look up trachea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A bronchus (plural bronchi, adjective bronchial) is a caliber of airways in the the respiratory tract that conducts air into the lungs. ... Human respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ... For other types of diaphragm, see Diaphragm. ... Front view of a skeleton of an adult human Back view of a skeleton of an adult human The human skeleton consists of both fused and individual bones supported and supplemented by ligaments, tendons, muscles and cartilage. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... Cartilage is a type of dense connective tissue. ... In anatomy, the term ligament is used to denote three different types of structures:[1] Fibrous tissue that connects bones to other bones. ... A tendon (or sinew) is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone and is built to withstand tension. ... The urinary system is the organ system that produces, stores, and eliminates urine. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... Transverse section of ureter. ... This article is about the urinary bladder. ... In anatomy, the urethra is a tube which connects the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. ...

Superficial anatomy

Superficial anatomy or surface anatomy is important in human anatomy being the study of anatomical landmarks that can be readily identified from the contours or other reference points on the surface of the body.[1] With knowledge of superficial anatomy, physicians gauge the position and anatomy of the associated deeper structures. Superficial anatomy is a descriptive science dealing with anatomical features that can be studied by sight, without dissecting an organism. ... For other uses, see Doctor. ...


Common names of well known parts of the human body, from top to bottom:

For other uses, see Head (disambiguation). ... In human anatomy, the forehead or brow is the bony part of the head above the eyes. ... The mandible (from Latin mandibŭla, jawbone) or inferior maxillary bone is, together with the maxilla, the largest and strongest bone of the face. ... For other uses, see Face (disambiguation). ... This article is about the anatomical feature. ... This article is about the part of the face. ... For other uses, see Neck (disambiguation). ... This article is about the body part. ... Look up ARM in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Elbow redirects here. ... For the municipality in Germany, see Wrist, Germany. ... For other uses, see Hand (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Thumb (disambiguation). ... The vertebral column seen from the side The vertebral column (backbone or spine) is a column of vertebrae situated in the dorsal aspect of the abdomen. ... Male Chest The chest is a part of the anatomy of humans and various other animals. ... This article is about the bones called ribs. ... The human abdomen (from the Latin word meaning belly) is the part of the body between the pelvis and the thorax. ... The groin is the crease at the junction of the torso with the legs and the adjacent region that includes the external genitals. ... In anatomy, the hip is the bony projection of the femur which is known as the greater trochanter, and the overlying muscle and fat. ... Bith buttocks. ... In common usage, a human leg is the lower limb of the body, extending from the hip to the ankle, and including the thigh, the knee, and the cnemis. ... In humans the thigh is the area between the pelvis and buttocks and the knee. ... For other uses, see Knee (disambiguation). ... The calf or gastosoleus is a pair of muscles—the gastrocnemius and soleus—at the back of the lower human leg. ... For other uses, see Heel (disambiguation). ... For a review of anatomical terms, see Anatomical position and Anatomical terms of location. ... For other uses, see Foot (disambiguation). ... This article is about the body part. ... For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ear (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nose (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mouth (disambiguation). ... Types of teeth Molars are used for grinding up foods Carnassials are used for slicing food. ... For other uses, see Tongue (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Throat (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Adams apple (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Breast (disambiguation). ... The penis (plural penises, penes) is an external male sexual organ. ... In some male mammals, the scrotum is a protuberance of skin and muscle containing the testicles. ... The clitoris is a sexual organ that is present in biologically female mammals. ... The external genital organs of the female are collectively known as the vulva (plural vulvae or vulvas)[1]. In common speech, the term vagina is often used improperly to refer to the vulva or female genitals generally, even though, strictly speaking, the vagina is a specific internal structure, whereas the... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Internal organs

Common names of internal organs (in alphabetical order) :


Adrenals — Appendix — Bladder — Brain — Eyes — Gall bladder — Heart — Intestines — Kidney — Liver — Lungs — Esophagus — Ovaries — Pancreas — Parathyroids — Pituitary — Prostate — Spleen — Stomach — Testicles — Thymus — Thyroid — Veins — Uterus In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad-, near or at + -renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of corticosteroids and catecholamines... In human anatomy, the vermiform appendix (or appendix, pl. ... This article is about the urinary bladder. ... Human brain In animals, the brain (enkephale) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ... The gallbladder (or cholecyst) is a pear-shaped organ that stores bile (or gall) until the body needs it for digestion. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... In anatomy, the intestine is the segment of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... For the bird, see Liver bird. ... Human respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ... The esophagus (also spelled oesophagus/Å“sophagus, Greek ), or gullet is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. ... // For ovary as part of plants see ovary (plants) An ovary is an egg-producing reproductive organ found in female organisms. ... The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine systems of vertebrates. ... The four human parathyroid glands are adjacent to the thyroid. ... | Latin = hypophysis, glandula pituitaria | GraySubject = 275 | GrayPage = 1275 | Image = Gray1180. ... The prostate is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male mammalian reproductive system. ... The spleen is an organ located in the abdomen, where it functions in the destruction of old red blood cells and holding a reservoir of blood. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... Look up testes in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Thymus, see Thyme. ... In biology, a vein is a blood vessel which carries blood toward the heart. ... This article is about female reproductive anatomy. ...


Brain

Main article: Human brain

Amygdala — Brain stem — Cerebellum — Cerebral cortex — Limbic system — medulla — midbrain — pons The human brain controls the central nervous system (CNS), by way of the cranial nerves and spinal cord, the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and regulates virtually all human activity. ... Look up Amygdala in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The brain stem is the lower part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord. ... The cerebellum (Latin: little brain) is a region of the brain that plays an important role in the integration of sensory perception and motor output. ... For other uses, see Cortex. ... The limbic system is a historically defined set of brain structures that support a variety of functions including emotion and memory. ... The medulla oblongata is the lower portion of the brainstem. ... In biological anatomy, the mesencephalon (or midbrain) is the middle of three vesicles that arise from the neural tube that forms the brain of developing animals. ... For other uses, see Pons (disambiguation). ...


See also

Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... In a typical mammalian body such as the human body, the body orifices are: the nostrils, for breathing and the associated sense of smell the mouth, for eating and vocalizations such as speech the ear canals, for the sense of hearing the anus, for defecation the urethra, for urination (and... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation), Dead (disambiguation), or Death (band). ... This article is about modern humans. ... Human biology is an interdisciplinary academic field of biology, biological anthropology, and medicine which focuses on humans; it is closely related to primate biology, and a number of other fields. ... Physical Features of the Human Body The human body is the entire physical structure of a human organism. ... In zootomy, several terms are used to describe the location of organs and other structures in the body of bilateral animals. ... The major systems of the human body are: Cardiovascular system: the blood circulation with heart, arteries and veins Digestive system: processing food with mouth, esophagus, stomach and intestines. ... This is a list of human anatomical parts named after people. ... The Visible Human Project is an effort to create a detailed data set of cross-sectional photographs of the human body, in order to facilitate anatomy visualization applications. ... // medulla oblongata medullary pyramids pons paramedian pontine reticular formation fourth ventricle cerebellum cerebellar vermis cerebellar hemispheres anterior lobe posterior lobe flocculonodular lobe cerebellar nuclei fastigial nucleus globose nucleus emboliform nucleus dentate nucleus tectum inferior colliculi superior colliculi mesencephalic duct (cerebral aqueduct, Aqueduct of Sylvius) cerebral peduncle midbrain tegmentum ventral tegmental... A typical adult human skeleton consists of the following 206 bones depending on age, though this number does vary owing to a variety of anatomical variations; for example, a small portion of the human population have an extra rib, or an extra lumbar vertebra. ... This is a list of muscles of the human anatomy. ... There are about 210 distinct human cell types. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Introduction page, "Anatomy of the Human Body". Henry Gray. 20th edition. 1918. Retrieved on 27 March, 2007.
  2. ^ Publisher's page for Gray's Anatomy. 39th edition (UK). 2004. ISBN 0-443-07168-3. Retrieved on 27 March, 2007.
  3. ^ Publisher's page for Gray's Anatomy. 39th edition (US). 2004. ISBN 0-443-07168-3. Retrieved on 27 March, 2007.
  • "Anatomy of the Human Body". 20th edition. 1918. Henry Gray. In public domain.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • Anatomy Dissection videos
  • e-Anatomy - Interactive atlas of whole human body cross-sectional anatomy.
  • Anatomy Lab - Interactive quizzes, question-of-the-week, and photographs.
  • The Anatomy Wiz - An Interactive Cross-Sectional Anatomy Index