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Encyclopedia > Human abdomen

The human abdomen (from the Latin word meaning "belly") is the part of the body between the pelvis and the thorax. Anatomically, the abdomen stretches from the thorax at the thoracic diaphragm to the pelvis at the pelvic brim. The pelvic brim stretches from the lumbosacral angle (the intervertebral disk between L5 and S1) to the pubic symphysis and is the edge of the pelvic inlet. The space above this inlet and under the thoracic diaphragm is termed the abdominal cavity. The boundary of the abdominal cavity is the abdominal wall in the front and the peritoneal surface at the rear. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... The pelvis (pl. ... Diagram of a tsetse fly, showing the head, thorax and abdomen The thorax is a division of an animals body that lies between the head and the abdomen. ... Under surface of the human diaphragm. ... The pelvis is divided by an oblique plane passing through the prominence of the sacrum, the arcuate and pectineal lines, and the upper margin of the symphysis pubis, into the greater pelvis and the lesser pelvis. ... Intervertebral discs lie in between adjacent vertebrae in the spine. ... The pubic symphysis is the midline cartilaginous joint uniting the superior rami of the left and right pubic bones (pubis). ... The lesser pelvis (or true pelvis) is that part of the pelvic cavity which is situated below and behind the pelvic brim. ... The abdominal cavity is the cavity of the human body (and other animal bodies) that holds the bulk of the viscera and which is located below (or posterior to) the thoracic cavity. ...


Functionally, the human abdomen is where most of the alimentary tract is placed and so most of the absorption and digestion of food occurs here. The alimentary tract in the abdomen consists of the lower oesophagus, the stomach, the duodenum, the jejunum, ileum, the cecum and the appendix, the ascending, transverse and descending colons, the sigmoid colon and the rectum. Other vital organs inside the abdomen include the liver, the kidneys, the pancreas and the spleen. For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... The esophagus, oe/œsophagus*, or gullet is the muscular tube in vertebrates through which ingested food passes from the mouth area to the stomach. ... In anatomy, the stomach (in ancient Greek στόμαχος) is an organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ... Diagram of the Human Intestine In anatomy of the digestive system, the jejunum is the central of the three divisions of the small intestine and lies between the duodenum and the ileum. ... Grays Fig. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the cecum or caecum is a pouch connected to the large intestine between the ileum. ... In human anatomy, the vermiform appendix (or appendix, pl. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the colon or large intestine or large bowel is the part of the intestine from the cecum to the rectum. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the colon is the part of the intestine from the cecum to the rectum. ... The Descending Colon passes downward through the left hypochondriac and lumbar regions along the lateral border of the left kidney. ... The sigmoid colon is the part of the large intestine after the descending colon and before the rectum. ... The rectum (from the Latin rectum intestinum, meaning straight intestine) is the final straight portion of the large intestine in some mammals, and the gut in others, terminating in the anus. ... The liver is an organ in living beings, including humans. ... Kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... For the song by Weird Al Yankovic, see Pancreas (song) The pancreas is an organ in the digestive and endocrine system that serves two major functions: exocrine (producing pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes) and endocrine (producing several important hormones, including insulin). ... The spleen is a ductless, vertebrate gland that is closely associated with the circulatory system, where it functions in the destruction of old red blood cells in holding a reservoir of blood. ...


The abdominal wall is split into the posterior (back), lateral (sides) and anterior (front) walls. The abdomen (from the Latin word meaning belly) is the part of the body between the pelvis and the thorax. ...

Contents

Muscles of the abdominal wall

Henry Gray (1825–1861). Anatomy of the Human Body.
Henry Gray (1825–1861). Anatomy of the Human Body.
Muscle Origin and insertion
The obliquus externus (external oblique) muscle is the outermost muscle covering the side of the abdomen. It is broad, flat, and irregularly quadrilateral. It originates on the lower eight ribs, and then curves down and forward towards its insertion on the outer anterior crest of the ilium and (via the sheath of the rectus abdominus muscle) the midline linea alba.
The obliquus internus (internal oblique) muscle is triangularly shaped and is smaller and thinner than the external oblique muscle that overlies it. It originates from Poupart's ligament/inguinal ligament and the inner anterior crest of the ilium. The lower two-thirds of it insert, in common with fibers of the external oblique and the underlying transversus abdominus, into the linea alba. The upper third inserts into the lower six ribs.
The transversus abdominus muscle is flat and triangular, with its fibers running horizontally. It lies between the internal oblique and the underlying transversalis fascia. It originates from Poupart's ligament, the inner lip of the ilium, the lumbar fascia and the inner surface of the cartilages of the six lower ribs. It inserts into the linea alba behind the rectus abdominis.
The rectus abdominis muscles are long and flat. The muscle is crossed by three tendinous intersections called the linae transversae. The rectus abdominus is enclosed in a thick sheath formed, as described above, by fibers from each of the three muscles of the lateral abdominal wall. They originate at the pubic bone, run up the abdomen on either side of the linea alba, and insert into the cartilages of the fifth, sixth, and seventh ribs.
The pyramidalis muscle is small and triangular. It is located in the lower abdomen in front of the rectus abdominis. It originates at the pubic bone and is inserted into the linea alba half way up to the umbilicus (belly button).

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (519x650, 111 KB) Grays Anatomy image392 abdomen. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (519x650, 111 KB) Grays Anatomy image392 abdomen. ... The Obliquus externus abdominis (External or descending oblique muscle), situated on the lateral and anterior parts of the abdomen, is the largest and the most superficial of the three flat muscles in this region. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Muscular system. ... The human rib cage. ... The ilium is a bone that is part of the pelvis. ... The rectus abdominis muscle is a paired muscle running vertically on each side of the anterior wall of the human abdomen (and in some animals). ... The linea alba is a fibrous structure that runs down the midline of the abdomen in humans and other animals. ... The internal oblique (or Obliquus internus abdominis) is the intermediate muscle of the abdomen, lying just underneath the external oblique and just above (superficial to) the transverse abdominal muscle. ... Inguinal ligament (right side) from the inside of abdomen. ... The inguinal ligament is a band running from the pubic tubercle to the anterior superior iliac spine. ... The linea alba is a fibrous structure that runs down the midline of the abdomen in humans and other animals. ... The transversus abdominis muscle, also known as the transverse abdominal muscle, is a muscle layer of the anterior and lateral abdominal wall which is deep to the internal oblique muscle. ... Cartilage is a type of dense connective tissue. ... Rectus abdominis The rectus abdominis muscle is a paired muscle running vertically on each side of the anterior wall of the human abdomen (and in some animals). ... The rectus abdominis muscle is a paired muscle running vertically on each side of the anterior wall of the human abdomen (and in some animals). ... A tendon (or sinew) is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone, or muscle to muscle. ... The Rectus abdominis is crossed by fibrous bands, three in number, which are named the tendinous inscriptions (or tendinous intersections); one is usually situated opposite the umbilicus, one at the extremity of the xiphoid process, and the third about midway between the xiphoid process and the umbilicus. ... The ventral and anterior of the three principal bones composing either half of the pelvis -- called the pubic bone. ... The pyramidalis is a muscle that is considered insignificant in humans. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Abdominal organs

The relations of the viscera and large vessels of the abdomen.

The abdomen contains most of the tubelike organs of the digestive tract, as well as several solid organs. Hollow abdominal organs include the stomach, the small intestine, and the colon with its attached appendix. Organs such as the liver, its attached gallbladder, and the pancreas function in close association with the digestive tract and communicate with it via ducts. The spleen, kidneys, and adrenal glands also lie within the abdomen, along with many blood vessels including the aorta and inferior vena cava. Anatomists may consider the urinary bladder, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries as either abdominal organs or as pelvic organs. Finally, the abdomen contains an extensive membrane called the peritoneum. A fold of peritoneum may completely cover certain organs, whereas it may cover only one side of organs that usually lie closer to the abdominal wall. Anatomists call the latter type of organs retroperitoneal. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (683x900, 217 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Adrenal gland Wikipedia:Grays Anatomy images with missing articles 23 ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (683x900, 217 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Adrenal gland Wikipedia:Grays Anatomy images with missing articles 23 ... In anatomy, the stomach (in ancient Greek στόμαχος) is an organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... In biology the small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract (gut) between the stomach and the large intestine. ... In the anatomy of the digestive system, the colon (> Greek ) is the part of the intestine from the caecum to the rectum. ... In human anatomy, the vermiform appendix (or appendix, pl. ... The liver is an organ in living beings, including humans. ... Gallbladder is #5 Gall bladder Histology Digestive system diagram showing the bile duct The gallbladder (or cholecyst sometimes gall bladder) is a pear-shaped organ that stores about 50 mL of bile (or gall) until the body needs it for digestion. ... For the song by Weird Al Yankovic, see Pancreas (song) The pancreas is an organ in the digestive and endocrine system that serves two major functions: exocrine (producing pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes) and endocrine (producing several important hormones, including insulin). ... The spleen is a ductless, vertebrate gland that is closely associated with the circulatory system, where it functions in the destruction of old red blood cells in holding a reservoir of blood. ... The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... Grays Fig. ... The largest artery in the human body, the aorta originates from the left ventricle of the heart and brings oxygenated blood to all parts of the body in the systemic circulation. ... The brachiocephalic veins, superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, azygos vein and their tributaries The superior and inferior venae cavae are the veins that return the blood from the body into the heart. ... In the anatomy of mammals, the urinary bladder is a hollow, muscular and distensible or elastic organ that sits on the pelvic floor. ... The uterus or womb is the major female reproductive organ of most mammals, including humans. ... Female internal reproductive anatomy The Fallopian tubes or oviducts are two very fine tubes leading from the ovaries of female mammals into the uterus. ... Human female internal reproductive anatomy Ovaries are egg-producing reproductive organs found in female organisms. ... In higher vertebrates, the peritoneum is the serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity - it covers most of the intra-abdominal organs. ...


Surface landmarks of the abdomen

In the mid-line a slight furrow extends from the ensiform cartilage/xiphoid process above to the symphysis pubis below, representing the linea alba in the abdominal wall. At about its midpoint sits the umbilicus or navel. On each side of it the broad recti muscles stand out in muscular people. The outline of these muscles is interrupted by three or more transverse depressions indicating the lineae transversae. There is usually one about the ensiform cartilage, one at the umbilicus, and one between. It is the combination of the linea alba and the linea transversae which form the abdominal "six-pack" sought after by many people. A body fat of around 10% or below with a bodyweight that is not underweight is required to see them. The xyphoid process or xiphoid process is a small cartilaginous extension to the lower part of the sternum which may become ossified in the adult. ... The pubic symphysis is the midline cartilaginous joint uniting the superior rami of the left and right pubic bones (pubis). ... The linea alba is a fibrous structure that runs down the midline of the abdomen in humans and other animals. ... The Rectus abdominis is crossed by fibrous bands, three in number, which are named the tendinous inscriptions (or tendinous intersections); one is usually situated opposite the umbilicus, one at the extremity of the xiphoid process, and the third about midway between the xiphoid process and the umbilicus. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...



The upper lateral limit of the abdomen is the subcostal margin formed by the cartilages of the false ribs (8, 9, 10) joining one another. The lower lateral limit is the anterior crest of the ilium and Poupart's ligament, which runs from the anterior superior spine of the ilium to the spine of the pubis. These lower limits are marked by visible grooves. Just above the pubic spines on either side are the external abdominal rings, which are openings in the muscular wall of the abdomen through which the spermatic cord emerges in the male, and through which an inguinal hernia may rupture. The term Illion, Ilium has several meanings, including in legends, in anatomy, and in the arts: Ilion or Ilium is an alternative name for the legendary city of Troy. ... Inguinal ligament (right side) from the inside of abdomen. ... A man and a woman in the Pioneer plaque. ... Male Anatomy The spermatic cord is the name given to the cord-like structure formed by the vas deferens and surrounding tissue (veins, arteries, nerves, and lymphatic vessels) that run from the abdomen down to each testicle. ...


One method by which the location of the abdominal contents can be appreciated is to draw three horizontal and two vertical lines.


Horizontal lines

Front of abdomen, showing surface markings for duodenum, pancreas, and kidneys.
Front of abdomen, showing surface markings for duodenum, pancreas, and kidneys.
  • The highest of the former is the transpyloric line of C. Addison, which is situated half-way between the suprasternal notch and the top of the symphysis pubis, and often cuts the pyloric opening of the stomach an inch to the right of the mid-line. The hilum of each kidney is a little below it, while its left end approximately touches the lower limit of the spleen. It corresponds to the first lumbar vertebra behind.
  • The second line is the subcostal, drawn from the lowest point of the subcostal arch (tenth rib). It corresponds to the upper part of the third lumbar vertebra, and it is an inch or so above the umbilicus. It indicates roughly the transverse colon, the lower ends of the kidneys, and the upper limit of the transverse (3rd) part of the duodenum.
  • The third line is called the intertubercular, and runs across between the two rough tubercles, which can be felt on the outer lip of the crest of the ilium about two and a half inches (60 mm) from the anterior superior spine. This line corresponds to the body of the fifth lumbar vertebra, and passes through or just above the ileo-caecal valve, where the small intestine joins the large.

Image File history File links Gray1225. ... Image File history File links Gray1225. ... An upper transverse line, the transpyloric, halfway between the jugular notch and the upper border of the symphysis pubis; this indicates the margin of the transpyloric plane, which in most cases cuts through the pylorus, the tips of the ninth costal cartilages and the lower border of the first lumbar... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Anatomic nomenclature for a depression or pit at the part of an organ where vessels and nerves enter. ... The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... The spleen is a ductless, vertebrate gland that is closely associated with the circulatory system, where it functions in the destruction of old red blood cells in holding a reservoir of blood. ... The tenth rib has only a single articular facet on its head. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the colon is the part of the intestine from the cecum to the rectum. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ... 1. ... The ileocecal valve is situated at the junction of the small intestine (ileum) and the large intestine. ... In biology the small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract (gut) between the stomach and the large intestine. ... The large intestine is the last part of digestive system: the final stage of the alimentary canal in vertebrate animals. ...

Vertical lines

The two vertical or mid-Poupart lines are drawn from the point midway between the anterior superior spine and the pubic symphysis on each side, vertically upward to the costal margin.

  • The right one is the most valuable, as the ileo-caecal valve is situated where it cuts the intertubercular line. The orifice of the vermiform appendix lies an inch lower, at McBurney's point. In its upper part, the vertical line meets the transpyloric line at the lower margin of the ribs, usually the ninth, and here the gallbladder is situated.
  • The left mid-Poupart line corresponds in its upper three-quarters to the inner edge of the descending colon.

The right subcostal margin corresponds to the lower limit of the liver, while the right nipple is about half an inch above the upper limit of this viscus. The ileocecal valve is situated at the junction of the small intestine (ileum) and the large intestine. ... In human anatomy, the vermiform appendix (or appendix, pl. ... McBurneys point is the name given to the point over the right side of the human abdomen that is one-third the distance from the ASIS (anterior superior iliac spine) to the umbilicus. ... Gallbladder is #5 Gall bladder Histology Digestive system diagram showing the bile duct The gallbladder (or cholecyst sometimes gall bladder) is a pear-shaped organ that stores about 50 mL of bile (or gall) until the body needs it for digestion. ... The Descending Colon passes downward through the left hypochondriac and lumbar regions along the lateral border of the left kidney. ... The liver is an organ in living beings, including humans. ... In anatomy, a viscus (plural viscera) is an internal organ of an animal, in particular an internal organ of the thorax or abdomen. ...


Regions of the abdomen

Surface lines of the front of the thorax and abdomen.
Surface lines of the front of the thorax and abdomen.

These three horizontal and two vertical lines divide the abdomen into nine "regions." (Note that "hypo" means "below" and "epi" means "above", while "chond" means "cartilage" (in this case, the cartilage of the rib) and "gast" means stomach. The reversal of "left" and "right" is intentional, because the anatomical designations reflect the position on the patient. ) Image File history File links Gray1220. ... Image File history File links Gray1220. ...

right hypochondriac/hypochondrium epigastric/epigastrium left hypochondriac/hypochondrium
right lumbar/flank/lateral umbilical left lumbar/flank/lateral
right inguinal/iliac hypogastric/pubic left inguinal/iliac

Another way of dividing the abdomen is by using quadrants: The hypochondrium is the upper part of the abdomen under the lowest ribs of the thorax. ... The epigastrium is the upper central region of the abdomen. ... In anatomy, lumbar is an adjective that means of or pertaining to the abdominal segment of the torso, between the diaphragm and the sacrum (pelvis). ... Flank is a word which might mean any of several different things: A flank is the side of either a horse or a military unit. ... Grays Fig. ... The inguinal canal is a passage in the anterior abdominal wall which in men conveys the spermatic cord and in woman the round ligament. ... Iliac can refer to one of the following: Iliac artery Iliac vein Category: ... The Internal iliac artery, formerly known as the hypogastric artery, supplies the walls and viscera of the pelvis, the buttock, the reproductive organs, and the medial compartment of the thigh. ... ...

upper right quadrant (RUQ) upper left quadrant
lower right quadrant lower left quadrant

RUQ refers to the right-upper quadrant of the human abdomen. ...

See also

The waist is the part of the abdomen between the ribcage and hips. ... This is a list of muscles of the human anatomy. ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... Abdominal pain can be one of the symptoms associated with transient disorders or serious disease. ... The term abdominal hair refers to the hair that grows on the abdomen (belly) of humans and non-human mammals, in the region between the pubic area and the thorax (chest). ...

References

  • Tortora, Gerard J., Anagnostakos, Nicholas P. (1984) Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, Harper & Row Publishers, New York ISBN 0-06-046656-1
  • Gray, Henry, (1977) Anatomy, Descriptive and Surgical (Gray's Anatomy) Bounty Books
  • Taber, Clarence Wilber, (1981) Taber's Cyclopedic medical dictionary 14 Edition, F.A Davis Company, Philadelphia ISBN 0-8036-8307-3

  Results from FactBites:
 
XI. Splanchnology. 2e. The Abdomen. Gray, Henry. 1918. Anatomy of the Human Body. (5475 words)
The abdomen contains the greater part of the digestive tube; some of the accessory organs to digestion, viz., the liver and pancreas; the spleen, the kidneys, and the suprarenal glands.
The parietal portion is loosely connected with the fascial lining of the abdomen and pelvis, but is more closely adherent to the under surface of the diaphragm, and also in the middle line of the abdomen.
On the lateral pelvic wall behind the attachment of the broad ligament, in the angle between the elevations produced by the diverging hypogastric and external iliac vessels is a slight fossa, the ovarian fossa, in which the ovary normally lies.
Human abdomen - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1369 words)
The human abdomen (from the Latin word meaning "belly") is the part of the body between the pelvis and the thorax.
Anatomically, the abdomen stretches from the thorax at the thoracic diaphragm to the pelvis at the pelvic brim.
The alimentary tract in the abdomen consists of the lower oesophagus, the stomach, the duodenum, the jejunum, ileum, the cecum and the appendix, the ascending, transverse and descending colons, the sigmoid colon and the rectum.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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