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Encyclopedia > Human Rights in the People's Republic of China

The situation of human rights in the People's Republic of China has been addressed by various sources, particularly Western countries and some international organizations, as being poor in many respects. Past human rights issues include the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, when 2000-3000 civilians were killed and thousands more were injured. For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... The human rights record of Taiwan is generally held to have experienced significant transformation over the last two decades. ... alternative Chinese name Traditional Chinese: Simplified Chinese: Literal meaning: Tiananmen Incident The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, widely known as the Tiananmen Square Massacre, in China referred to as the June Fourth Incident to avoid confusion with the two other Tiananmen Square protests and as an act of official censorship...


Multiple sources, including the U.S. State Department's annual People's Republic of China human rights reports, as well as studies from other groups such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have documented the PRC's abuses of human rights in violation of internationally recognized norms. Department of State redirects here. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


In March, 2005, an amendment was made to the Constitution of the People's Republic of China, stating "The State respects and preserves human rights."[1] In addition, China was dropped from a list of top 10 human rights violators in the annual human rights report released by the U.S. State Department in 2008, while the report indicated that there were still widespread problems in China.[2] The Constitution of the Peoples Republic of China (中华人民共和国宪法; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Xiànfǎ) is the highest law within the Peoples Republic of China. ...

Contents

Perspective of the PRC government

The PRC government argues that the notion of human rights should include economic standards of living and measures of health and economic prosperity.[3]


The Chinese government recognises that there are problems with the current legal system,[4] such as:

  • A lack of laws in general, not just ones to protect civil rights.
  • A lack of due process.
  • Conflicts of law.[5]

As judges are appointed by the State and the judiciary as a whole does not have its own budget,[6] this has led to corruption and the abuse of administrative power.


Protection from the United States government

In 2003, the United States claimed that despite some positive momentum in that year, and greater signs that the People's Republic of China was willing to engage with the U.S. and others on this topic, there was still serious backsliding. The PRC government has acknowledged in principle the importance of protection of human rights and has purported to take steps to bring its human rights practices into conformity with international norms. Among these steps are signature of the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights in October 1997 (ratified in March 2001) and signing of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights in October 1998 (not yet ratified). In 2002, the PRC released a significant number of political and religious prisoners, and agreed to interact with United Nations experts on torture, arbitrary detention and religion. UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


Capital punishment

China had the highest number of executions in 2005[citation needed] at 1770 people executed. Between 1994 and 1999, according to the United Nations Secretary-General, China, which has the world's largest population of 1.3 billion people, was ranked seventh in executions per capita, behind Singapore, Saudi Arabia, Belarus, Sierra Leone, Kyrgyzstan, and Jordan.[7] Amnesty International claims that official figures are much smaller than the real number, stating that in China the statistics are considered State secrets. Amnesty stated that according to various reports, in 2005 3,400 people were executed. In March of that year, a senior member of the National People's Congress announced that China executes around 10,000 people per year.[8] The Peoples Republic of China currently uses capital punishment for a variety of crimes, ranging from tax evasion, corruption and racketeering to murder. ... The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations. ... The Great Hall of the People, where the NPC convenes The National Peoples Congress (全国人民代表大会 in Pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì, literally Pan-Nation Congress of the Peoples Representatives), abbreviated PNCOTPR, is the highest legislative body in the Peoples Republic of China. ...


A total of 68 crimes are punishable by death; capital offenses include non-violent white-collar crimes such as embezzlement and tax fraud. The inconsistent and sometimes corrupt nature of the legal system in mainland China bring into question the fair application of capital punishment there.[9] A violent crime or crime of violence is a crime in which the offender uses or threatens violent force upon the victim. ... Within the field of criminology, white-collar crime or incorporated governance has been defined by Edwin Sutherland ...as a crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation. ... This article contrasts tax evasion, tax avoidance, tax resistance and tax mitigation. ...


In January 2007, China's state media announced that all death penalty cases will be reviewed by the Supreme People's Court. Since 1983, China's highest court did not review all cases. This marks a return to China's pre-1983 policy.[10] The Supreme Peoples Court (最高人民法院; pinyin: Zuìgāo Rénmín Fǎyuàn) is the highest court in the judicial system of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Organ harvesting and extrajudicial execution

In March 2006, allegations were made in the Falun Gong mouthpiece, the Epoch Times, of organ harvesting on living Falun Gong practitioners at the China Traditional Medicine Thrombosis Treatment Center, a Chinese joint-venture company in Sujiatun, Shenyang co-owned by Country Heights Health Sanctuary of Malaysia, and subject to oversight in Liaoning province. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... On 9 March 2006, allegations were made of organ harvesting on living Falun Gong practitioners at the Sujiatun detention compound, an alleged labor camp and part of the China Traditional Medicine Thrombosis Treatment Center, [1] a joint-venture with Malaysian healthcare company Contry Heights Health Sanctuary and subject to oversight... The Epoch Times is a conservative Chinese newspaper, which is freely distributed in eight languages and in roughly 30 countries worldwide. ... Organ harvesting is the removal, retention and use of human organs and tissue to be used in transplants. ... Falun Gong, (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; literally Practice of the Wheel of Law) also known as Falun Dafa, (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; lit. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... This article is about a city. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Liáoníng) is a northeastern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


According to two witnesses, internal organs of living Falun Gong practitioners have been harvested and sold, and the bodies have been cremated in the hospital's boiler room. The witnesses allege that no prisoner comes out of the Centre alive, and that six thousand practitioners have been held captive at the hospital since 2001, two-thirds of whom have died to date.


On April 14, 2006, the United States Department of State reported the findings of its investigation, stating that: "U.S. representatives have found no evidence to support allegations that [Sujiatun] has been used as a concentration camp to jail Falun Gong practitioners and harvest their organs."[11] A US Congressional report detailed the State Department's investigation where embassy staff visited the alleged site twice, first time unannounced.[12] Department of State redirects here. ...


Dissident Harry Wu, who immediately sent in investigators, said that the allegations were just hearsay from two witnesses.[13] Professor Harry Wu (in Chinese Wu Hongda 吳弘達) (born 1937) is an activist for human rights in the Peoples Republic of China. ...


The Chinese government accused Falun Gong of fabricating the "Sujiatun concentration camp" issue, reiterating that as a WHO Member State, China resolutely abides by the WHO 1991 Guiding Principles on Human Organ Transplants and strictly forbids the sale of human organs. It added that Sujiatun District government carried out an investigation at the hospital and invited local and foreign media, including NHK and Phoenix Satellite Network; and two visits were paid by US consular personnel, who confirmed that the hospital was completely incapable of housing more than 6,000 persons; there was no basement for incarcerating practitioners, as alleged; there was simply no way to cremate corpses in secret, continuously, and in large volumes in the hospital's boiler/furnace room. For other meanings of the acronym WHO, see WHO (disambiguation) WHO flag Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the World Health Organization (WHO) is an agency of the United Nations, acting as a coordinating authority on international public health. ... NHK Broadcasting Center in Shibuya, Tokyo NHK (, Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai), or the Japan Broadcasting Corporation, is Japans public broadcaster. ... Phoenix Television (鳳凰衛星電視) SEHK: 8002 is a Hong Kong-based Mandarin Chinese television broadcaster that aims to promote a free flow of information and entertainment within the Greater China region. ...


In July 2006, David Kilgour and David Matas, human rights lawyers, concluded an investigation on behalf of the Coalition to Investigate the Persecution of the Falun Gong in China (CIPFG). US Congressional researcher Thomas Lum criticized the report as relying "largely upon the making of logical inferences" and "inconsistent with the findings of other investigations".[12] Their report gave credence to the allegations of China's harvesting organs from live Falun Gong practitioners. While the Christian Science Monitor states that the report's evidence is circumstantial, but persuasive,[14] the Ottawa Citizen states that the report is not universally accepted and has been criticized by the Chinese government as well as U.S. Congressional Research Service.[15] This article is about the Canadian politician. ... David Matas (b. ...


Ethnic minorities

See also: Racism in the People's Republic of China

There are 55 recognized ethnic minorities in China. Article 4 of the Chinese constitution states "All nationalities in the People's Republic of China are equal", and the government has made efforts to improve ethnic education and increased ethnic representation in local government. Racism in the Peoples Republic of China is a complex issue influenced by Chinese history, Chinese nationalism, and many other factors. ... Ethnolinguistic map of China The Peoples Republic of China (PRC) is a multi-ethnic unitary state and, as such, officially recognizes 56 nationalities or mínzú (民族), within China: the Han being the majority (>92%), and the remaining 55 nationalities being the national minorities. ...


Some policies are promoted at the expense of reverse racism, where Han Chinese, even ethnic minorities from other regions are treated as second-class citizens in the ethnic region [16] [17]. Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Radical Islam · Fundamentalism · Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights...


There are also wide-ranging preferential policies (i.e. affirmative actions) in place to promote social and economic developments for ethnic minorities, including preferential employments, political appointments, and business loans [18]. Universities typically have quota reserved for ethnic minorities despite having lower admission test scores [19]. Ethnic minorities are also exempt from the one-child policy which is aimed toward Han Chinese. Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... The phrase one-child policy is commonly used in English to refer to the population control policy (or Planned Birth policy) of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ...


However, the government is harsh toward those that argue for independence or political autonomy, mainly Tibetans and Uyghurs in rural provinces in the west of China. Some groups have used terrorism to push their agenda [20]. The Tibetan people are a people indigenous to Tibet and surrounding areas stretching from Central Asia in the West to Myanmar and China in the East. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Uyghur language. ... Terrorist redirects here. ...


Five Chinese Uyghur detainees from the United States Guantanamo Bay detention camp, which was itself known for human rights abuses, were released in June, 2007, but the U.S. refused to return them to China citing the People's Republic of China's "past treatment of the Uigur minority".[21] Wikisource has original text related to this article: Detention, Treatment, and Trial of Certain Non-Citizens in the War Against Terrorism Wikisource has original text related to this article: Statement of Alberto J Mora on interrogation abuse, July 7, 2004 Guantanamo Bay detention camp is a joint military prison and...


Complaints of "apartheid" toward Tibetans

Wikinews has related news:
China 'furious' at U.S. over Dalai Lama award

The Dalai Lama originally pushed for independence for Tibet, but he changed his position when it was clear that this was not a realistic objective. Instead he has called for full autonomy.[22] Negotiation between Dalai Lama and the Chinese government has been difficult, and although contact has taken place between representatives, nothing has been agreed. Commentators have said that Chinese officials may be waiting for the Dalai Lama to die, as they believe Tibetans will not be a problem afterwards. Yet they also say that this may result in Tibetan political sentiment becoming more dangerous and violent, as the Dalai Lama has consistently argued for peaceful protests against Chinese rule.[23] Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... This article is about the Dalai Lama lineage. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ...


In 1991 the Dalai Lama alleged that Chinese settlers in Tibet were creating "Chinese Apartheid": Tenzin Gyatso (born 6 July 1935) is the fourteenth and current Dalai Lama. ...

The new Chinese settlers have created an alternate society: a Chinese apartheid which, denying Tibetans equal social and economic status in our own land, threatens to finally overwhelm and absorb us.[24][25]

In a selection of speeches by the Dalai Lama published in India in 1998, he refers again to a "Chinese apartheid" which he believes denies Tibetans equal social and economic status, and furthers the viewpoint that human rights are violated by discrimination against Tibetans under a policy of apartheid, which the Chinese call "segregation and assimilation"[26]


According to the Heritage Foundation: The Heritage Foundation is one of the most prominent conservative think tanks in the United States. ...

If the matter of Tibet's sovereignty is murky, the question about the PRC's treatment of Tibetans is all too clear. After invading Tibet in 1950, the Chinese communists killed over one million Tibetans, destroyed over 6,000 monasteries, and turned Tibet's northeastern province, Amdo, into a gulag housing, by one estimate, up to ten million people. A quarter of a million Chinese troops remain stationed in Tibet. In addition, some 7.5 million Chinese have responded to Beijing's incentives to relocate to Tibet; they now outnumber the 6 million Tibetans. Through what has been termed Chinese apartheid, ethnic Tibetans now have a lower life expectancy, literacy rate, and per capita income than Chinese inhabitants of Tibet.[27]

In 2001 representatives of Tibet succeeded in gaining accreditation at a United Nations-sponsored meeting of non-governmental organizations. On August 29 Jampal Chosang, the head of the Tibetan coalition, stated that China had introduced "a new form of apartheid" in Tibet because "Tibetan culture, religion, and national identity are considered a threat" to China.[28] The Tibet Society of the UK has called on the British government to "condemn the apartheid regime in Tibet that treats Tibetans as a minority in their own land and which discriminates against them in the use of their language, in education, in the practice of their religion, and in employment opportunities."[29] NGO redirects here. ...


Political freedom

The PRC is known for its intolerance of organized dissent towards the government. Dissident groups are routinely arrested and imprisoned, often for long periods of time and without trial. One of the most famous dissidents is Zhang Zhixin, who is known for standing up against the ultra-left.[30] Incidents of torture, forced confessions and forced labour are widely reported. Freedom of assembly and association is extremely limited. The most recent mass movement for political freedom was crushed in the Tiananmen Square Massacre in 1989, the estimated death toll of which ranges from about 200 to 10,000 depending on sources.[31][32] Zhang Zhixin (Chinese: å¼ å¿—æ–°; Pinyin: Zhāng ZhìxÄ«n; December 5, 1930-- April 4, 1975) was a famous dissident during the Cultural Revolution for criticizing idolization of Mao Zedong. ... In the Peoples Republic of China since 1967, the terms Ultra-Left (极左派) and left communist (共产主义左翼) refer to political theory and practice self-defined as further left than that of the central Maoist leaders at the height of the GPCR (Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution). The terms are also used retro... alternative Chinese name Traditional Chinese: Simplified Chinese: Literal meaning: Tiananmen Incident The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, widely known as the Tiananmen Square Massacre, in China referred to as the June Fourth Incident to avoid confusion with the two other Tiananmen Square protests and as an act of official censorship...


Freedom of speech

Although the 1982 constitution guarantees freedom of speech[33], the Chinese government often uses subversion of state power clause to imprison those who are critical of the government.[34] Also, there is very heavy government involvement in the media, with most of the largest media organizations being run directly by the government. Chinese law forbids the advocation of independence or self-determination for territories Beijing considers under its jurisdiction, as well as public challenge to the CCP's monopoly in ruling China. Thus references to democracy, the Free Tibet movement, Taiwan as an independent state, certain religious organizations and anything remotely questioning the legitimacy of the Communist Party of China are banned from use in publications and blocked on the Internet. PRC journalist He Qinglian in her 2004 book Media Control in China[35] examined government controls on the Internet in China[36] and on all media. Her book shows how PRC media controls rely on confidential guidance from the Communist Party propaganda department, intense monitoring, and punishment for violators rather than on pre-publication censorship. Censorship in the Peoples Republic of China is the limiting or suppressing of the publishing, dissemination, and viewing of certain information in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Within the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), there is heavy government involvement in the media, with many of the largest media organizations (namely CCTV, the Peoples Daily, and Xinhua) being agencies of the government of the PRC. There are certain taboos and red lines within the media in... Self-determination is a principle in international law that a people ought to be able to determine their own governmental forms and structure free from outside influence. ... Internet censorship in the Peoples Republic of China is conducted under a wide variety of laws and administrative regulations. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Recently, foreign web portals including Microsoft Live Search, Yahoo! Search, and Google Search China[37] have come under criticism for aiding in these practices, including banning the word "Democracy" from its chat-rooms in China. Some North American or European films are not given permission to play in Chinese theatres, although piracy of the same movies is widespread.[38]


Freedom of movement

For more details on this topic, see Hukou.

The Communist Party came to power in the late 1940s and instigated a command economy. In the 1958, Mao set up a residency permit system defining where people could work, and classified an individual as "rural" or "urban" worker.[39] A worker seeking to move from the country to urban areas to take up non-agricultural work would have to apply through the relevant bureaucracies. The number of workers allowed to make such moves was tightly controlled. People who worked outside their authorized domain or geographical area would not qualify for grain rations, employer-provided housing, or health care.[40] There were controls over education, employment, marriage and so on.[39] One purpose is to prevent the possible chaos caused by the predictable large scale urbanization. It is alleged that people of Han nationality in Tibet have a far easier time acquiring the necessary permits to live in urban areas than ethnic Tibetans do.[41] A hùkǒu (Chinese: ) or hùjí (Chinese: ) refers to residency permits (household registration) issued in mainland China (by the Peoples Republic of China) and Taiwan (by the Republic of China). ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China and also the worlds largest political party. ... A planned economy is an economic system in which economic decisions are made by centralized planners, who determine what sorts of goods and services to produce, and how they are to be priced and allocated. ...


Urban dwellers enjoy a range of social, economic and cultural benefits while peasants, the majority of the Chinese population, are treated as second-class citizens.[42]


An article in The Washington Times, reported in 2000 that although migrants laborers play an important part in spreading wealth in Chinese villages, they are treated "like second-class citizens by a system so discriminatory that it has been likened to apartheid."[43] Another author making similar comparison is Anita Chan, in which she furthers that China's household registration and temporary residence permit system has created a situation analogous to the passbook system in apartheid South Africa, which were designed to regulate the supply of cheap labor.[44] The Washington Times[1] is a daily broadsheet newspaper published in Washington, D.C., United States. ...


Abolition was proposed in 11 provinces, mainly along the developed eastern coast. The law has already been changed such that migrant workers no longer faced summary arrest, after a widely publicised incident in 2003, when a university-educated migrant died in Guangdong province. This particular scandal was exposed by a Beijing law lecturer, Mr Xu, who claims it spelt the end of the hukou system. He further believes that, at least in most smaller cities, the system had already been abandoned. Mr Xu continued: "Even in big cities like Beijing and Shanghai, it has almost lost its function".[45]

Special administrative regions

Also as a result of the one country, two systems policy initiated in the late 20th century, Chinese citizens must gain permission from the government to travel to the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macao. One country, two systems (Simplified Chinese: 一国两制; Traditional Chinese: 一國兩制; pinyin: yì; guó liÇŽng zhì; Jyutping: jat1 gwok3 loeng5 zai3; Yale: yāt gwok leúhng jai), is an idea originally proposed by Deng Xiaoping, then Paramount Leader of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), for the unification of China. ... A Special Administrative Region (SAR) (Simplified Chinese: 特别行政区; Traditional Chinese: 特別行政區; pinyin: tèbié xíngzhèngqū; Cantonese IPA: /tɐk6piːt6 hɐŋ4tsɪŋ3kʰɵy1/; Jyutping: dak6bit6 hang4zing3keoi1; Yale: dahkbiht hàhngjingkeūi) is a political subdivision of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Treatment of rural workers

In November 2005 Jiang Wenran, acting director of the China Institute at the University of Alberta, said this system has been "one of the most strictly enforced 'apartheid' social structures in modern world history." He stated "Urban dwellers enjoy a range of social, economic and cultural benefits while peasants, the majority of the Chinese population, are treated as second-class citizens." The University of Alberta (U of A) is a public coeducational research university located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. ...


The discrimination enforced by the hukou system became particularly onerous in the 1980s after hundreds of millions of migrant laborers were forced out of state corporations and co-operatives.[46] The system classifies workers as "urban" or "rural",[40][47] and attempts by workers classified as "rural" to move to urban centers were tightly controlled by the Chinese bureaucracy, which enforced its control by denying access to essential goods and services such as grain rations, housing, and health care,[40] and by regularly closing down migrant workers' private schools.[46] The hukuo system also enforced pass laws similar to those in South Africa,[48][44] with "rural" workers requiring six passes to work in provinces other than their own,[46] and periodic police raids which rounded up those without permits, placed them in detention centers, and deported them.[48] As in South Africa, the restrictions placed on the mobility of migrant workers were pervasive,[46] and transient workers were forced to live a precarious existence in company dormitories or shanty towns, and suffering abusive consequences.[44] Anita Chan furthers that China's household registration and temporary residence permit system has created a situation analogous to the passbook system in apartheid South Africa, which were designed to regulate the supply of cheap labor.[44][49][39][50][40][47] Pass Laws were introduced by the British governors in South Africa in 1923 to regulate movement of black Africans into urban areas. ... Shanty towns are units of irregular low-cost and self-constructed housing built on terrain seized and occupied illegally -- usually on lands belonging to third parties, most often located in the urban periphery of the cities. ...


David Whitehouse divides what he describes as "Chinese apartheid" into three distinct phases: The first phase occurred during the state capitalist phase of China's economy, from around 1953 to the death of Mao Zedong in 1976. The second "neoliberal" phase lasted from 1978 to 2001, and the third lasted from 2001 to the present. During the first phase, the exploitation of rural labor, the passbook system, and in particular the non-portable rights associated with one's status, created what Whitehouse calls "an apartheid system". As with South Africa, the ruling party made some concessions to rural workers to make life in rural areas "survivable... if not easy or pleasant". During the second phase, as China transitioned from state capitalism to market capitalism, export-processing zones were created in city suburbs, where mostly female migrants worked under oppressive sweatshop conditions. The third phase was characterized by the weakening of the hukou controls; by 2004 the Chinese Ministry of Agriculture counted over 100 million people registered as "rural" working in cities.[51] There are multiple definitions of the term state capitalism. ... Mao redirects here. ... For the school of international relations, see Neoliberalism in international relations. ... A sweatshop is a factory where workers make products in very poor working conditions. ...


Au Loong-yu, Nan Shan, and Zhang Ping of the Committee for Asian Women argue this system oppresses women more severely than men,[52] and see seven distinct elements giving rise to what they describe as "[t]he regime of spatial and social apartheid" which keeps rural Chinese in their subordinate status:

  1. The repressive regime at the factory level;
  2. the paramilitary forces at local level;
  3. the ‘local protectionism’ of local governments;
  4. the fiercely pro-business and pro-government attitude of the local press;
  5. the fiercely pro-business and pro-government attitude of the branches of ACFTU;
  6. pro-government local courts; and
  7. the discriminatory hukou system.[53]

They agree that the gradual relaxation of some of the more repressive aspects of the hukou system since the mid-1990s has largely eliminated the spatial aspect of the apartheid; for example, workers can now buy one year permits to reside in cities, and since 2003 the police no longer jail and deport people who lack local hukou passes. However, they point out the still-hereditary nature of the hukou system, and state that the "substance of the social apartheid in general and the hukou system in particular remains intact." Migrant workers are permanently marked as outsiders and remain second-class citizens, and are denied access to good jobs or upward mobility, thus forcing their eventual return to their place of origin.[54] The All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) is the sole national trade union federation of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Whitehouse sees the analogy to South Africa's apartheid system breaking down in two areas: First, under a system called xia xiang, or "sending down", individuals or even entire factories of urban workers were sometimes re-classified as rural workers and sent to live in the countryside (at lower wages and benefits). By contrast, white workers in South Africa were never sent to work in Bantustans. Second, the ideology driving China's apartheid system was Maoism, not racism, as is South African apartheid.[51] Anita Chan agrees with Whitehouse on this point, noting that while the hukou system shares many of the characteristics of the South African apartheid system, including its underlying economic logic, the racial element is not present.[44] Bantustan refers to any of the territories designated as tribal homelands for black South Africans during the Apartheid era. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota...


The Chinese Ministry of Public Security justified these practices on the grounds that they assisted the police in tracking down criminals and maintaining public order, and provided demographic data for government planning and programs.[55] The Ministry of Public Security (MPS) (公安部, pinyin: gōng ān bù) is the principal police authority in the mainland of the Peoples Republic of China and the agency that is responsible for most of the day-to-day police work in mainland China. ...


"Pass System" treatment of migrant workers

"Rural" workers would require six passes to work in provinces other than their own,[46] and periodic police raids which rounded up those without permits, placed them in detention centers, and deported them.[48] Restrictions placed on the mobility of migrant workers were pervasive,[46] and some transient workers were forced to live a precarious existence in company dormitories or shanty towns, and suffering abusive consequences.[44] The system, which has targeted China's 800 million rural peasants for decades, has been described by journalists Peter Alexander and Anita Chan as "China's apartheid".[56][47] Shanty towns are units of irregular low-cost and self-constructed housing built on terrain seized and occupied illegally -- usually on lands belonging to third parties, most often located in the urban periphery of the cities. ...


According to Peter Alexander and Anita Chan, China's export-oriented growth has been based on the labor of poorly paid and treated migrant workers, using a pass system similar to the one used in South Africa's apartheid, in which massive abuses of human rights have been observed.[57] Pass laws in South Africa were designed to segregate the population and were one of the dominant features of the countrys apartheid system. ...


An article in The Washington Times, reported in 2000 that although migrant laborers play an important part in spreading wealth in Chinese villages, they are treated "like second-class citizens by a system so discriminatory that it has been likened to apartheid."[58] The Washington Times[1] is a daily broadsheet newspaper published in Washington, D.C., United States. ...


The embassy of the China in South Africa, posted a letter to the editor of The Star dated February 22, 2007 , under the title Article on China presents racism rumours as fact, in which a reader stated that "It's pure incitement to proclaim 'Chinese apartheid' in reference to migrant labour being kept out of the cities."[59] The Star is a Gauteng Province, South Africa based newspaper with a readership of 618,000. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Religious freedom

Main article: Freedom of religion in the People's Republic of China

During the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976), particularly the Destruction of Four Olds campaign, religious affairs of all types were persecuted and discouraged by the Communists with many religious buildings looted and destroyed. Since then, there have been efforts to repair, reconstruct and protect historical and cultural religious sites.[60] Critics say that not enough has been done to repair or restore damaged and destroyed sites.[61] This article is about the Peoples Republic of China. ... Chinese art from the Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD), an example of art that had survived the Four Olds destruction The Four Olds or the Four Old Things (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) were Old Custom, Old Culture, Old Habits, and Old Ideas. ...


The 1982 Constitution technically guarantees its citizens the right to believe in any religion, however this is not to be confused with the general concept of "Freedom of Religion" as is commonly referred to in the West as the right to practice religion in any way you see fit without government interference. [62] This freedom is subject to restrictions, as all religious groups must be registered with the government and are prohibited from having loyalties outside of China. In addition, the communist government continually tries to maintain control over not only religious content, but also leadership choices such as the choosing of bishops and other spiritual leaders. Considering all party leaders must be communist, the ability of such officials to intelligently choose religious leaders is highly questionable. For example, the recently appointed Bishop in China was not appointed by the Pope as has been the Catholic Church's practice up until this time.[63] The government argues that such restriction is necessary to prevent foreign political influence eroding Chinese sovereignty, though groups affected by this deny that they have any desire to interfere in China's political affairs. This has led to an effective prohibition on those religious practices that by definition involve allegiance to a foreign spiritual leader or organization, (e.g. Catholicism - see Catholicism in China) although tacit allegiance to such individuals and bodies inside these groups is not uncommon. "Unregistered religious groups ... experience varying degrees of official interference, harassment, and repression."[64] As a Christian ecclesiastical term, Catholic—from the Greek adjective , meaning general or universal[1]—is described in the Oxford English Dictionary as follows: ~Church, (originally) whole body of Christians; ~, belonging to or in accord with (a) this, (b) the church before separation into Greek or Eastern and Latin or... Catholicism in China has a long and complicated history. ...


Particularly troubling is the lack of transparency involved in recently chosen Tibetan spiritual leaders. China attempts to intervene in the reincarnation of Tibetan spiritual leaders and has indicated it will oversee the search for a new leader after the Dalai Lama passes away. Beijing indicates that spiritual leaders must obtain approval before they reincarnate.[65] Even more troubling is China's dealings with previously identified reincarnations of past leaders. For example, the child who was identified as the new Panchen Lama by Tibetan spiritual leaders was first detained by Chinese authorities and then disappeared. The child has not been seen since, has spent the last 12 years in detention and has effectively been robbed of his childhood. Repeated requests made by visitor heads of state, including Canadian prime minister. <re>[9]</ref> Reporters and tourists visiting Tibet note that monasteries are subject to video surveillance. Other examples of the lack of religious freedom are[66]: 1) quotas instituted by Beijing on the number of monks to reduce the spiritual population 2) Forced denunciation of the Dalai Lama as a spiritual leader or expulsion 3) Government expulsion from monasteries of monks they do not approve 4) Forced recitation of patriotic scripts supporting China or expulsion 5) Restriction of religious study before age 18


Numerous other instances of detention for unpatriotic acts have also been recorded, an example of this would be the detention of monks celebrating the reception of the Medal of Honor by a Tibetan monk.[67] The effects have been drastic, whereas one large temple in Tibet once was a place of worship for over 10,000 monks, it is now only home to 600 and Beijing now restricts total membership in any monastery to 700.[68]


Another problem is that members of the Communist Party have to be atheists according to the Party's constitution. As Party membership is required for many high level careers, being openly religious can limit one's economic prospects. For information about the band, see Atheist (band). ...


The government of the People's Republic of China tries to maintain tight control over all religions, so the only legal Christian Churches (Three-Self Patriotic Movement and Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association) are those under the Communist Party of China control. It has been claimed by many that the teachings in the state-approved Churches are at least monitored and sometimes modified by the Party. The Three-Self Patriotic Movement (officially 中国基督教三自爱国运动委员会, China Christian Three-Self Patriotic Movement Committee; colloquially 三自教会, the Three-Self Church) and the China Christian Council (中国基督教协会) are two pro-government (patriotic) Christian organizations in the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association (Chinese: 中国天主教爱国会, pinyin: Zhōngguó Tiānzhǔjiào Àiguó Huì), abbreviated CPA, CPCA, or CCPA, is a division, established in 1957, of the Peoples Republic of Chinas Religious Affairs Bureau to exercise state supervision over mainland Chinas Catholics. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China and also the worlds largest political party. ...


Because Chinese House Churches operate outside government regulations and restrictions, their members and leaders are sometimes harassed by local government officials. This persecution may take the form of a prison sentence or, more commonly, reeducation through labour. Heavy fines also are not uncommon, with personal effects being confiscated in lieu of payment if this is refused or unavailable. Unlike Falun Gong, however, house churches have not officially been outlawed, and since the 1990s, there has been increasing official tolerance of house churches. Most observers believe that the harassment of house churches by government officials arises less from an ideological opposition to religion and support of atheism than out of fears of a center of popular mobilization outside the control of the Communist Party of China. It is important to note that the actions of the PRC are polar to those who follow the Socialist ideology, it is widely believed by citizens and foreigners alike that Chinese Socialism died with Mao. Chinese house churches are unregistered Christian churches in the Peoples Republic of China, which operate independently of the government_run Three-Self Patriotic Movement (TSPM) and China Christian Council (CCC) for Protestant groups and the Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association (CCPA) and the Chinese Catholic Bishops Council (CCBC) for Catholics. ...


Falun Gong

On July 20, 1999, the government of the People's Republic of China (PRC) banned Falun Gong and began a nationwide crackdown on the practice, except in the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. The actions taken by the Chinese government against Falun Gong are referred to as "persecution" by some overseas governments, international human rights organizations, and scholars. Falun Gong, (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; literally Practice of the Wheel of Law) also known as Falun Dafa, (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; lit. ... Falun Gong practitioners enacting torture scenes in New York City Demonstration against persecution of Falun Gong at the 2004 Republican National Convention in New York City Arrest of People practicing the 5th. ... Falun Gong, (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; literally Practice of the Wheel of Law) also known as Falun Dafa, (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; lit. ...


The crackdown began following seven years of widespread popularity and rapid growth of the practice within mainland China.[69][70] A New York Times article reported that there were 70 million practitioners in China in 1998, a figure coming from the Chinese government.[71][72] A series of appeals and petitions made by practitioners to the authorities in 1999, in particular the 10,000 person gathering at Zhongnanhai on April 25, eventually led to the decision to outlaw and persecute Falun Gong.[73] A World Journal article suggested that certain high-level Party officials had wanted to crack down on the practice for a several years, but lacked sufficient pretext until this time.[73] Jiang Zemin is often considered to be largely personally responsible for the final decision, both by Falun Gong and academics. Possible motives include personal jealously of Li Hongzhi,[74] anger, and ideological struggle.[75] Others implicate the nature of Communist Party rule and a perceived challenge to it as causes for the crackdown.[76] The government explanation for the crackdown was that Falun Gong was "jeopardising social stability," and "engaged in illegal activities."[77] Legislation to outlaw Falun Gong was created and enforced retroactively.[78]


The Party mobilized every aspect of society to become involved in the persecution, including the media apparatus, police force, army, education system, families and workplaces.[79] An extra-constitutional body, the "6-10 Office" was created to do what Forbes describes as "[overseeing] the terror campaign."[80] The campaign was driven by large-scale propaganda through television, newspaper, radio and internet.[78] Families and workplaces were urged to cooperate with the government's position on Falun Gong, while practitioners themselves were subject to various coercive measures to have them recant their beliefs.[81]


Amnesty International states that the persecution is politically motivated and a restriction of fundamental freedoms. Particular concerns have been raised over reports of torture, illegal imprisonment including forced labour, psychiatric abuses,[82][83] and since early 2006, allegations of systematic organ harvesting from living Falun Gong practitioners.[84]


Protests in Beijing were frequent for the first few years following the 1999 edict, though these protests have largely been eradicated.[79] Falun Gong practitioners' presence in mainland China has become more low-profile, often involving methods of informing the general populace through overnight letterbox drops of pro-Falun Gong CD-ROMs. Practitioners have occasionally hacked into state television channels to broadcast pro-Falun Gong materials. Outside of mainland China, practitioners are active in appealing to the governments, media, and people of their respective countries about the situation in China.


One-Child Policy

Main article: One-Child Policy

China's birth control policy, known widely as the One-Child Policy, is seen as ineffective or morally objectionable by many. However, the Chinese government argues that this policy is a necessary solution for their overpopulation[85] problem. Such critics argue that it contributes to forced abortions, human rights violations, female infanticide, abandonment and sex selective abortions. These are believed to be relatively commonplace in some areas of the country, despite being illegal and punishable by fines and jail time.[86] This is thought to have been a significant contribution to the gender imbalance in mainland China, where there is a 118 to 100 ratio of male to female children reported, although underreported female births may reduce this figure. Forced abortions and sterilizations have also been reported.[87][88] The phrase one-child policy is commonly used in English to refer to the population control policy (or Planned Birth policy) of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... For other uses, see Birth control (disambiguation). ... The phrase one-child policy is commonly used in English to refer to the population control policy (or Planned Birth policy) of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ... Poster of Chinese birth control policy under the slogan Sweet Achievement. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


It is also argued that the one child policy is not effective enough to justify its costs, and that the dramatic decrease in Chinese fertility started before the program began in 1979 for unrelated factors. The policy seems to have had little impact on rural areas (home to about 80% of the population), where birth rates never dropped below 2.5 children per female.[89] Nevertheless, the Chinese government and others estimate that at least 250 million births have been prevented by the policy.[90]


In 2002, the laws related to the One-Child Policy were amended to allow ethnic minorities and Chinese living in rural areas to have more than one child. The policy was generally not enforced in those areas of the country even before this. The policy has been relaxed in urban areas to allow people who were single children to have two children.[91]


Other human rights issues

Worker's rights and privacy are other contentious human rights issues in China. There have been several reports of core International Labor Organization conventions being denied to workers. One such report was released by the International Labor Rights Fund in October 2006 documenting minimum wage violations, long work hours, and inappropriate actions towards workers by management.[92] Workers cannot form their own unions in the workplace, only being able to join State-sanctioned ones. The extent to which these organizations can fight for the rights of Chinese workers is disputed.[93] For other meanings of the ILO abbreviation, see ILO (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Although the Chinese government does not interfere with Chinese people's privacy as much as it used to,[94] it still deems it necessary to keep tabs on what people say in public. Internet forums are strictly monitored, as is international postal mail (this is sometimes inexplicably "delayed" or simply "disappears") and e-mail.[95]


The issue of refugees from North Korea is a recurring one. It is official policy to repatriate them to North Korea, but the policy is not evenly enforced and a considerable number of them stay in the People's Republic (some move on to other countries). Though it is in contravention of international law to deport political refugees, as illegal immigrants their situation is precarious. Their rights are not always protected.[96] Some of them are tricked into marriage or prostitution.[97]


African students in China have complained about their treatment in China, that was largely ignored until 1988-9, when "students rose up in protest against what they called 'Chinese apartheid'".[98] African officials took notice of the issue, and the Organization of African Unity issued an official protest. The organization's chairman, Mali's president Moussa Traoré, went on a fact-finding mission to China.[98] According to a Guardian 1989 Third World Report titled "Chinese apartheid" threatens links with Africa, these practices could threaten Peking's entire relationship with the continent."[99] Flag of the Organisation of African Unity, later also used by the African Union. ... Moussa Traoré (born 25 September 1936) is a Malian soldier and politician. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ...


In 2005 Manfred Nowak visited China as the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Torture. After spending two weeks there, he concluded that torture remained "widespread". He also complained of Chinese officials interfering with his research, including intimidating people he sought to interview.[100] Manfred Nowak is an Austrian human rights lawyer. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Special Rapporteur is a title given to individuals working on behalf of the United Nations who bear a specific mandate from the former UN Commission on Human Rights to investigate, monitor and recommend solutions to human rights problems. ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ...


Counterarguments

China's counterarguments come primarily from the idea of "Asian values"[101] and the need to create a "harmonious society" [102], where the welfare of the collective should always be put ahead of the rights of any individual whenever conflicts between these arise. It is the responsibility of the government to ensure that this is achieved and in some cases, even persuade or force individuals to make sacrifices for the greater good. It would require a strong and stable authority to regulate the potentially conflicting interests of the public and enforce a compromise. Governments with curtailed authority would fail to take on such a responsibility.


They point towards the rapid social deterioration, the increasing geographic, religious and racial segregation, the alarmingly rising crime rates, family breakdown, number of industrial actions, vandalism and political extremism in Western societies, which they believe to be a direct result of an excess of individual freedom – “Too much freedom is dangerous.” [103] According to the Chinese government, these issues are all violations of human rights and should be taken account of when assessing a country's human right records. Furthermore, the government criticizes the United States, which publishes human rights reports annually, by insisting that the United States has also caused human rights abuses such as the invasion of Iraq by American troops.[104]


Further reading

  • Cheng, Lucie, Rossett, Arthur and Woo, Lucie, East Asian Law: Universal Norms and Local Cultures, RoutledgeCurzon, 2003, ISBN 0-415-29735-4
  • Edwards, Catherine, China's Abuses Ignored for Profit, Insight on the News, Vol. 15, December 20, 1999.
  • Foot, Rosemary, Rights beyond Borders: The Global Community and the Struggle over Human Rights in China, Oxford University Press, 2000, ISBN 0-198-29776-9
  • Jones, Carol A.G., Capitalism, Globalization and Rule of Law: An Alternative Trajectory of Legal Change in China, Social and Legal Studies, vol. 3 (1994) pp. 195-220
  • Klotz, Audie, Norms in International Relations: The Struggle against Apartheid, Cornell University Press, 1995, ISBN 0-801-43106-9
  • Knight, J. and Song, L., The Rural-Urban Divide: Economic Disparities and Interactions in China, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-198-29330-5
  • Seymour, James, Human Rights in Chinese Foreign Relations, in , Kim, Samuel S., China and the World: Chinese Foreign Policy Faces the New Millennium Westview Press, 1984. ISBN 0-813-33414-4
  • Svensson, Marina, The Chinese Debate on Asian Values and Human Rights: Some Reflections on Relativism, Nationalism and Orientalism, in Brun, Ole. Human Rights and Asian Values: Contesting National Identities and Cultural Representations in Asia, Ole Bruun, Michael Jacobsen; Curzon, 2000, ISBN 0-700-71212-7
  • Wang, Fei-Ling, Organizing through Division and Exclusion: China's Hukou System, Stanford University Press, 2005, ISBN 0-804-75039-4
  • Zweig, David, Freeing China's Farmers: Rural Restructuring in the Reform Era, M. E. Sharpe, 1997, ISBN 1-563-24838-7
  • The silent majority; China. (Life in a Chinese village), The Economist, April, 2005

The newsmagazine Insight (more fully, Insight on the News), is published by The Washington Times Corporation. ... The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ...

Notes

  1. ^ China Amends Constitution to Guarantee Human Rights By Edward Cody
  2. ^ U.S. Drops China From List of top 10 Violators of Rights
  3. ^ Human rights can be manifested differently
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  5. ^ Varieties of Conflict of Laws in China (2002-11-25). Retrieved on 2006-08-23.
  6. ^ Yardley, Jim (2005-11-28). A young judge tests China's legal system. Retrieved on 2006-08-23.
  7. ^ SINGAPORE The death penalty: A hidden toll of executions
  8. ^ Amnesty International's report on China
  9. ^ The Death Penalty in 2005
  10. ^ Jakes, Susan. China's Message on Executions. Time.com.
  11. ^ U.S. Finds No Evidence of Alleged Concentration Camp in China, U.S. State Department, April 16, 2006
  12. ^ a b Thomas Lum, Congressional Research Report #RL33437, page CRS-8, Congressional Research Service, August 11 2006
  13. ^ Harry Wu challenges Falun Gong organ harvesting claims, South China Morning Post, September 8, 2006
  14. ^ The Monitor's View (August 3, 2006)"Organ harvesting and China's openness", The Christian Science Monitor, retrieved August 6, 2006
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  21. ^ The New York Times International, Sunday June 10, 2007, page 12
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  24. ^ "Profile: The Dalai Lama", BBC News, April 25, 2006.
  25. ^ United States Congressional Serial Set, United States Government Printing Office, 1993, p. 110.
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  42. ^ Luard, Tim. "China rethinks peasant 'apartheid'", BBC News, November 10, 2005.
  43. ^ Macleod, Calum and Macleod, Lijia China's migrants bear brunt of bias, The Washington Times, July 14, 2000.
    "Sending up to 50 percent of their earnings home, migrants play an important role in spreading wealth down to the villages. Yet they are still treated like second-class citizens by a system so discriminatory that it has been likened to apartheid."
  44. ^ a b c d e f Chan, Anita, China's Workers under Assault: The Exploitation of Labor in a Globalizing Economy, Introduction chapter, M.E. Sharpe. 2001, ISBN 0-765-60358-6
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  46. ^ a b c d e f "Chinese apartheid: Migrant labourers, numbering in hundreds of millions, who have been ejected from state concerns and co-operatives since the 1980s as China instituted "socialist capitalism", have to have six passes before they are allowed to work in provinces other than their own. In many cities, private schools for migrant labourers are routinely closed down to discourage migration." "From politics to health policies: why they're in trouble", The Star, February 6, 2007.
  47. ^ a b c "China's apartheid-like household registration system, introduced in the 1950s, still divides the population into two distinct groups, urban and rural." Chan, Anita & Senser, Robert A. "China's Troubled Workers", Foreign Affairs, March / April 1997.
  48. ^ a b c "The application of these regulations is reminiscent of apartheid South Africa's hated pass laws. Police carry out raids periodically to round up those tho do not possess a temporary residence permit. Those without papers are placed in detention centres and then removed from cities." Waddington, Jeremy. Globalization and Patterns of Labour Resistance, Routledge, 1999, p. 82.
  49. ^ "HIGHLIGHT: Discrimination against rural migrants is China's apartheid: Certainly, the discrimination against the country-born is China's form of apartheid. It is an offence against human rights on a much bigger scale than the treatment of the tiny handful of dissidents dogged enough to speak up against the state." "Country Cousins", The Economist, April 8, 2000.
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  52. ^ "We further identify seven elements of the repressive regime at the national, municipal and local levels, and argue that the combined results of these elements have given rise to a kind of spatial and social apartheid which systematically discriminates against the rural population, with women being the most oppressed." Au Loong-yu, Nan Shan, Zhang Ping. Women Migrant Workers under the Chinese Social ApartheidPDF (2.01 MiB), Committee for Asian Women, May 2007, p. 1.
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  54. ^ "Since the middle of 1990’s the hukou system has been gradually relaxed. First, rural residents were permitted to buy a temporary (usually one year) urban residential card, which allowed them to work legally. The fees for such permits gradually decreased to a fairly affordable level. Beginning from 1998, parents have been able to pass down their hukou either through the father’s or the mother’s line, hence the triple discrimination against rural women has been alleviated. In 2003, after the uproar surrounding the death of Sun Zhigang alarmed the authorities, the laws on jailing and repatriating ‘undocumented’ people (those failing to produce local hukou) were abolished. Thus the spatial aspect of the apartheid has now largely been eliminated. However, the substance of the social apartheid in general and the hukou system in particular remains intact. The permanent mark of being an outsider and second class citizen remains, and prevents migrant workers from achieving significant upward mobility in cities. Most decent jobs are still reserved for people who possess local hukou. Migrants can only get badly paid jobs. They still have no future in the cities, and may only work there for some years and then return to their home village." Au Loong-yu, Nan Shan, Zhang Ping. Women Migrant Workers under the Chinese Social ApartheidPDF (2.01 MiB), Committee for Asian Women, May 2007, p. 11.
  55. ^ "The hukou system has been criticized in some quarters and has been called 'the equivalent of and apartheid system between rural and urban residents' (China Labor Bulletin, February 25, 2002). However, the Ministry of Public Security has continued to justify the hukou system as an instrument for keeping public order (the ministry said it allowed the police to track down criminals more easily) and for providing demographic data for planning and program formulation." Laquian, Aprodicio A. Beyond Metropolis: The Planning and Governance of Asia's Mega-Urban Regions, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005, pp. 320-321.
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    China's household registration system (HRS) maintains a rigid distinction between China's rural population, that is people who have a rural hukou (household registration), and urban residents, who have an urban hukou. Movement of rural people into the cities is restricted, and they require a permit to stay and work temporarily in any urban area. If caught without these permits, people with a rural hukou could be placed in a detention centre, fined, and deported back to their home village or home town (that is, 'endorsed out', to borrow a South African expression). Those with a rural hukou who obtain a temporary employment permit to work in an urban area are not entitled to the pensions, schooling, unemployment benefits, etc. enjoyed by those who have an urban hukou. There are, in short, some obvious and significant similarities between the two countries, but a closer examination is required before we can consider equating China's pass system with what operated in apartheid South Africa." [...]" The combination of these four factors may explain why China has developed a quasi-apartheid pass system. The fact that it has such a system underlines the reality that China's export-oriented economic growth has been built, in large measure, on the labour of poorly paid and appallingly treated migrant workers. In China today, as in apartheid South Africa, the pass system is associated with massive abuses of human rights, and its retention should be opposed."
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Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is an international newspaper published daily, Monday through Friday. ... The Ottawa Citizen (established 1845) is an English-language daily newspaper owned by CanWest Global in Ottawa, Canada. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... The Heritage Foundation is one of the most prominent conservative think tanks in the United States. ... Prof. ... For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... The Star is a Gauteng Province, South Africa based newspaper with a readership of 618,000. ... This article is about a journal. ... The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ... Project Syndicate is an international not-for-profit newspaper syndicate and association of newspapers. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... “PDF” redirects here. ... MiB redirects here. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... MiB redirects here. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... MiB redirects here. ... The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ... Xinhua (Chinese:新华通讯社/新華通訊社, pinyin:xīnhuá tōngxùnshè) is also the short for Xinhua News Agency Xinhua (Chinese:新化县/新化縣, pinyin:xīnhuà xiàn) is a county in Hunan,China, See Xinhua County. ... The Peoples Daily (Chinese: 人民日报 Pinyin ) is the official newspaper of the Communist Party of China, published worldwide with a circulation of 3 to 4 million. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... BBC News website in June 2007. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • "Country Cousins", The Economist, April 8, 2000.
  • "Dalai Lama honours Tintin and Tutu", BBC News, June 2, 2006.
  • "From politics to health policies: why they're in trouble", The Star, February 6, 2007.
  • "Online encyclopedia Wikipedia founder raps firms aiding China censorship" , Associated Press Financial Wire, March 8, 2007.
  • "Profile: The Dalai Lama", BBC News, April 25, 2006.
  • "Tutu calls on China to 'do the right thing' in Tibet", International Campaign for Tibet, June 1, 2006.
  • United States Congressional Serial Set, United States Government Printing Office, 1993.
  • "What do we expect the United Kingdom to do?", Tibet Vigil UK, June 2002. Accessed June 25, 2006.
  • Au Loong-yu, Nan Shan, Zhang Ping. Women Migrant Workers under the Chinese Social ApartheidPDF (2.01 MiB), Committee for Asian Women, May 2007.
  • Chan, Anita. China's Workers Under Assault: The Exploitation of Labor in a Globalizing Economy, M.E. Sharpe, 2001. ISBN 0765603578
  • Chan, Anita & Senser, Robert A. "China's Troubled Workers", Foreign Affairs, March / April 1997.
  • Elliott, Mark C. The Manchu Way: The 8 Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China, Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0804736065
  • Goble, Paul. "China: Analysis From Washington -- A Breakthrough For Tibet", World Tibet Network News, Canada Tibet Committee, August 31, 2001.
  • Laquian, Aprodicio A. Beyond Metropolis: The Planning and Governance of Asia's Mega-Urban Regions, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005. ISBN 0801881765
  • Lasater, Martin L. & Conboy, Kenneth J. "Why the World Is Watching Beijing's Treatment of Tibet", Heritage Foundation, October 9, 1987.
  • Luard, Tim. "China rethinks peasant 'apartheid'", BBC News, November 10, 2005.
  • Macleod, Calum. "China reviews `apartheid' for 900 m peasants", The Independent, June 10, 2001.
  • Neville-Hadley, Peter. Frommer's China, Frommers.com, 2003. ISBN 0764567551
  • Robinson, Thomas W. & Shambaugh, David L. Chinese Foreign Policy: Theory and Practice, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198290160
  • Rosenthal, A.M. "China's 'Apartheid' Taiwan Policy." The New York Times, December 4, 1995.
  • Snow, Phillip. "Third World Report: 'Chinese apartheid' threatens links with Africa", The Guardian, January 20, 1989.
  • Waddington, Jeremy. Globalization and Patterns of Labour Resistance, Routledge, 1999. ISBN 0720123690
  • Whitehouse, David. "Chinese workers and peasants in three phases of accumulation"PDF (73.5 KiB), Paper delivered at the Colloquium on Economy, Society and Nature, sponsored by the Centre for Civil Society at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, March 2, 2006. Retrieved August 1, 2007.
  • Wildasin, David E. "Factor mobility, risk, inequality, and redistribution" in David Pines, Efraim Sadka, Itzhak Zilcha, Topics in Public Economics: Theoretical and Applied Analysis, Cambridge University Press, 1998. ISBN 0521561361
  • Yao, Shunli. "China's WTO Revolution", Project Syndicate, June, 2002

The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... The Star is a Gauteng Province, South Africa based newspaper with a readership of 618,000. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... MiB redirects here. ... This article is about a journal. ... The Heritage Foundation is one of the most prominent conservative think tanks in the United States. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ... Frommers is a renowned travel guidebook series and the bestselling travel guides in America. ... Abraham Michael A.M. Rosenthal (May 2, 1922 – May 10, 2006), born in Sault Ste. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Project Syndicate is an international not-for-profit newspaper syndicate and association of newspapers. ...

See also

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... alternative Chinese name Traditional Chinese: Simplified Chinese: Literal meaning: Tiananmen Incident The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, widely known as the Tiananmen Square Massacre, in China referred to as the June Fourth Incident to avoid confusion with the two other Tiananmen Square protests and as an act of official censorship... The Hong Kong Alliance in Support of Patriotic Democratic Movements in China (the Alliance) (香港市民支援愛國民主運動聯合會 or 支聯會) is a pro-democratic organization that was established on May 21, 1989 with the purpose of supporting patriotic democratic movements in China. ... Internet censorship in the Peoples Republic of China is conducted under a wide variety of laws and administrative regulations. ... Human Rights in China (HRIC; Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is an international, Chinese, non-governmental organization with a mission to promote universally recognized human rights and advance the institutional protection of these rights in the People’s Republic of China. ... In 2004 more than 11,000 farmers in Hebei Province of China signed a petition calling for the removal of Communist Party officials who were allegedly involved in corruption. ... Map of laogai in China Laogai (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), the abbreviation for Laodong Gaizao(勞動改造), which means reform through labor, is a slogan of the Chinese criminal justice system and has been used to refer to the use of prison labor in the Peoples Republic of China. ...

External links

  • MacLeod, Calum, China reviews 'apartheid' for 900 m peasants, Jun 10, 2001, The Independent, London
  • Human Rights in China by China Internet Information Center, under the administration of the China State Council Information Office.
  • Human rights can be manifested differently by XinhuaNet
  • UN Human Development Report 2003 on China by the United Nations Development Programme
  • 2004 Human Rights Report on China by the United States Department of State
  • JURIST China - Chinese law, legal research, human rights
  • Olympic Watch: Human Rights in China and Beijing 2008 - Campaign for human rights improvements in China before the 2008 Olympic Games
  • Human Rights In China - International NGO based in New York and Hong Kong
  • Human Rights Watch: China and Tibet
  • International Federation for Justice in China
  • International Freedom of Expression eXchange - monitors freedom of expression in China
  • The China Support Network
  • Support Democracy in China
  • Status of Chinese People
  • China Human Rights
  • Wei Jingshen Foundation
  • Who shows more respect for human rights? - Editorial published by the People's Daily

For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ... The State Council (国务院, pinyin: Guówùyuàn), which is largely synonymous with the Central Peoples Government (中央人民政府), is the chief administrative authority of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Xinhua (Chinese:新华通讯社/新華通訊社, pinyin:xīnhuá tōngxùnshè) is also the short for Xinhua News Agency Xinhua (Chinese:新化县/新化縣, pinyin:xīnhuà xiàn) is a county in Hunan,China, See Xinhua County. ... The United Nations Development Programe (UNDP), the United Nations global development network, is the largest multilateral source of development assistance in the world. ... Department of State redirects here. ... International Freedom of Expression eXchange. ... The Peoples Daily (Chinese: 人民日报 Pinyin ) is the official newspaper of the Communist Party of China, published worldwide with a circulation of 3 to 4 million. ...

Video

This is a list of countries spanning more than one continent. ... Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and Republic of China (Taiwan) For other meanings, see China (disambiguation). ... China stretches some 5,000 kilometers across the East Asian landmass in an eratically changing configuration of broad plains, expansive deserts, and lofty mountain ranges, including vast areas of inhospitable terrain. ... The Water resources of China are affected by pollution, contamination and regional scarcity. ... This is a list of rivers which are at least partially located in China, classified according to their respective termini: // Indus (印度河) Yarlung Tsangpo River (Brahmaputra) (雅鲁藏布江) (joins the Ganges) [1] Salween (萨尔温江 or 怒江) Mekong (江) Red River (Vietnam) (红河, a. ... Lakes in China include: Dagze Co Lake Dian Dongting Lake Erhai Lake Gaoyou Lake Hongze Lake Lugu Lake Luoma Lake Lake Poyang Qiandao Lake Qinghai Hu (Koko Nor) Taihu Lake Tianchi West Lake Yangcheng Lake Lumajangdong See also: Lake Tianchi Monster http://www. ... This is a list of active and extinct volcanoes in China. ... Chinese Mountain Cat Wildlife of China includes its flora and fauna and their natural habitats. ... In the Peoples Republic of China, National Scenic and Historic Interest Area is the exact equivalent of the National Park, as specified by the Ministry of Construction in 1994. ... List of UNESCO Biosphere Reserves in China - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The China Sea can refer to the: South China Sea, or East China Sea This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Provinces (Simplified Chinese: 省, Traditional Chinese: 省, Hanyu Pinyin romanization: shÄ›ng) Autonomous regions (Simplified Chinese: 自治区, Traditional Chinese: 自治區, Hanyu Pinyin romanization: Zìzhìqū) Municipalities (Simplified Chinese: 直辖市, Traditional Chinese: 直轄市, Hanyu Pinyin romanization: Zhíxiáshì) Special Administrative Regions (Simplified Chinese: 特别行政区, Traditional Chinese: 特別行政區, Hanyu Pinyin romanization: Tèbié xíngzhèngqū) ... A province, in the context of China, is a translation of Sheng (Chinese: 省 ShÄ›ng), which is an administrative division of China. ... According to administrative divisions of the Peoples Republic of China, there are three level of cities, namely municipalities, prefecture-level cities, and county-level cities. ... The North China Plain (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also called the Central Plain(s) (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is based on the deposits of the Huang He (Yellow River) and is the largest alluvial plain of eastern Asia. ... Zhongyuan redirects here. ... China, with its large territory, spans across the longitude of five time zones. ... // Introduction China is one of the most victimized countries in the world by natural disasters. ... East China Charter Township is a charter township located in St. ... Approximate extent Northeast China (Simplified Chinese: 东北; Traditional Chinese: 東北; pinyin: Dōngběi; literally east-north), historically known as Manchuria, is the name of a region (ca. ... Northern Peoples Republic of China region. ... Western China refers to the western part of China. ... Northwestern China Northwestern China (西北, XÄ«bÄ›i) includes the autonomous regions of Xinjiang and Ningxia and the provinces of Shaanxi, Gansu, and Qinghai. ... The southwestern Peoples Republic of China region. ... The South Central region of the Peoples Republic of China South Central China (Chinese: 中南; pinyin: Zhōngnán) is a region of the Peoples Republic of China defined by governmental bureaus that includes the provinces of Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Guangdong and Hainan, and the Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region. ... Demographics of China, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... This article is about migration in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Sexuality in China has undergone revolutionary changes and this sexual revolution still continues today. ... Social issues in the Peoples Republic of China in the 21st century are varied. ... Chinese social relations are social relations typified by a reciprocal social network. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Chinas Generation Y (Gen Y) is a generation of approximately 240 million people born between 1980 and 1990. ... When the Communist Party of China came to power in 1949, its leaders fundamental long-range goals were to transform China into a modern, powerful, socialist nation. ... Chinese Economic Reform (Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) refers to the program of economic changes called Socialism with Chinese characteristics in the mainland of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) that were started in 1978 by pragmatists within the Communist Party of China (CPC) led by Deng Xiaoping and are ongoing... This article is about Communications in mainland China. ... Chinas financial system is highly regulated and relatively underdeveloped, but has recently begun to expand rapidly as monetary policy becomes integral to its overall economic policy. ... Special Economic Zones of the Peoples Republic of China are Special Economic Zones (SEZs) located in mainland China. ... Foreign aid to the Peoples Republic of China takes the form of both bilateral and multilateral official development assistance and official aid to individual recipients. ... Headline text Matthew David Walker ... The term Administration, as used in the context of government, differs according to jurisdiction. ... The flag of the Peoples Republic of China, the Five-Starred Red Flag (五星红旗 in pinyin: wÇ” xÄ«ng hóng qí), was designed by Zeng Liansong, an economist and artist from Ruian (瑞安 ruì ān), Zhejiang. ... The National Emblem of the Peoples Republic of China (中华人民共和国国徽) contains a representation of Tiananmen Gate, the entrance gate of the Forbidden City from the Tiananmen Square in Beijing, in a red circle. ... March of the Volunteers (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the national anthem of the Peoples Republic of China, written in the midst of the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) by the noted poet and playwright Tian Han with music composed by Nie Er. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Government of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Elections in the Peoples Republic of China take two forms: elections for selected local government positions in selected rural villages, and elections by Communist Party peoples congresses for the national legislature: the National Peoples Congress (Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Flag of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) The Nationality Law of the Peoples Republic of China (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó guójí fÇŽ) regulates citizenship in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... The civil service of the Peoples Republic of China consists of civil servants of all levels who run the day-to-day affairs in mainland China. ... The Chinese court system is based on civil law, modeled after the legal systems of Germany and France. ... Since the establishment of the Peoples Republic of China in 1949, the Military of the Peoples Republic of China has grown to include the active and reserve forces of the Peoples Liberation Army, the Peoples Liberation Army Navy, the Peoples Armed Police and the Militia... This article is a list of universities in the Peoples Republic of China by province (22), autonomous region (5), municipality (4), and special administrative region (2). ... This article is about the welfare system in the Peoples Republic of China. ... The foreign relations of the Peoples Republic of China draws upon traditions extending back to China in the Qing Dynasty and the Opium Wars, despite China having undergone many radical upheavals over the past two and a half centuries. ... Law enforcement in the the Peoples Republic of China are divided between the Peoples Armed Police Ministry of Public Security of China The security apparatus is made up of the Ministry of State Security and the Ministry of Public Security, the People’s Armed Police, the People’s... Terrorism in China is primarily committed by Muslim separatist militants in the Xinjiang Uyghur and Tibet autonomous regions. ... Science and technology in China is currently experiencing rapid growth. ... Water supply and sanitation in China is undergoing a massive transition while facing numerous challenges such as rapid urbanization, a widening gap between rich and poor as well as urban and rural areas, as well as water scarcity, contamination and pollution. ... The following are international rankings of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Chinese Jade ornament with flower design, Jin Dynasty (1115-1234 AD), Shanghai Museum. ... The history of Chinese-language cinema has three separate threads of development: Cinema of Hong Kong, Cinema of China, and Cinema of Taiwan. ... Chinese cuisine (Chinese: 中國菜) originated from different regions of China and has become widespread in many other parts of the world — from East Asia to North America, Australasia and Western Europe. ... Chinese literature spans back thousands of years, from the earliest recorded dynastic court archives to the matured fictional novel arising in the medieval period to entertain the masses of literate Chinese. ... The music of China dates back to the dawn of Chinese civilization with documents and artifacts providing evidence of a well-developed musical culture as early as the Zhou Dynasty (1122 BC - 256 BC). ... Yin Yang symbol and Ba gua paved in a clearing outside of Nanning City, Guangxi province, China. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Kung fu redirects here. ... Variety arts in China, including tightrope walking, acrobatics, animal acts, and sleight of hand date back at least as far as the Han dynasty (206 B.C.-A.D. 220) and were very popular in the imperial court. ... A pot of Chinese tea This article does not cite any references or sources. ... National Day in 2004, Beihai Park. ... The History of China is told in traditional historical records that refer as far back as the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... The following is a timeline of the history of China. ... The History of China is told in traditional historical records that refer as far back as the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... ‹ The template below (History of China - BC) is being considered for deletion. ... Main articles: History of China and History of the Peoples Republic of China The history of the Peoples Republic of China is often divided distinctly by historians into the Mao era and the post-Mao era. The Mao era lasted from the founding of the Peoples Republic... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // After the June 4th Incident, a large number of overseas Chinese students were granted political refuge almost unconditionally by foreign governments. ... // In November 2002 Jiang Zemin stepped down from the powerful Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China to make way for a younger fourth generation of leadership led by Hu Jintao. ... The sub-pages of this article aim to list articles on Wikipedia that are related to China, including Hong Kong and Macau. ...

 
 

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