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Encyclopedia > Human Rights in Sri Lanka

Sri Lankan Conflict
Image File history File links Wiki_letter_w. ... Combatants Military of Sri Lanka Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Commanders Junius Richard Jayawardene (1983-89) Ranasinghe Premadasa (1989-93) Dingiri Banda Wijetunge (1993-94) Chandrika Kumaratunga (1994-2005) Mahinda Rajapaksa (2005-present) Velupillai Prabhakaran Strength 111,000[1] 11,000[2] The Sri Lankan civil war is an ongoing...

Image File history File links Flag_of_Sri_Lanka. ...

Background

Sri Lanka • History of Sri Lanka • Human Rights Issues
The recorded History of Sri Lanka is usually taken to begin in the 6th century BCE, when the Indo-Aryan people migrated into the island from India. ...

Origins of the Civil War

Origins of the Sri Lankan civil warRiots and pogromsBlack JulySri Lankan Tamil diasporaAttributed State terrorismPrison massacresAttributed assasinationsTamil militants
The origins of the Sri Lankan civil war lie in sharp disagreements over language, access to universities, and riots between Sri Lankas majority Sinhalese and minority Tamil community. ... Following is a List of riots and pogroms in Sri Lanka. ... Black July is the commonly used name of the genocidal pogroms starting in Sri Lanka on July 23, 1983. ... The Sri Lankan Tamil Diaspora also known as Jaffnese diaspora and Ceylonese diaspora refers to the global diaspora of the people of Sri Lankan Tamil origin. ... Several groups have alleged that there have been instances of state terrorism by Sri Lanka. ... Prison massacres in Sri Lanka have occured in regular intervals since the inception of the civil conflict from 1983. ... Following is a list of Assasinations attributed to Sri Lankan government forces in the ongoing Sri Lankan civil war in Sri Lanka. ... Sri Lankan Tamil militant groups rose to prominence in the 1970s to fight the state of Sri Lanka to create an independent Tamil Eelam. ...

LTTE

LTTEAttributed Terrorist attacks
Child SoldiersAttributed assasinationsNotable Attacks
Tamil Tigers emblem The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), also known as the Tamil Tigers, is a military and political organization that has waged a violent secessionist campaign against the Sri Lankan Government since the 1970s in order to secure independence for the Tamil portions of Sri Lanka. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Military use of children in Sri Lanka has been an internationally recognized problem since the inception of the Sri Lankan civil war in 1983. ... Assassinations, murders and wholesale massacres of civilians in Sri Lanka have become an internationally recognized problem since the inception of the Sri Lankan civil war since 1983. ... LTTE is a rebel group active in Sri Lanka that is banned as a terrorist group by number of countries. ...

Major figures

Velupillai Prabhakaran
Colonel Karuna
Mahinda Rajapakse
Sarath Fonseka
Velupillai Prabhakaran (Tamil: வேலுப்பிள்ளை பிரபாகரன்; born November 26, 1954), sometimes referred to as V. Prabhakaran or Pirabaharan or as Thambi, was born in the northern coastal town of Velvettithurai, Sri Lanka to Thiruvenkadam Velupillai and Vallipuram Parvathy. ... Colonel Karuna Amman is the nom de guerre of Vinayagamoorthi Muralitharan (born 1966), the President of the TamilEela Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal, a breakaway faction of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). ... Mahinda Rajapaksa Mahinda Rajapaksa (born November 18, 1945), Sri Lankan politician, became Prime Minister of Sri Lanka on April 6, 2004, following the victory of the United Peoples Freedom Alliance in the April 2, 2004 Sri Lankan legislative elections. ... Category: ...

Indian Involvement
Indian Peace Keeping ForceRajiv GandhiRAW
See also
TEMVPEPDPMilitary of Sri Lanka
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The situation of human rights in Sri Lanka is generally considered to be very poor[1]. Major human rights groups such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch[1] have repeatedly expressed concern about the states of human rights in Sri Lanka. As well, the U.S State Department has stated that "The civilian authorities generally maintained effective control of the security forces, although some members of the security forces committed serious human right abuses.". [2]. Amnesty International stated in 2003 that There was a major improvement in the human rights situation in the context of a cease-fire and peace talks between the government and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE)[3], however in 2006 revoked the statement saying "grave violations of human rights are on the rise with the escalation of fighting". The European Union has also condemned Sri Lankan security forces in 2000 over human rights, after fighting displaced 12,000 civilians [4]. Location of Sri Lanka Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF), was the Indian military contingent performing a peacekeeping operation that was formed to oversee the peace accord signed between India and Sri Lanka in 1987, trying to solve the conflict between Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam and Sri Lankan armed forces. ... Rājiv Ratna Gāndhī (Devanāgarī: राजीव रत्न गान्धी, IPA: ) (August 20, 1944 – May 21, 1991), the eldest son of Indira and Feroze Gandhi, was the 9th Prime Minister of India (and the 3rd from the Gandhi family) from his mothers death on 31 October 1984 until his resignation on December... Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW)[1] is Indias external intelligence agency. ... தமிழீழ மக்கள் விடுதலைப்புலிகள், Tamileela Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal or in English Tamileela Peoples Liberation Tigers, a political party and Para-military group formed in 2004 by break-away LTTE Military Head of Batticaloa district V. Muralitharan (Colonel Karuna). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Military of Sri Lanka consists of Three Branches which are the Army, Navy, Air Force. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Amnesty International symbol Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a non-governmental organization (NGO) comprising a worldwide movement of people who campaign for internationally recognized human rights.[1] Essentially it compares actual practices of human rights with internationally accepted standards and demands compliance where these have not... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ...

Contents

Background

Sri Lanka has been embroiled in a civil war for more than two decades. More than 64,000 people have been killed and more than one million have been displaced since 1983. In July 1983, the most savage anti-minority program in Sri Lanka's history, known as the Black July riots, erupted. Government appointed commission's estimates put the death toll nearly 1,000 whereas others put the death toll at 2,000 - 3,000 [5] [6] [7][2], mostly minority Sri Lankan Tamils. At least 150,000 Tamils fled the island. Another major event was the repression of Marxist revolutionaries known as the JVP in Southern Sri Lanka by government security forces. 10,000 - 60,000 Sinhalese, including many students [8] died or 'disappeared' over the coarse of the 3 year government crackdown [9]. Combatants Sri Lankan Army Sri Lankan Air Force Sri Lankan Navy Karuna Fraction Renegades From LTTE Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam A Sri Lankan Tamil terrorist group Commanders Junius Richard Jayawardene (1983-89) Ranasinghe Premadasa (1989-93) Dingiri Banda Wijetunge (1993-94) Chandrika Kumaratunga (1994-2005) Mahinda Rajapaksa (2005-present... Black July is the commonly used name of the genocidal pogroms starting in Sri Lanka on July 23, 1983. ... Sri Lankan Tamils also known as Eelam Tamils, Ceylonese or Ceylon Tamils and Jaffna Tamils are today a trans-national minority, and are Tamil people from Sri Lanka. ...


Abuses by the government

There have been numerous massacres of civilians and political prisoners since 1983. Sri Lanka also has the second highest number of disappearances in the world, ranking only behind Iraq, according to the UN Commission on Human Rights. The report states that across the country since 1980, 12,000 people have gone missing after being detained by Sri Lankan security forces. Only Iraq had more, with 16,384 missing people. Several groups have alleged that there have been instances of state terrorism by Sri Lanka. ... Prison massacres in Sri Lanka have occured in regular intervals since the inception of the civil conflict from 1983. ... ... The United Nations Commission on Human Rights, a commission supervised by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, is composed of representatives from 53 member states, and meets each year in regular session in March/April for six weeks in Geneva. ...


Due to emergency regulations, laws "permit arrests without warrant and non accountable detentions for up to 12 months" by Governmental forces, arrest and holding without charge has been a major source of controversy in the Western World, especially regarding Guantánamo Bay . Map of Cuba with location of Guantánamo Bay indicated. ...


The U.S State Department has stated that Human Rights abuses in Sri Lanka carried out by the government or government agents include

  • unlawful killings by government agents
  • politically motivated killings by paramilitary forces
  • disappearances
  • arbitrary arrest and detention
  • torture
  • poor prison conditions
  • denial of fair public trial
  • government corruption and lack of transparency
  • infringement of religious freedom
  • infringement of freedom of movement
  • discrimination against minorities

In their Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Sri Lanka. [10].


In the January 2002 Amnesty International Report stated, " frequently reported torture in police custody. Lack of accountability for the perpetrators of human rights violations, including “disappearances” and torture" were cited as "serious human rights concerns". [11]


The BBC [12] and the International Red Cross [13] have stated that the "systematic closure of main arterial aid routes into rebel-controlled areas have been blocked" leading to humanitarian and medical emergencies in the Northern regions.


Abuse has not all been direct from government security forces, The Sri Lankan Government has backed the LTTE defector Colonal Karuna as well as support or failed to stop [14] anti-Tamil demonstrations and pogroms, often leading to violence and death. See also Black July, where up to 1000 Tamils were killed and several hundred thousand were displaced .Government soldiers and police were described as "inactive" [15]. The riot it self had started as a direct anger against the Government and most of the initial targets were in fact Government buildings.Government declared curfew immediately and Police and the Army were out in the streets taking actions against the mobs.Most importantly Government took vital actions such as ,"organise shelters for displaced Tamils" and "sending the displaced people to North by ships".[16] Black July is the commonly used name of the genocidal pogroms starting in Sri Lanka on July 23, 1983. ...


Torture, including rape, in police custody continued to be reported frequently. Among the victims were women and children. In late October, the UN Committee against Torture submitted the findings of its visit to Sri Lanka in 2000 to the UN General Assembly. The Committee reported that it found a “disturbing number of cases of torture and ill-treatment”, the two cases presented to the U.N were that off Nandini Herat, a young woman, who was sexually assaulted by police at Wariyapola police station, Kurunegala district, in March and Ten-year-old T.K. Hiran Rasika and 12-year-old E.A. who was tortured at Hiniduma police station in July while being questioned about a theft. Both required hospital treatment as a result.[17].


Abuses by the LTTE

The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam have repeatedly been accused of attacks on civilians during their guerilla sepratist campaign. A major critique of the Tigers is the use of child soldiers being a major sticking point in the U.S State Department Report on Human Rights in Sri Lanka [18] and several Amnesty International reports concerning the matter[19], extortion both inside and outside Sri Lanka, torture, and assassinations of political figures and opponants. Tamil Tigers emblem The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), also known as the Tamil Tigers, is a military and political organization that has waged a violent secessionist campaign against the Sri Lankan Government since the 1970s in order to secure independence for the Tamil portions of Sri Lanka. ... LTTE is a rebel group active in Sri Lanka that is banned as a terrorist group by number of countries. ... April 20, 1945. ... Extortion is a criminal offense, which occurs when a person obtains money, behaviour, or other goods and/or services from another by wrongfully threatening or inflicting harm to this person, reputation, or property. ...


The LTTE made positive steps in the dis-mantling of child-soldier battalions during the cease-fire period, but then reneged on its promises to aid groups admist renewed fighting with government security forces as well as the government backed Colonal Karuna.


Several members of the Eelam People’s Revolutionary Liberation Front and the Eelam People’s Democratic Party (EPDP) were illegally detained by the LTTE. In addtion, the LTTE has been accused of extra-judicial killings in the North and East, however, these claims are refuted as the Tigers claim they maintain a "fair and open court system", The U.S State Department maintained its claims in the 2002 report on Human Rights for Sri Lanka


Abuses by other groups

During the 1980s the Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna was regularly accused of arbitrary attacks on civilians during its uprising of that period. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Peoples Liberation Front (Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna) is a marxist Sinhalese political party in Sri Lanka was involved in 1987-89 insurrection in Sri Lanka which were lost around 50,000 lives. ...


A breakaway faction of the LTTE led by Colonel Karuna has also been accused of assassinations of suspected LTTE supporters, and kidnapping of children for use as soldiers. For the army colonel see Colonel Karuna. ...


See also

This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Black July is the commonly used name of the genocidal pogroms starting in Sri Lanka on July 23, 1983. ... The ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka is an ongoing conflict between the Government of Sri Lanka and a minority terrorist group consisting of Ethnic Sri Lankan Tamils on the island-nation of Sri Lanka. ... Several groups have alleged that there have been instances of state terrorism by Sri Lanka. ... Military use of children in Sri Lanka has been an internationally recognized problem since the inception of the Sri Lankan civil war in 1983. ...

References and further reading

  1. ^ Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (2002-02-23). Country Reports on Human Rights Practices. United States Department of State. Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  2. ^ Line 5 http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2005/61711.htm
  3. ^ http://web.amnesty.org/report2003/Lka-summary-eng
  4. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/700045.stm
  5. ^ http://www.uthr.org/Book/CHA09.htm#_Toc523692969
  6. ^ http://www.greenleft.org.au/2006/676/7680
  7. ^ http://archive.gulfnews.com/articles/06/11/23/10084648.html
  8. ^ http://www.amnesty.ca/resource_centre/news/view.php?load=arcview&article=3479&c=Resource+Centre+News
  9. ^ http://www.atimes.com/ind-pak/CL19Df03.html
  10. ^ http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2005/61711.htm
  11. ^ http://web.amnesty.org/report2003/Lka-summary-eng
  12. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/411038.stm
  13. ^ http://www.bensonwood.com/srilanka/021805.html
  14. ^ http://www.worldwatch.org/node/4204
  15. ^ Swamy, M.R. Narayan (2003). Inside an Elusive Mind: Prabhakaran. Literate World
  16. ^ The Cyanide War by Edgar O'Ballance. ISBN 0-08-036695-3
  17. ^ http://web.amnesty.org/report2003/Lka-summary-eng
  18. ^ http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2005/61711.htm
  19. ^ http://web.amnesty.org/report2003/Lka-summary-eng

For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States Government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 28 is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 3 days remaining. ...

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