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Encyclopedia > Huldrych Zwingli
Huldrych Zwingli
Timeline
  • Zwingli's birth - 1484
  • Zwingli priest in Glarus - 1506
  • Zwingli as chaplain in Marignano- 1515
  • Luther's 95 theses - 1517
  • Charles V becomes Holy Roman emperor - 1519
  • Zwingli priest in the cathedral of Zürich - 1519
  • Pope excommunicates Luther - 1521
  • New Testament translated to German - 1522
  • Adrian VI new pope - 1522
  • Zwingli publishes his first reformatory tract
  • Reformation wins in Zürich - 1523
  • Clement VII new pope - 1523
  • Zwingli marries - 1524
  • Peasant rebellion in Germany - 1524
  • Anabaptist movement in Switzerland - 1525
  • Luther marries Katharina von Bora - 1525
  • Zwingli publishes his tract "On the true & false Religion" - 1525
  • Charles V; military conquest of Rome
  • Reformation wins in Berne - 1528
  • Zwingli and Luther meet in Marburg - 1529
  • Confessio Augustana - 1530
  • The league of Schmalkalden - 1531
  • Zwingli falls in combat - 1531
  • Calvin becomes a Protestant - 1533
  • Calvin in Geneva - 1536
  • Confessio Helvetia prior - 1536

Huldrych (or Ulrich) Zwingli or Ulricus Zuinglius (January 1, 1484October 11, 1531) was the leader of the Protestant Reformation in Switzerland, and founder of the Swiss Reformed Churches. Independent of Martin Luther, who was doctor biblicus, Zwingli arrived at similar conclusions, by studying the Scriptures from the point of view of a humanist scholar. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (712x1000, 99 KB) ÄŒesky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | RomânÇŽ | Русский | Slovenščina | Српски | Sunda | 简体中文 | 正體中文 | Türkçe | Русский | Українська +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... Glarus is the capital of the Canton of Glarus, Switzerland. ... Combatants France, Republic of Venice Duchy of Milan Commanders Francis I, Gian Giacomo Trivulzio, Bartolomeo dAlviano, Louis de la Trémoille Maximilian Sforza Strength 30,000 Unknown Casualties The Battle of Marignano, in the phase of the Italian Wars (1494–1559) that is called the War of the League... The 95 Theses. ... Charles (February 24, 1500 – September 21, 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor (as Charles V) from 1519-1558; he was also King of Spain from 1516-1556, officially as Charles I of Spain, although often referred to as Charles V (Carlos Quinto or Carlos V) in Spain and Latin America. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... Pope Adrian VI (Utrecht, March 2, 1459 – September 14, 1523), born Adriaan Florenszoon Boeyens, son of Floris Boeyens, served as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1522 until his death. ... For the antipope (1378–1394) see antipope Clement VII and other Popes named Clement see Pope Clement. ... Clerical celibacy is the practice of various religious traditions in which clergy, monastics and those in religious orders (female or male) adopt a celibate life, refraining from marriage and sexual relationships, including masturbation and impure thoughts (such as sexual visualisation and fantasies). ... Peasants War map. ... Anabaptists (Greek ανα (again) +βαπτιζω (baptize), thus, re-baptizers[1], German: Wiedertäufer) are Christians of the Radical Reformation. ... Portrait of Katharina von Bora, wife of Martin Luther, by Lucas Cranach the Elder. ... For other uses, see Berne (disambiguation). ... The Marburg Colloquy was a meeting which attempted to mediate between the different opinions of the Lutherans and Zwinglians over the Lords Supper, and issues relating to transubstantiation. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Augsburg Confession The Augsburg Confession, also known as the Augustana from its Latin name, Confessio Augustana, is the primary confession of faith of the Lutheran Church and one of the most important documents of the Lutheran reformation. ... The Schmalkaldic League was a defensive league of Protestant princes in the Holy Roman Empire in the mid-16th century. ... The wars of Kappel (Kappelerkriege) were two armed conflicts fought near Kappel am Albis between the protestant and the catholic cantons of the Old Swiss Confederacy during the reformation in Switzerland. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... Hunters a cool hobo For other uses, see Geneva (disambiguation). ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... Events January 25 - Peter Arbues, chief of the Spanish Inquisition, is assassinated when he is praying in the cathedral at Saragossa, Spain July 6 - Portuguese sea captain Diogo Cão finds the mouth of Congo River December 5 - Pope Innocent VIII gives the inquisition a mission to hunt heretics and... October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 26 - Lisbon, Portugal is hit by an earthquake - thousands die. ... The Protestant Reformation in Switzerland was promoted initially by Huldrych Zwingli, who gained the support of the magistrate and population of Zürich in the 1520s. ... -1... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Renaissance humanism (often designated simply as humanism) was a European intellectual movement beginning in Florence in the last decades of the 14th century. ...


Zwingli was born in Wildhaus, St. Gallen, Switzerland, to a prominent family of the middle classes. He was the seventh of eight sons. His father Ulrich was the chief magistrate in town, and his uncle Bartolomeus the vicar. Wildhaus is a village and resort for summer and winter vacations in the Canton of St. ... The Canton of St. ... A magistrate is a judicial officer. ... In the broadest sense, a vicar (from the Latin vicarius) is anyone acting as a substitute or agent for a superior (compare vicarious). In this sense, the title is comparable to lieutenant. ...


Zwingli's Reformation was supported by the magistrate and population of Zürich, and led to significant changes in civil life, and state matters in Zürich. In particular, this movement was known for attacking Anabaptists and other followers of Christ who maintained a nonresistant stance. The reformation was spread from Zürich to five other cantons of Switzerland, while the remaining five sternly held on to the Roman Catholic view of the faith. View of the inner city with the four main churches visible, and the Albis in the backdrop Zürich (German: , Zürich German: Züri , French: , in English generally Zurich, Italian: ) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 366,145 in 2004; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and... Anabaptists (Greek ανα (again) +βαπτιζω (baptize), thus, re-baptizers[1], German: Wiedertäufer) are Christians of the Radical Reformation. ... The twenty-six cantons of Switzerland are the states of the federal state of Switzerland. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church...


Zwingli was killed at Kappel am Albis, in a battle against the Roman Catholic cantons. Kappel am Albis is a municipality in the Swiss in the canton of Zurich, located in the cistrict of Affoltern. ...

Contents

Zwingli's contribution to Reformation

Background

While a wealth of information exists regarding the theology of Martin Luther, John Calvin and others, relatively little is available with relation to Huldrych Zwingli. Zwingli was a contemporary of Martin Luther, and his renunciation of the Roman Catholic priesthood came only a few years after Luther's; these factors may explain Zwingli's comparative obscurity relative to Luther and Calvin as one of the driving forces behind the Reformation. Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ...


Another reason for Zwingli's failure to capture the public imagination may be his radical theology. Some commentators believe that history has overlooked Zwingli simply because it was written by men unsympathetic to his doctrinal views, who went out of their way to suppress them. They hold that "history is written by the victors"; the "other side of the story" is either forgotten, or suppressed. Needless to say, this view is prevalent principally among dyed-in-the-wool Zwinglians, and should perhaps not be taken at face value, particularly in the light of the extensive academic research conducted over the last 20 years or so into the sources of the Reformation.


Theology: sacraments and covenants

Woodcut of Huldrych Zwingli
Woodcut of Huldrych Zwingli

One major difference in theological opinion between Zwingli and Luther is that of grace versus works as it relates to the Christian sacraments. Many consider Luther to have been the originator of the belief that God's covenants to man are unconditional; Zwingli, on the other hand, proposed that God's covenants were just that--spiritually binding contracts between God and man that were vulnerable to man's relapse into the sinful life that could eventually lead to an annulment of God's part in the contract. Scanned from German Meyers Encyclopedia, 1906 This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 50 years. ... Scanned from German Meyers Encyclopedia, 1906 This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 50 years. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer Ukiyo-e woodcut, Ishiyama Moon by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1889) Woodcut is a relief printing artistic technique in printmaking in which an image is carved into the surface of a block of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface... Covenant, in its most general sense, is a solemn and bilateral promise to do or not do something specified. ...


E. Brooks Holifield says, "When Luther called the sacrament a covenantal seal, he meant that baptism visibly ratified and guaranteed God's promises, as a royal seal authenticated a government document on which it was inscribed. Only secondarily was baptism a pledge of obedience by men. For Zwingli, however, the sacrament was primarily 'a covenant sign which indicates that all those who receive it are willing to amend their lives to follow Christ".[1]


For both Luther and Zwingli, the sacrament of baptism was a sign or symbol of God's new Gospel covenant. Their theological differences arise in the relationship between baptism and mankind. While Luther believed that God's grace was sufficient for man's salvation thereby defining baptism simply as a sign of having received a divine guarantee of this grace, Zwingli taught that God's grace in addition to man's work was necessary for salvation thereby defining baptism as a covenant between God and man. This covenant/contract involved two parties wherein both were given specific responsibilities; if one party did not comply with said agreements, the opposite party was relinquished of all responsibilities detailed in the contract.


A key doctrinal difference between Zwingli and other sects of Protestantism was his view on the Eucharist. Whereas Luther believed that the body and blood of Christ are really present in the bread and wine of this sacrament (a view often called consubstantiation by non-Lutherans), Zwingli thought the sacrament to be purely symbolic and memorial in character. Their differences were discussed at the Marburg Colloquy in 1529. By contrast, the next generation Reformer John Calvin's view was that Christ is spiritually but not physically present in the sacrament, but some later Calvinists such as Charles Hodge tend more towards Zwingli's memorialism than Calvin's doctrine. For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... The Real Presence is the term various Christian traditions use to express their belief that, in the Eucharist, Jesus the Christ is really (and not merely symbolically, figuratively or by his power) present in what was previously just bread and wine. ... Consubstantiation is a theory which (like the competing theory of transubstantiation, with which it is often contrasted) attempts to describe the nature of the Christian Eucharist in terms of philosophical metaphysics. ... Memorialism is the belief held by many Christian denominations that the elements of bread and wine (or juice) in the Eucharist (more often referred to as The Lords Supper by memorialists) are symbolic of the body and blood of Jesus, the feast being primarily a memorial meal. ... The Marburg Colloquy was a meeting which attempted to mediate between the different opinions of the Lutherans and Zwinglians over the Lords Supper, and issues relating to transubstantiation. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... Charles Hodge Charles Hodge (1797-1878) was the principal of Princeton Theological Seminary between 1851 and 1878. ...


Zwingli was also known for his belief that the Christian sacrament was similar to a military oath or pledge in order to demonstrate an individual's willingness to listen and obey the written word of God. The holy jewish scripture: The Torah. ...


Music in the Church

Part of a series on
Calvinism
(see also Portal)
John Calvin

Background
Christianity
St. Augustine
The Reformation
Five Solas
Synod of Dort
Calvinism is a theological system and an approach to the Christian life that emphasizes Gods sovereignty in all things. ... From [1], in the public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... “Augustinus” redirects here. ... The Reformation was a movement in the 16th century to reform the Catholic Church in Western Europe. ... The Five Solas are five Latin phrases (or slogans) that emerged during the Protestant Reformation and summarize the Reformers basic beliefs and emphasis in contradistinction to the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church of the day. ... xxx cciiiox The Synod of Dort was a National Synod held in Dordrecht in 1618/19, by the Dutch Reformed Church, in order to settle a serious controversy in the Dutch churches initiated by the rise of Arminianism. ...

Distinctives
Five Points (TULIP)
Covenant Theology
Regulative principle
The Five points of Calvinism, sometimes called the doctrines of grace and remembered in the English-speaking world with the mnemonic TULIP, are a summary of the judgments (or canons) rendered by the Synod of Dordt reflecting the Calvinist understanding of the nature of divine grace and predestination as it... Covenant Theology is not to be confused with the Covenanters For Covenantal Theology in the Roman Catholic perspective, see Covenantal Theology (Roman Catholic). ... The regulative principle of worship is a Christian theological doctrine teaching that the public worship of God should include those and only those elements that are instituted, commanded, or appointed by command or example in the Bible; that God institutes in Scripture everything he requires for worship in the Church...

Documents
Calvin's Institutes
Confessions of faith
Geneva Bible
Institutes of the Christian Religion is John Calvins seminal work on Protestant theology. ... The Reformed churches express their consensus of faith in various creeds. ... The Geneva Bible was a Protestant translation of the Bible into English. ...

Influences
Theodore Beza
John Knox
Jonathan Edwards
Princeton theologians
To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other persons named John Knox, see John Knox (disambiguation). ... Jonathan Edwards (October 5, 1703 – March 22, 1758) was a colonial American Congregational preacher, theologian, and missionary to Native Americans. ... The Princeton theology is a tradition of conservative, Christian, Reformed and Presbyterian theology at Princeton Seminary, in Princeton, New Jersey. ...

Churches
Reformed
Presbyterian
Congregationalist
Reformed Baptist
-1... Presbyterianism is a form of church government which is most prevalent within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ... The name Reformed Baptist does not refer to a distinct Christian denomination, but instead is a description of the churchs theological leaning. ...

Peoples
Afrikaner Calvinists
Huguenots
Pilgrims
Puritans
Scots
Afrikaner Calvinism is, according to theory, a unique cultural development that combined the Calvinist religion with the political aspirations of the white Afrikaans speaking people of South Africa. ... In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... Pilgrims is the name commonly applied to early settlers of the Plymouth Colony, MA. Their leadership came from a religious congregation who had fled religious persecution in the East Midlands of England for the relative calm of Holland in the Netherlands. ... For the record label, see Puritan Records. ... “Scot” redirects here. ...

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Zwingli was one of the first Protestants to abandon the use of musical instruments during worship services. In fact, he was so alarmed by the abuses to which music was subjected (in his view) that some of his services did not have any music whatsoever. He found instruments to be an offense, quoting the Church Fathers for support. He was attempting to return to a practice of a cappella singing followed in most of the Eastern Orthodox Churches even to this day,[citation needed] but exceeded them in his distaste for music per se, regarding it as a distraction from single attention to the preaching of the word of God. Much of the Reformed movement fell into agreement with the banning of instruments, although none followed the elimination of music. The organ in particular was denounced by leaders of the Reformed churches, as being a prominent example of what they meant by the corruption allowed into worship by the Roman Catholic Church. Zwingli recommended that a better use for an organ would be to sell it and give the money to the poor. This Reformed aversion to musical instruments, first adopted by Zwingli, became at times a sticking point preventing cooperation with the musically rich Lutherans. The Church Fathers or Fathers of the Church are the early and influential theologians and writers in the Christian Church, particularly those of the first five centuries of Christian history. ... A cappella music is vocal music or singing without instrumental accompaniment, or a piece intended to be performed in this way. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself as: the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles, having maintained unbroken the link between its clergy and the Apostles by means of Apostolic Succession. ...


However, scholars have demonstrated new findings regarding Zwingli and music as well. Gottfried W. Locher writes, "The old assertion 'Zwingli was against church singing' holds good no longer.... Zwingli's polemic is concerned exclusively with the medieval Latin choral and priestly chanting and not with the hymns of evangelical congregations or choirs".[2] He goes on to say that "Zwingli freely allowed vernacular psalm or choral singing. In addition, he even seems to have striven for lively, antiphonal, unison recitative"[2]. Locher then summaries his comments on Zwingli's view of church music as follows: "The chief thought in his conception of worship was always 'conscious attendance and understanding' — 'devotion', yet with the lively participation of all concerned".[2]


Non-instrumental singing continues to be a distinctive feature of some branches of the Presbyterian church, and a few other Reformed churches, e.g. the Campbell branch of the Restoration Movement known as the Church of Christ, and the Primitive Baptists. This practice is based on the belief that musical instruments should not be used in Christian worship, as their use is not specifically mentioned in the New Testament. According to this belief, the use of instruments is associated with the worship in the Temple of Jerusalem, the form of worship mandated in the Old Testament but superseded by Christian worship upon the foundation of the Church at Pentecost. Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... -1... For information related to dispensational Christian views regarding the end times, see restorationism. ... Alternate meanings: see Church of Christ (disambiguation). ... Primitive Baptists are a group of Baptists that have an historical connection to the missionary/anti-missionary controversy that divided Baptists of America in the early part of the 19th century. ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... The Jerusalem Temple (Hebrew: beit ha-mikdash) was the center of Israelite and Jewish worship, primarily for the offering of sacrifices known as the korbanot. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh. ... Supersessionism (sometimes referred to as replacement theology by its critics) is a belief that Christianity is the fulfillment and continuation of the Old Testament, and that Jews who deny that Jesus is the Messiah are not being faithful to the revelation that God has given them, and they therefore fall... It has been suggested that Ecclesia (Church) be merged into this article or section. ... Pentecost (Greek: [], pentekostē [hēmera], the fiftieth day) is the fiftieth day after Passover as defined by Strongs Concordance word #4005 [1] . There are Church denominations that define Pentecost as the fiftieth day after Easter Sunday, which corresponds to the tenth day after Ascension Thursday. ...


Zwingli’s life

Youth

Zwingli received his early education at Weesen under the guidance of this uncle Bartolomeus, who had moved away from Wildhaus. Before going to the University of Vienna Zwingli completed his studies in Berne. He enrolled in Vienna in 1498, and after having been expelled for a year, Zwingli continued his studies there until 1502, at which time he transferred to the University of Basel, where he took his B.A. degree in 1504, and M.Div. in 1506. Weesen is a municipality in the Wahlkreis (constituency) of See-Gaster, in the canton of St. ... The University of Vienna (German: Universität Wien) in Vienna, Austria is the oldest university in the current Austro-Hungarian domain; it formally opened in 1365. ... For other uses, see Bern (disambiguation). ... Vienna (German: , see also other names) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... The University of Basel (German: Universität Basel) is located at Basel, Switzerland. ...


Priesthood

Just before winning his theological degree Zwingli became pastor at Glarus, and stayed there for ten years. It was during his stay in Glarus that Zwingli perfected his Greek, and also took up the study of Hebrew. Apart from studying the languages of the Scripture, he also read Erasmus, which gave his thinking a humanistic perspective. A pastor is a minister or priest of a Christian church. ... Glarus is the capital of the Canton of Glarus, Switzerland. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ... Desiderius Erasmus in 1523 Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (sometimes known as Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam) (October 27, probably 1466 – July 12, 1536) was a Dutch humanist and theologian. ... The humanities are those academic disciplines which study the human condition using methods that are largely analytic, critical, or speculative, as distinguished from the mainly empirical approaches of the natural and social sciences. ...


The use of Swiss mercenaries was more than common in Europe of the 16th century and this was something that Zwingli opposed, unless commissioned by the Pope. Nevertheless Zwingli took on the job of chaplain on several occasions, as the youth of his parish went to Italy as mercenaries. Still, Zwingli's opposition to foreign military service and his growing reputation as a fine preacher and learned scholar led to his election in 1518 to priest in the Great Minster church (German: Grossmünster) in Zürich. He had then been a priest in Einsiedeln Abbey for two years. A mercenary, is a person who takes part in an armed conflict and is motivated to take part in the hostilities essentially by the desire for private gain and, in fact, is promised, by or on behalf of a Party to the conflict, material compensation substantially in excess of that... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (or Pope of Rome) (from... A chaplain is typically a member of the clergy serving a group of people who are not organized as a mission or church; lay chaplains are also found in some settings such as universities. ... A parish is a type of administrative subdivision. ... Events A plague of tropical fire ants devastates crops on Hispaniola. ... The Grossmünster Facade of the monastery building, now housing the theological faculty of the University of Zurich The Grossmünster (great minster) is one of the three major churches of Zürich, the others being the Fraumünster and St. ... The Grossmünster Facade of the monastery building, now housing the theological faculty of the University of Zurich The Grossmünster (great minster) is one of the three major churches of Zürich the others being the Fraumünster and St. ... A Benedictine monastery in the Canton of Schwyz, Switzerland, dedicated to Our Lady of the Hermits, that title being derived from the circumstances of its foundation, from which the name Einsiedeln is also said to have originated. ...


Zwingli's willingness to leave Glarus greatly increased due to stronger pro-French sentiment there, given the fact that Zwingli at this period in his life was strongly on the side of the pope. Zwingli's literary production while still in Glarus made Swiss cardinal Mattias Schinner his friend, and rendered him an annual pension from Rome. A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official, usually a bishop, of the Roman Catholic Church, a member of the College of Cardinals which as a body elects a new pope. ... The State of the City of the Vatican or the Vatican City (Latin: Status Civitatis Vaticanae, Italian Stato della Città del Vaticano) is the smallest independent state in the world (both in area and in population), a landlocked enclave surrounded by the city of Rome in Italy. ...


Alienation from the Roman Church

It was as a priest of the Great Minster church that Zwingli publicly started questioning the dogma of the Roman Catholic Church. Zwingli always claimed to be ignorant of what Luther wrote, and that he took part in starting the Reformation in Switzerland independently of Luther. When a preacher of indulgences appeared in Zürich in 1519, Zwingli opposed him. This was two years after Luther had refuted the practice of indulgence with his 95 Theses. For the film Dogma, see Dogma (film) Dogma (the plural is either dogmata or dogmas, Greek , plural ) is the established belief or doctrine held by a religion, ideology or any kind of organization, thought to be authoritative and not to be disputed or doubted. ... In Latin Catholic theology, an indulgence is the remission granted by the Church of the temporal punishment due to sins already forgiven by God. ... The 95 Theses. ...


It was in 1520 that Zwingli renounced his papal pension. He then attacked the mercenary system, and convinced Zürich, alone of all the cantons, to refuse the alliance with France on May 5, 1521. On January 11, 1522, all foreign services and pensions were forbidden in Zürich. May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (126th in leap years). ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... January 11 is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 9 - Adrian Dedens becomes Pope Adrian VI. February 26 - Execution by hanging of Cuauhtémoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan under orders of conquistador Hernán Cortés. ...


Owing to Zwingli's success as a political figure, which had been boosted by his social efforts during the plague of 1520, his prestige and importance increased. From 1522 on he was on track of reforming the church and Christian faith. His first reformatory work, Vom Erkiesen und Fryheit der Spysen, was published in the midst of a dispute over the ecclesiastical law of fasting. Zwingli declared the fasting provisions to be mere human commands, not in harmony with the Scriptures, and was by now convinced that the Bible alone, without any reference to the church's sacred oral tradition, was the sole source of faith; this he asserted in "Archeteles". Illustration of the Black Death from the Toggenburg Bible (1411) The Black Death, or Black Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history. ... Fasting is primarily the act of willingly abstaining from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time. ... Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ... Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ...


Marriage

Zwingli took the view that without an extraordinary dispensation of divine grace it was impossible for any priest to live in purity according to the vow of celibacy, and from the spring of 1522 Zwingli and Anna Reinhard were living together in what was called a clerical marriage, though whether their intimacy passed the bounds of propriety is technically unknown. Such concubinages were not uncommon at the time. Zwingli eventually married Anna, on April 2, 1524, and between 1526 and 1530 the couple had four children. Anna was noted for her beauty, piety and faithfulness to the Protestant Reformation. Huldrych (or Ulrich) Zwingli (January 1, 1484 – October 11, 1531) was the leader of the Protestant Reformation in Switzerland, and founder of the Swiss Reformed Churches. ... Clerical marriage is the practice, followed in most Protestant and Orthodox churches, of allowing clergy to marry and have a family. ... A swampy marsh area ... April 2 is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 273 days remaining. ... Events March 1, 1524/5 - Giovanni da Verrazano lands near Cape Fear (approx. ... The Reformation was a movement in the 16th century to reform the Catholic Church in Western Europe. ...


The Reformation in Zürich

The Grossmünster in the center of the medieval town of Zürich, 1576
The Grossmünster in the center of the medieval town of Zürich, 1576

Zwingli's radical followers made the most of the situation in Zürich. They removed the images and pictures out of the churches, made changes in the liturgic language of the religious services, and stripped the mass of all its elaborateness, as far as possible bringing it back to basics. By the end of 1524 the convents for both men and women had been abolished, and music had been silenced in the churches. The mass stood more or less unaltered, since Zwingli hesitated in changing something so wrapped up with the life of the people, before the people were fully prepared to accept a substitute. Zwingli's translation of the bible, the Froschauer Bible, was printed between 1524 and 1531. At last it was decreed that on Thursday of Holy Week, April 13, 1525, in the Great Minster the Lord's Supper would be for the first time observed according to the liturgy Zwingli had composed. On that eventful day men and women sat on opposite sides of the table which extended down the middle aisle, and were served with bread on wooden platters and wine out of wooden beakers. The contrast to the former custom was shocking to many, yet the new way was accepted. With this radical break with the past the Reformation in Zürich was completed. In the same year, Zwingli was called by the honorary title Antistes. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (549x1098, 580 KB) Other versions Der Murerplan von Zürich 1576 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Huldrych Zwingli Felix and Regula ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (549x1098, 580 KB) Other versions Der Murerplan von Zürich 1576 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Huldrych Zwingli Felix and Regula ... The word leitourgia is derived from the two Greek words, leos and ergon. Leos, meaning the people of God and Ergon meaning the work. ... Zürich Bible (Zürcher Bibel, also Zwinglibibel) is a bible translation historically based on the translation by Ulrich Zwingli. ... Holy Week (Latin: Hebdomada Sancta) in Christianity is the last week of Lent. ... April 13 is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 21 - The Swiss Anabaptist Movement was born when Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, and about a dozen others baptized each other in the home of Manzs mother on Neustadt-Gasse, Zürich, breaking a thousand-year tradition of church-state union. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... Antistes (from Latin anti before and sto stand) was from the 16th to the 19th century the title of the head of the church in the Reformed Churches in Switzerland. ...


The political phase

The new doctrines were not introduced without opposition. The first opponents of the Reformers were from the ranks of their own party. The peasants could find no reason in the Bible, the sole principle of faith, why they should contribute to their lords' taxes, tithes, and rent, and they refused to do so. Civil unrest spread everywhere, and was only quelled after long negotiations and some concessions by the Government. A tax is a financial charge or other levy imposed on an individual or a legal entity by a state or a functional equivalent of a state (for example, tribes, secessionist movements or revolutionary movements). ... A tithe (from Old English teogoþa tenth) is a one-tenth part of something, paid as a (usually) voluntary contribution or as a tax or levy, usually to support a Jewish or Christian religious organization. ...


The Anabaptists were not so easily silenced. From the interpretation of the Bible, which Zwingli had placed in their hands, they opposed infant baptism and refused to join Zwingli's state church. Zwingli thus persecuted them mercilessly with imprisonment, torture, banishment and death; one of their leaders Felix Manz was drowned. The war against the Anabaptists was more serious for Zwingli than that against Rome. Anabaptists (Greek ανα (again) +βαπτιζω (baptize), thus, re-baptizers[1], German: Wiedertäufer) are Christians of the Radical Reformation. ... An allegorical portrait of Felix Manz, painted in the 20th century. ...


In St. Gallen, mayor Vadian (Joachim von Watt) worked successfully in Zwingli's interest — in Schaffhausen, Dr. Sebastian Hofmeister did the same; in Basle it was Johann Oecolampadius. Zwingli himself came to Berne, in January 1528. The new doctrines were then introduced as sweepingly into Berne as they had been at Zürich, and many places and counties which had previously wavered followed its example. Zwingli could also point to brilliant successes in 1528 and 1529. He ensured the predominance of his reforms through the "Christian Civic rights", agreed upon between Zürich and the towns of Constance (1527), Berne and St. Gall (1528), Biel, Mulhausen, and Schaffhausen (1529). Location within Switzerland St. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... Engraving by David Herrliberger from Zurich, 1748, after an older original Joachim Vadian (November 29, 1484 – April 6, 1551), born as Joachim von Watt, was a Swiss Humanist and scholar and also mayor and reformer in St. ... Schaffhausen (German:  , French: Schaffhouse, Italian: Sciaffusa) is a city in northern Switzerland and the capital of the canton of the same name; it has an estimated population of 33,527 as of March 31, 2005. ... Sebastian Hofmeister (1476, Schaffhausen, Switzerland – June 26, 1533, Zofingen), known in writing as Oeconomus or Oikonomos, was a Swiss monk and religious Reformer who was prominent in early debates of the Reformation. ... Basel (English traditionally: Basle [ba:l], German: Basel [ba:z@l], French Bâle [ba:l], Italian Basilea [bazilE:a]) is Switzerlands third most populous city (188,000 inhabitants in the canton of Basel-City as of 2004; the 690,000 inhabitants in the conurbation stretching across the... Johannes Oecolampadius or Oekolampad (1482 - November 24, 1531) was a German religious reformer, whose real name was Hussgen or Heussgen (changed to Hausschein and then into the Greek equivalent). ... For other uses, see Berne (disambiguation). ... Location within Switzerland Biel/Bienne is a city in the Canton of Bern in Switzerland. ... Mulhouse (French: Mulhouse, pronounced ; Alsatian: Milhüsa; German: Mülhausen) is a town and commune in eastern France close to Swiss and German border. ...


Reaction

Statue of Zwingli in Zürich

Reformation swept across Switzerland. The cantons of Uri, Schwyz, Unterwalden, Lucerne, Zug, and Fribourg remained however true to the old Faith, and offered determined opposition to Zwingli. This did not mean that the Roman Catholic cantons were wholly satisfied with conditions prevailing in the Roman Catholic church. They strove to abolish abuses, and issued a Concordat of Faith in 1525 demanding important reforms, this, however, never found general recognition. From 21 May to 8 June 1526, they held a public disputation at Baden, to which they invited Dr. Johann Eck of Ingolstadt. Zwingli did not appear. Statue of Ulrich Zwingli, Zürich Image by ChrisO File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Statue of Ulrich Zwingli, Zürich Image by ChrisO File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Uri (German:  ) is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland. ... View from hiking trail between Ibergeregg and Spirstock Schwyz (German  ) is a canton in central Switzerland between Lake Lucerne in the south and Lake Zurich in the north, centered around and named after the town of Schwyz. ... Unterwalden is the old name for what is now two cantons in central Switzerland, south of Lake Lucerne. ... Lucerne (German Luzern) is a canton of Switzerland. ...   (-German; French: Zoug; Italian: Zugo) is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland. ... The Canton of Fribourg is a canton of Switzerland. ... May 21 is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... June 8 is the 159th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (160th in leap years), with 206 days remaining. ... January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. ... Johann Eck (November 13, 1486 – February 13, 1543) was a 16th century theologian and defender of Catholicism during the Protestant Reformation. ... Ingolstadt is a city in the Federal State of Bavaria, Germany. ...


At Baden, a famous watering-place, only twelve miles northwest of Zürich, there was a disputation between the Old Church representatives and the Zwingli party from May 21 to June 8, 1526. Though not present in person, Zwingli had close connections with those from Zürich who spoke for him, and gave them daily instructions. Of course each side claimed the victory. Baden old town Location within Switzerland Baden is a town in the Swiss canton of Aargau, on the left bank of the river Limmat, 25 km N.W. of Zürich. ... May 21 is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... June 8 is the 159th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (160th in leap years), with 206 days remaining. ... January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. ...


To compel the Roman Catholic cantons to accept the new doctrines, Zwingli even urged civil war, drew up a plan of campaign, and succeeded in persuading Zürich to declare war and march against the Roman Catholic territories. The Roman Catholic districts had by then strengthened their position by forming a defensive alliance with Austria (1529), the "Christian Union." At this juncture, however, they received no assistance. Berne showed itself more moderate than Zürich, and a treaty of peace was arranged, which, however, was very unfavourable for the Roman Catholics. A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ...


Dictator of Zürich

In Zürich, Zwingli was now the commanding personality in all ecclesiastical and political questions. He was "mayor, secretary, and council" all in one. He and Luther could not agree regarding the doctrine of the Lord's Supper when a disputation was arranged between the two Protestant leaders at Marburg in October, 1529. Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Marburg Colloquy was a meeting which attempted to mediate between the different opinions of the Lutherans and Zwinglians over the Lords Supper, and issues relating to transubstantiation. ...


As a statesman, Zwingli embarked in secular politics with ambitious plans. "Within three years", he wrote, "Italy, Spain and Germany will take our view". By prohibiting any compromises with the Roman Catholic cantons Zwingli may have compelled them to resort to arms. On 9 October 1531, they declared war on Zürich, and advanced to Kappel on the frontiers. That day proved to be fateful for Zwingli. October 9 is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 26 - Lisbon, Portugal is hit by an earthquake - thousands die. ...


Civil war and Zwingli's death on the battlefield

See Wars of Kappel, Reformation in Switzerland. The wars of Kappel (Kappelerkriege) were two armed conflicts fought near Kappel am Albis between the Protestant and the Catholic cantons of the Old Swiss Confederacy during the reformation in Switzerland. ... The Protestant Reformation in Switzerland was promoted initially by Huldrych Zwingli, who gained the support of the magistrate and population of Zürich in the 1520s. ...


The Swiss Confederation was not a centralized state, but many different states or cantons that were only united on a few issues, primarily wanting independence from the Holy Roman Empire. When the Roman Catholic cantons took steps towards an alliance with Charles V, Zwingli recommended that the Protestant cantons begin to take military initiatives before it was too late. Zwingli was preparing for war, but his beliefs were not shared by all of the other Protestant cantons. Instead, the other Protestants took economic measures towards the Roman Catholic cantons. The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... Charles V (24 February 1500 - 21 September 1558) was ruler of the Burgundian territories (1506-1555), King of Spain (1516-1556), King of Naples and Sicily (1516-1554), Archduke of Austria (1519-1521), King of the Romans (or German King), (1519-1556 but did not formally abdicate until 1558) and...


In October of 1531, the five Roman Catholic cantons joined together for a surprise attack on Zürich. The Protestants were nearly unable to defend themselves because of no advance warning, but when their army gathered together, Zwingli marched out with the first soldiers and was killed in battle. In Kappel, the army of Zürich was defeated, and slightly more than a month later, the Peace of Kappel was signed. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Zwingli's successor

Zwingli's successor, Heinrich Bullinger, was elected on December 9, 1531, to be the pastor of the Great Minster at Zürich, a position which he held to the end of his life (1575). He did not replace Zwingli as the political head man of the canton. The pastor of the Great Minster continued to exert political influence, but the time of theocracy was past for Zürich. Heinrich Bullinger Heinrich Bullinger (July 18, 1504 - September 17, 1575) was a Swiss reformer, the successor of Huldrych Zwingli as head of the Zurich church. ... December 9 is the 343rd day (344th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 26 - Lisbon, Portugal is hit by an earthquake - thousands die. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Other notables in Swiss Reformation

Ambrosius Blarer (sometimes Ambrosius Blaurer), (April 4, 1492 – December 6, 1564) was an influential reformer in southern Germany and north-eastern Switzerland. ... Heinrich Bullinger Heinrich Bullinger (July 18, 1504 - September 17, 1575) was a Swiss reformer, the successor of Huldrych Zwingli as head of the Zurich church. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... William Farel William Farel (Guillaume Farel, 1489-1565) was a French evangelist, and a founder of the Reformed Church in the cantons of Neuchâtel, Berne and Geneva, and the Canton of Vaud Switzerland. ... Johannes Oecolampadius or Oekolampad (1482 - November 24, 1531) was a German religious reformer, whose real name was Hussgen or Heussgen (changed to Hausschein and then into the Greek equivalent). ...

Literary production

  • Rhymed fables of the ox, c. 1510
  • De Gestis inter Gallos et Helvetios relatio, 1512
  • The Labyrinth, c. 1516
  • Vom Erkiesen und Fryheit der Spysen
  • Archeteles
  • Vermahnung an die zu Schwyz, dass sie sich vor fremden Herren hutend, 1522
  • Petition anent the Marriage of Priests, Einsiedeln, Switzerland, July 2, 1522. (This petition was addressed to Hugo von Hohenlandenberg, Bishop of Konstanz, and was signed by Zwingli and ten other clergymen.)[3][4]
  • De vere et falsa Religione, 1525
  • In Catabaptistarum strophas Elenchus, 1527
  • Opera D.H. Zwingli (Title in full: ''Opera D.H. Zwingli vigilantissimi Tigurinae ecclesiae Antistitis, partim quidem ab ipso Latine conscripta, partim vero e vernaculo sermone in Latinum translata: omnia novissime recognita, et multis adiectis, quae hactenus visa non sunt, published by Zwingli's son-in-law Rudolf Gwalter)

Einsiedeln is a small municipality in Switzerland best known for its monastery, the Benedictine Einsiedeln Abbey and as place where Paracelsus born. ... July 2 is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 9 - Adrian Dedens becomes Pope Adrian VI. February 26 - Execution by hanging of Cuauhtémoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan under orders of conquistador Hernán Cortés. ... Hugo von Hohenlandenberg (c 1457 - 1532) was Bishop of Konstanz from 1496 until his death in 1532. ... Konstanz in 1925 seen from the lake Schnetztor, a section of the former city wall Another gate from city wall Shops in Konstanz The Konzilgebäude in Konstanz Konstanz (in English formerly known as Constance) is a university town of around 80,000 inhabitants at the western end of Lake...

References

Wikisource has an original article from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia about:
Ulrich Zwingli
  1. ^ The Covenant Sealed: The Development of Puritan Sacramental Theology in Old and New England 1570-1720, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1974
  2. ^ a b c Gottfried W. Locher (1981). Zwingli’s Thought: New Perspectives. Leiden: E. J. Brill. 
  3. ^ http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15772a.htm
  4. ^ "Ulrich Zwingli Early Writings", edited by Samuel Macauley Jackson, Wipf & Stock, 1999, ISBN 1579102972.
  • Zwingli's collected works, (edited by Melchior Schuler and Johannes Schulthess, 8 vols., Zürich, 1828-1842)
  • New critical edition of Zwingli's Collected Works (In progress, University of Zürich)
  • Huldreich Zwingli, the Reformer of German Switzerland edited by Samuel Macauley Jackson et al, 1903. Online from Google Books
  • European Reformations Sourcebook ed. by Carter Lindberg, Blackwell Publishers (December 1999). ISBN 0-631-21362-7. Excerpts from Zwingli's "Petition of Certain Preachers of Switzerland to the Most Reverend Lord Hugo, Bishop of Constance..." [1]
  • Biography of Anna Reinhard in Leben magazine in PDF
Persondata
NAME Zwingli, Huldrych
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Zuinglius, Ulricus; Zwingli, Ulrich
SHORT DESCRIPTION leader of the Protestant Reformation in Switzerland, and founder of the Swiss Reformed Churches
DATE OF BIRTH January 1, 1484
PLACE OF BIRTH Wildhaus, St. Gallen, Switzerland
DATE OF DEATH October 11, 1531
PLACE OF DEATH Kappel am Albis

  Results from FactBites:
 
Huldrych Zwingli (193 words)
Huldrych Zwingli was the reformer of the Swiss city of Zurich.
Zwingli was greatly concerned with the eradication of idolatry in worship.
Zwingli taught a basic early Protestantism centered on justification by faith, preaching, and the sacraments of baptism and the Lord's Supper.
Huldrych Zwingli - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2690 words)
Huldrych (or Ulrich) Zwingli (January 1, 1484 October 11, 1531) was the leader of the Protestant Reformation in Switzerland, and founder of the Swiss Reformed Churches.
Zwingli was also known for his belief that the Christian sacrament was similar to a military oath or pledge in order to demonstrate an individual's willingness to listen and obey the written word of God.
Zwingli's successor, Heinrich Bullinger, was elected on December 9, 1531, to be the pastor of the Great Minster at Zürich, a position which he held to the end of his life (1575).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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