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Encyclopedia > Hulagu Khan
Hulagu Khan
c. 12178 February 1265

Hulagu, grandson of Genghis Khan, rests during a hunt. Note Mongol bow, arrows and unique footwear.
Battles/wars Battle of Baghdad (1258)

Hulagu Khan, also known as Hulagu, Hülegü or Hulegu (Chinese: 旭烈兀; pinyin: Xùlièwù; Chaghatay/Persian: ہلاکو - Halaku; Arabic:هولاكو; c. 12178 February 1265), was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Southwest Asia. A grandson of Genghis Khan and the brother of Arik Boke, Mongke and Kublai Khan, he became the first khan of the Ilkhanate of Persia. April 9 - Peter of Courtenay crowned emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople at Rome, by Pope Honorius III May 20 - First Barons War, royalist victory at Lincoln. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ... Image File history File links The il-Khan Hulagu rests. ... Combatants Mongols Abbasid Caliphate Commanders Hulagu Khan Guo Kan Caliph Al-Mustasim Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown, but believed minimal Military, 50,000(est. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... The Chagatai language is an extinct Turkic language spoken in Central Asia. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ... April 9 - Peter of Courtenay crowned emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople at Rome, by Pope Honorius III May 20 - First Barons War, royalist victory at Lincoln. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ... The name Mongols (Mongolian: Mongol) specifies one or several ethnic groups. ...  Southwest Asia in most contexts. ... This article is about the person. ... Ariq Boke (died 1266), the youngest son of Tolui, was a grandson of Genghis Khan and a claimant to the Mongol Empire. ... Möngke Khan (1208-1259, also transliterated as Mongke, Mongka, Möngka, Mangu) was the fourth khan of the Mongol Empire. ... For other uses, see Kublai Khan (disambiguation). ... This article is about the title. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... Anthem SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān Â² Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President Unification  -  Unified by Cyrus the Great 559 BCE   -  Parthian (Arsacid) dynastic empire (first reunification) 248 BCE-224 CE   -  Sassanid dynastic empire 224–651 CE   -  Safavid dynasty...

Contents

The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Combatants Mongol Empire Khwarezmia Commanders Genghis Khan, Jochi, Chaghatai, Ögodei, Tolui, Subutai, Jebe, Jelme, Mukali, Khubilai, Kasar, Boorchu, Sorkin-shara Ala ad-Din Muhammad, Jalal Al-Din, Inalchuq† (executed) Strength 100,000-200,000 mounted archers, with powerful siege engines 400,000 men, however not organized into armies, only city... The medieval kingdom of Georgia first clashed with the advancing Mongol armies in 1220. ... // Combatants Mongols Kievan Rus, Cumans Commanders Subutai Mstislav the Bold Strength 40,000 Over 80,000 Casualties MInimal Heavy Battle of the Kalka River (May 31, 1223) was the first military engagement between the Mongol armies of Genghis Khan and the Rus warriors. ... The Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria lasted from 1223 to 1236. ... Ryazan was the first Russian city to be besieged by the Mongols of Batu Khan. ... The Mongol Invasion of Rus was heralded by the Battle of the Kalka River (1223) between Subutais reconnaissance unit and the combined force of several princes of Rus. After fifteen years of peace, it was followed by Batu Khans full-scale invasion in 1237-40. ... The Battle of the Sit River was fought in the northern part of the present-day Yaroslavl Oblast of Russia on March 4, 1238 between the Mongol Hordes of Batu Khan and the Russians under Yuri II of Vladimir-Suzdal during the Mongol invasion of Russia. ... Combatants Mongols Sultanate of Rüm, Georgian and Trapezuntine auxiliaries Commanders Bayju Kay Khusrau II Strength Casualties {{{notes}}} The Battle of Köse Dag was fought between the Seljuk Turks of Rum and the Mongols on June 26, 1243 at the place Köse Dag on Sivas-Erzincan road (now... Combatants Mongol Empire Alliance Polish states Teutonic Knights[3][4] Commanders Baidar, Kadan, Orda Khan Henry II the Pious † Strength Estimated between 8,000-20,000 (max of two tumen) diversionary force [5] Unknown, estimates have ranged from 2,000-25,000[5] Casualties Unknown, but supposedly heavier than expected... Combatants Kingdom of Hungary Mongol Empire Commanders King Béla IV Batu Khan, Subutai Strength 15,000-30,000+ Unknown (mostly cavalry) Casualties 10,000-30,000+ unknown The Battle of Mohi, or Battle of the Sajó River, (on April 11, 1241) was the main battle between the Mongols and... Combatants Mongols Abbasid Caliphate Commanders Hulagu Khan Guo Kan Caliph Al-Mustasim Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown, but believed minimal Military, 50,000(est. ... // Combatants Egyptian Mamluks Mongols Commanders Saif ad-Din Qutuz Baibars Kitbuqa † Strength About 120,000 10-30,000 Casualties light all the force died or was captured The Battle of Ain Jalut (or Ayn Jalut, in Arabic: عين جالوت, the Eye of Goliath or the Spring of Goliath) took place on September... The Mongol invasions of Korea consisted of a series of campaigns by the Mongol Empire against Korea, then known as Koryo, from 1231 to 1259. ... Battle of Bunei Conflict Mongol Invasions of Japan Date November 20, 1274 Place Hakata Bay, near present-day Fukuoka, Kyushu Result Invasion fails. ... Combatants Kamakura shogunate Mongols Commanders Hōjō Tokimune Mongol-Chinese Joint Command Strength 100,000? 142,000 men in 4400 ships? Casualties Unknown 120,000+ The battle of Kōan ), also known as the Second Battle of Hakata Bay, was the second attempt by the Mongols to invade Japan. ... Combatants Song Dynasty Yuan Dynasty Commanders Lü Wenhuan Li Tingzhi Liu Zheng, Ashu, Shi Tianzhe, Guo Kan Strength unknown 100,000+ Cavalry 5,000 ships 100+ trebuchet 20+ counterweight trebuchet Casualties unknown unknown The Battle of Xiangyang (襄陽之戰) was a six-year battle between invading Mongol armies and Southern Song Chinese... The Battle of Ngasaunggyan was fought in 1277 between Kublai Khans Mongol Yuan Dynasty of China, and their neighbors to the south, the Pagan Empire (in present-day Myanmar) led by Narathihapate. ... Combatants Song Dynasty Yuan Dynasty Commanders Zhang Shijie Zhang Hongfan Strength 200,000 1000+ warships 20,000 50+ warships Casualties unknown, though almost all perished unknown The Battle of Yamen (崖門戰役; or 崖山海戰, lit. ... Combatants Pagan Empire Mongol Empire Commanders Thihathu Temür Strength Unknown Unknown, but considerable Casualties Unknown Unknown Im really tired of people changing what i write i think that is almost as bad as vandalism. ... Combatants Dai Viet Yuan Mongol Army Yuan Mongol Navy Commanders Tran Hung Dao Tran Khanh Du General Omar Strength 200 000 500 000 Casualties unknown unknown The Battle of Bach Dang took place near Halong Bay in present-day Vietnam, it was part of the Third Yuan Mongol Invasion (1287... Towards the end of the Crusades, there were several attempted Mongol invasions of Syria, with a certain amount of success in 1260 and 1300. ... Combatants Combined Russian armies The Golden Horde Commanders Dmitri Ivanovich of Moscow Mamai Strength About 80,000 About 125,000 Casualties About 40,000 able body men left Unknown, but far greater than those of the Russians The Battle of Kulikovo (Russian: ) was fought by the Tartaro-Mongols (the Golden... Combatants Golden Horde Lithuania, Poland, Moldavia Tokhtamysh forces Commanders Edigu, Temur Qutlugh â€  Grand Duke Vytautas, Tokhtamysh Strength ~200 000 ~75 000, 500 of them - Teutonic knights Casualties Unknown Unknown (Reportedly very heavy) (11 Teutonic Knights including Hanus and Thomas Surville) The Battle of the Vorskla River was one of the... Miniature in Russian chronicle, XVI century The Great standing on the Ugra river (Великое cтояние на реке Угре in Russian, also Угорщина (Ugorschina in English, derived from Ugra) was a standoff between Akhmat Khan, Khan of the Great Horde, and Grand Duke Ivan III of Russia in 1480, which resulted in the retreat of the...

Background

In 1255, Hulagu, the child of Tolui and Sorghaghtani Beki, a Christian woman, was sent by his brother Mongke (who was Great Khan from 1251-1258) to conquer or destroy the remaining Muslim states in southwestern Asia. His mother was a passionate Nestorian Christian, as was his wife, Dotuz Khatun, and his closest friend and general, Kitbuqa. Their influence was said to have instilled in him a deep animosity against Muslims[citation needed] — unusual for the generally tolerant Mongol Empire — along with a contrasting desire to assist Christians[citation needed]. He was also passionate about Persia and its culture, the reason why he became the Khan of Persia under Ilkhanate dynasty. The Persian influence was another factor that encouraged Hulagu to attack the Arabs. Hulagu always had many Persian chancellors, who wished to take revenge on the Arabs for their conquest of Persia centuries ago and also because Persia was a long time enemy of the Abassid caliphate. [1] Tolui,also rendered Toluy or Tolui Khan (Mongolian: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 1190–1232), was the youngest son of Genghis Khan by Börte. ... Sorghaghtani Beki (died 1252) was the mother of four of the great figures in Mongol history, especially Möngke Khan, Kublai Khan, and Hulagu Khan. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Möngke Khan (1208-1259, also transliterated as Mongke, Mongka, Möngka, Mangu) was the fourth khan of the Mongol Empire. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Nestorianism is the doctrine that Jesus exists as two persons, the man Jesus and the divine Son of God, or Logos, rather than as a unified person. ... Kitbuqa Noyen was the Christian lieutenant and confidant of Hulagu Khan, assisting him in his conquests in Persia and the Middle East. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid (Arabic: العبّاسيّون, AbbāsÄ«yÅ«n) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Islamic empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ...


Hulagu's campaign sought the subjugation of the Lurs, a people of southern Iran; the destruction of the Hashshashin sect; the submission or destruction of the Abbasid caliphate; the submission or destruction of the Ayyubid states in Syria; and finally, the submission or destruction of the Bahri Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt.[1] Mongke Khan ordered Hulagu to treat kindly those who submitted, and utterly destroy those who did not. History shows that Hulagu vigourously carried out the latter part of these instructions. For other uses, see Lurs (disambiguation). ... The Hashshashin (also Hashishin, Hashashiyyin or Assassins) was a religious sect of Ismaili Shia Muslims from the Nizari sub-sect originating from post-Islamic Persia. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... The Ayyubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Egypt, Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... The Bahri dynasty or Bahriyya Sultanate المماليك البحرية was a Mamluk dynasty of Kipchak Turk origin that ruled Egypt from 1250 to 1382 when they were succeeded by the Burji dynasty, another group of Mamluks. ... A Mamluk cavalryman, drawn in 1810 A mamluk (Arabic: مملوك (singular), مماليك (plural), Turkish: Kölemen, owned; also transliterated mameluk, mameluke, or mamluke) was a slave soldier who was converted to Islam and served the Muslim caliphs and the Ayyubid sultans during the Middle Ages. ...


Children

Hulagu had at least three children:

  • Abaqa, Ilkhan of Persia from 1265-1282
  • Taraqai, whose son Baidu became Ilkhan in 1295
  • Teguder Ahmad, Ilkhan from 1282-1284[2]

Abaqa Khan reigned from 1265-1282, the son of Hulegu and Oroqina Khatun, a Mongol Christian, was the second Il_Khan emperor in Persia. ... For the Ilkhanate ruler, see Baydu. ... Ahmed Tekuder (reigned 1282-1284) was the sultan of the Ilkhan empire, son of Hulegu and brother of Abaqa. ...

The Assassins and marching on Baghdad

Hulagu marched out with perhaps the largest Mongol army ever assembled. Among his subsidiary generals was Kitbuqa, a Christian. Hulagu easily destroyed the Lurs, and his reputation so frightened the Assassins (also known as the Hashshashin) that they surrendered their impregnable fortress of Alamut to him without a fight. Kitbuqa Noyen was the Christian lieutenant and confidant of Hulagu Khan, assisting him in his conquests in Persia and the Middle East. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... The Hashshashin (also Hashishin, Hashashiyyin or Assassins) was a religious sect of Ismaili Shia Muslims from the Nizari sub-sect originating from post-Islamic Persia. ... For other uses, see Alamut (disambiguation). ...


Hulagu probably always intended to take Baghdad, which the Mongols had been meaning to attack for over ten years (see Eljigidei), but he used the caliph's refusal to send troops to him as a pretext for conquest, since his brother the Great Khan had ordered him to be merciful to those who submitted. Hulagu sent a message to the caliph, Al-Musta'sim, containing the following (trans. John Woods): Eljigidei was a Mongol commander in Persia, fl. ... Al-Mustasim (d. ...

"When I lead my army against Baghdad in anger, whether you hide in heaven or in earth
I will bring you down from the spinning spheres;
I will toss you in the air like a lion.
I will leave no one alive in your realm;
I will burn your city, your land, your self.
If you wish to spare yourself and your venerable family, give heed to my advice with the ear of intelligence. If you do not, you will see what God has willed."

Battle of Baghdad

Hulagu's army attacks Baghdad, 1258. Note siege engine in foreground.
Hulagu's army attacks Baghdad, 1258. Note siege engine in foreground.

The Mongol army, led by Hulagu Khan set out for Baghdad in November of 1257. He marched with what was probably the largest army ever fielded by the Mongols. By order of Monke Khan, one in ten fighting men in the entire empire were gathered for Hulagu's army (Saunders 1971). Combatants Mongols Abbasid Caliphate Commanders Hulagu Khan Guo Kan Caliph Al-Mustasim Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown, but believed minimal Military, 50,000(est. ... Image File history File links Hulagu Khans army attacks Baghdad, 1258. ... Image File history File links Hulagu Khans army attacks Baghdad, 1258. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ...


Hulagu demanded surrender; the caliph refused, warning the Mongols that they faced the wrath of God if they attacked the caliph. Many accounts say that the caliph failed to prepare for the onslaught; he neither gathered armies nor strengthened the walls of Baghdad. In fact, he had done the very worst things he could have done, he had angered Hulagu, given him an excuse to sack Bagdad, and done nothing to prevent the tragedy.


Once near the city, Hulagu divided his forces, so that they threatened both sides of the city, on the east and west banks of the Tigris. The caliph's army repulsed some of the forces attacking from the west, but were defeated in the next battle. The attacking Mongols broke some dikes and flooded the ground behind the caliph’s army, trapping them. Much of the army was slaughtered or drowned.


The Mongols under a Chinese general, Guo Kan, then laid siege to the city, constructing a palisade and ditch, wheeling up siege engines and catapults. The siege started on January 29. The battle was swift, by siege standards. By February 5 the Mongols controlled a stretch of the wall. Al-Musta'sim then tried to negotiate, but was refused. Guo Kan (郭侃) was a famous general of Chinese descent that served the Mongolian Khans in their Western conquests and the conquest of China itself. ...


On February 10 Baghdad surrendered. The Mongols swept into the city on February 13 and began a week of massacre, looting, rape, and destruction.


Sack of Baghdad

Hulagu with his Christian queen Dokuz Khatun. Hulagu conquered Muslim Syria, in alliance with Christian forces from Cilician Armenia, Georgia, and Antioch.
Hulagu with his Christian queen Dokuz Khatun. Hulagu conquered Muslim Syria, in alliance with Christian forces from Cilician Armenia, Georgia, and Antioch.

As far as damage done, the sack of Baghdad by the Mongols made the sack of Rome by Alaric look kindly. The Grand Library of Baghdad, containing countless precious historical documents and books on subjects ranging from medicine to astronomy, was destroyed. Survivors said that the waters of the Tigris ran black with ink from the enormous quantities of books flung into the river. Citizens attempted to flee, but were intercepted by Mongol soldiers who raped and killed with abandon. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 515 pixelsFull resolution (2818 × 1814 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 515 pixelsFull resolution (2818 × 1814 pixel, file size: 2. ... Hulagu with his Christian queen Oroqina Khatun. ... An anachronistic fifteenth-century miniature depicting the sack of 410. ... The House of Wisdom (Arabic بيت الحكمة Bayt al-Hikma) was a library and translation institute in Abbassid-era Baghdad. ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ...


Although death counts vary widely and cannot be easily substantiated, a number of estimates do exist. Martin Sicker writes that close to 90,000 people may have died (Sicker 2000, p. 111). Other estimates go much higher. Muslim historian Abdullah Wassaf claims the loss of life was several hundred thousand or more. Ian Frazier of The New Yorker estimates of the death toll have ranged from 200,000 to a million. Ian Frazier is an American writer and humorist who was born in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1951. ... For other uses, see New Yorker. ...


The Mongols looted and then destroyed. Mosques, palaces, libraries, hospitals — grand buildings that had been the work of generations were burned to the ground. The caliph was captured and forced to watch as his citizens were murdered and his treasury plundered. The caliph was trampled to death. Marco Polo reports that Hulagu starved the caliph to death, but there is no corroborating evidence for that. Most historians believe the Mongol accounts (and Muslim) that the Mongols rolled the caliph up in a rug, and rode their horses over him, as they believed that the earth was offended if touched by royal blood. All of his sons but one were killed. Prior to this, the Mongols destroyed a city only if it had resisted them. Cities that capitulated at the first demand for surrender could usually expect to be spared. Cities that surrendered after a short fight, such as this, normally could expect a sack, but not complete devastation. The utter ferocity of the rape of Baghdad is the worst example of Mongol excess known. [citations needed](It is said some Chinese cities suffered a similar fate, but this is not documented). Marco Polo (September 15, 1254 – January 8, 1324) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione (The Million or The Travels of Marco Polo). ...


Baghdad was a depopulated, ruined city for several centuries and only gradually recovered something of its former glory. Of all the Mongol Khans, Hulagu is, for obvious reasons, the most feared and despised.


Aftermath

Thus was the caliphate destroyed, and Mesopotamia ravaged; it has never again been such a major center of culture and influence. The smaller states in the region hastened to reassure Hulagu of their loyalty, and the Mongols turned to Syria in 1259, conquering the Ayyubids and sending advance patrols as far ahead as Gaza. Egypt's turn seemed next, but the death of Mongke forced Hulagu and most of his army to withdraw. The succession crisis that followed was the most ruinous to date. Indeed, although the succession was finally settled by imprisonment of one of his brothers, and another elevated to Great Khan, (Kublai Khan), the truth is that after 1258 there was no unified Mongol Empire, but four separate kingdoms, including the Il-Khanate of Persia established by Hulagu. Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... The Ayyubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Egypt, Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish name Garza or the Egyptian town of Giza. ... For other uses, see Kublai Khan (disambiguation). ...


In the meantime, the Mongols led by Kitbuqa had fallen out with the crusaders holding the coast of Palestine, and the Mamluks were able to ally with them, pass through their territory, and destroy the Mongol army at the Battle of Ain Jalut. Palestine and Syria were permanently lost, the border remaining the Tigris for the duration of Hulagu's dynasty. Kitbuqa Noyen was the Christian lieutenant and confidant of Hulagu Khan, assisting him in his conquests in Persia and the Middle East. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Map of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for... // Combatants Egyptian Mamluks Mongols Commanders Saif ad-Din Qutuz Baibars Kitbuqa † Strength About 120,000 10-30,000 Casualties light all the force died or was captured The Battle of Ain Jalut (or Ayn Jalut, in Arabic: عين جالوت, the Eye of Goliath or the Spring of Goliath) took place on September... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ...

Silver dirham from the reign of Hulagu, 1256-1265.

Hulagu returned to his lands by 1262, after the succession was finally settled with Kublai as the last Great Khan, but instead of being able to avenge his defeats, was drawn into civil war with Batu Khan's brother Berke. Berke Khan, a Muslim convert, had promised retribution in his rage after Hulagu's sack of Baghdad, and allied himself with the Mamluks. Historian Rashid al-Din quoted Berke Khan as sending the following message to Mongke Khan, protesting the attack on Baghdad, (not knowing Mongke had died in China) "he has sacked all the cities of the Muslims, and has brought about the death of the Caliph. With the help of God I will call him to account for so much innocent blood." (see The Mongol Warlords, quoting Rashid al-Din's record of Berke Khan's pronouncement; this quote is also found in The Mamluk-Ilkhanid War). When Hulagu massed his armies to attack the Mamluks and avenge Ain Jalut, Berke Khan initiated a series of raids in force led by Nogai Khan which drew Hulagu north to meet him. Hulagu Khan suffered severe defeat in an attempted invasion north of the Caucasus in 1263. This was the first open war between Mongols, and signaled the end of the unified empire. Image File history File links Silver dirham from the reign of the il-Khan, Hulagu. ... Image File history File links Silver dirham from the reign of the il-Khan, Hulagu. ... Dirham is a unit of currency in several Arabic-speaking nations, including: Islamic Dirham The Moroccan dirham The United Arab Emirates dirham 1/1000 of the Libyan dinar 1/100 of the Qatari riyal 1/10 of the Jordanian dinar The dirham, spelt diram, is 1/100 of the Tajikistani... Events Strasbourg becomes a Free City of the Holy Roman Empire First Visconti become the lord of Iceland swear fealty to the king of Norway, bringing an end to the Icelandic Commonwealth Births Ladislaus IV of Hungary Deaths Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona... Batu Khan (Russian: , Ukrainian: ) (c. ... Berke was the ruler of the Golden Horde from 1257 to 1266, in the aftermath of the reign of his brother Batu Khan. ... Nogai Khan (died 1299), also called Kara Nogai (Black Nogai), was a Khan of the Golden Horde and a great-grandson of Genghis Khan. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Events Detmold, Germany was founded. ...


The Polos

Nicolò and Maffio in Bukhara, where they stayed for three years. They were invited by a envoy of Hulagu (right) to travel east to visit the Great Khan Kubilai.
Nicolò and Maffio in Bukhara, where they stayed for three years. They were invited by a envoy of Hulagu (right) to travel east to visit the Great Khan Kubilai.

Niccolò and Maffeo Polo travelled to the realm of Hulagu and stayed in the city of Bukhara, in modern day Uzbekistan, where the family lived and traded for three years from 1261 to 1264. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 484 pixelsFull resolution (1366 × 826 pixel, file size: 727 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 484 pixelsFull resolution (1366 × 826 pixel, file size: 727 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Bukhara (Tajik: Бухоро; Persian: , Buxârâ; Uzbek: ; Russian: ), from the Soghdian βuxārak (lucky place), is the fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and capital of the Bukhara Province (viloyat). ... Kublai Khan or Khubilai Khan (1215 - 1294), Mongol military leader, was Khan (1260-1294) of the Mongol Empire and founder and first Emperor (1279-1294) of the Yuan Dynasty. ... Marco Polo (September 15, 1254 – January 8, 1324) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione (The Million or The Travels of Marco Polo). ... Bukhara (Tajik: Бухоро; Persian: , Buxârâ; Uzbek: ; Russian: ), from the Soghdian βuxārak (lucky place), is the fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and capital of the Bukhara Province (viloyat). ...


In 1264, Nicolò and Maffio joined up with an embassy sent by the Ilkhan Hulagu to his brother, the Grand Khan Kubilai. In 1266, they reached the seat of the Grand Khan in the Mongol capital Khanbaliq, present day Beijing, China. Kublai Khan or Khubilai Khan (1215 - 1294), Mongol military leader, was Khan (1260-1294) of the Mongol Empire and founder and first Emperor (1279-1294) of the Yuan Dynasty. ... Khanbaliq or Cambuluc (great residence of the Khan) is the ancient Mongol name[1] for the city at the present location of Beijing, the current capital of the Peoples Republic of China. ... “Peking” redirects here. ...


Death of Hulagu Khan

Hulagu Khan died in 1265 and was buried in the Kaboudi Island in Lake Urmia. His funeral was the only Ilkhanid funeral to feature human sacrifice. He was succeeded by his son Abaqa, thus establishing his line. For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ... Lake Urmia (Persian: دریاچه ارومیه) is a salt lake in northwestern Iran between the provinces of East Azarbaijan and West Azarbaijan, west of the southern portion of the similarly shaped Caspian Sea. ... Abaqa Khan reigned from 1265-1282, the son of Hulegu and Oroqina Khatun, a Mongol Christian, was the second Il_Khan emperor in Persia. ...


References

  1. ^ Amitai-Preiss, Reuven. The Mamluk-Ilkhanid War
  2. ^ David Morgan, The Mongols, p. 225
  • Boyle, J.A., (Editor). The Cambridge History of Iran: Volume 5, The Saljuq and Mongol Periods . Cambridge University Press; Reissue edition (January 1, 1968). ISBN 0-521-06936-X. Perhaps the best overview of the history of the il-khanate. Covers politics, economics, religion, culture and the arts and sciences. Also has a section on the Isma'ilis, Hulagu's nemesis.
  • Encyclopedia Iranica has scholar-reviewed articles on a wide range of Persian subjects, including Hulagu.
  • Morgan, David. The Mongols. Blackwell Publishers; Reprint edition, April 1990. ISBN 0-631-17563-6. Best for an overview of the wider context of medieval Mongol history and culture.

// Introduction The Ismaili (Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmâiliyân) branch of Islam is the second largest Shia community, after the Twelvers who are dominant in Iran. ... Encyclopædia Iranica is a project of Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian Studies to create a comprehensive and authoritiative English language encyclopedia about the history and culture of Iran and Persia. ...

See also

  • Berke-Hulagu war

The Berke-Hulagu war was a war between Berke, khan of the Golden Horde, and Hulagu, khan of the Ilkhanate, that was fought in the Caucasus mountains area in the 1260s after the destruction of Baghdad in 1258. ...

External links

Preceded by
none
Ilkhan Emperors
1256–1265
Succeeded by
Abaqa

  Results from FactBites:
 
Hulagu Khan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1338 words)
Hulagu, the child of Tolui and Sorghaghtani Beki, a Christian woman, was dispatched by his brother Mongke (who was Great Khan from 1251-1258), in 1255 to accomplish the destruction of the remaining Muslim states in southwestern Asia.
Hulagu easily destroyed the Lurs, and his reputation so frightened the Assassins that they surrendered their impregnable fortress of Alamut to him without a fight.
Hulagu returned to his lands by 1262, but instead of being able to avenge his defeats, was drawn into civil war with Batu Khan's brother Berke, suffering severe defeat in an attempted invasion north of the Caucasus in 1263.
Hulagu Khan (347 words)
Hulagu Khan (1217-1265) was the grandson of Genghis Khan and the brother of Mongu Khan and Kublai Khan.
Hulagu, the child of Tolui and a Christian woman, was dispatched by his brother Mongu Khan in 1255 to accomplish three tasks in southwest Asia: first, the subjugation of the Lurs, a people of southern Iran; second, the destruction of the sect of the Assassins; and third, the destruction of the Abbasid caliphate.
Hulagu probably always intended to take Baghdad, but he used the caliph's refusal to send troops to him as a pretext for conquest.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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