FACTOID # 30: If Alaska were its own country, it would be the 26th largest in total area, slightly larger than Iran.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Huguenot" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Huguenot
Part of a series on
Calvinism
(see also Portal)
John Calvin

Background
Christianity
St. Augustine
The Reformation
Five Solas
Synod of Dort
Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism... From [1], in the public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Augustinus redirects here. ... Reformation redirects here. ... The Five Solas are five Latin phrases (or slogans) that emerged during the Protestant Reformation and summarize the Reformers basic beliefs and emphasis in contradistinction to the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church of the day. ... xxx cciiiox The Synod of Dort was a National Synod held in Dordrecht in 1618/19, by the Dutch Reformed Church, in order to settle a serious controversy in the Dutch churches initiated by the rise of Arminianism. ...

Distinctives
Five Points (TULIP)
Covenant Theology
Regulative principle
The Five points of Calvinism, sometimes called the doctrines of grace and remembered in the English-speaking world with the mnemonic TULIP, are a summary of the judgments (or canons) rendered by the Synod of Dordt reflecting the Calvinist understanding of the nature of divine grace and predestination as it... Covenant Theology is not to be confused with the Covenanters For Covenantal Theology in the Roman Catholic perspective, see Covenantal Theology (Roman Catholic). ... The regulative principle of worship is a Christian theological doctrine teaching that the public worship of God should include those and only those elements that are instituted, commanded, or appointed by command or example in the Bible; that God institutes in Scripture everything he requires for worship in the Church...

Documents
Calvin's Institutes
Confessions of faith
Geneva Bible
Institutes of the Christian Religion is John Calvins seminal work on Protestant theology. ... The Reformed churches express their consensus of faith in various creeds. ... The Geneva Bible was a Protestant translation of the Bible into English. ...

Influences
Theodore Beza
John Knox
Huldrych Zwingli
Jonathan Edwards
Princeton theologians
To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other persons named John Knox, see John Knox (disambiguation). ... Huldrych (or Ulrich) Zwingli or Ulricus Zuinglius (January 1, 1484 – October 11, 1531) was the leader of the Protestant Reformation in Switzerland, and founder of the Swiss Reformed Churches. ... Jonathan Edwards (October 5, 1703- March 22, 1758) was a colonial American Congregational preacher and theologian. ... The Princeton theology is a tradition of conservative, Christian, Reformed and Presbyterian theology at Princeton Seminary, in Princeton, New Jersey. ...

Churches
Reformed
Presbyterian
Congregationalist
Reformed Baptist
-1... Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ... The name Reformed Baptist does not refer to a distinct Christian denomination, but instead is a description of the churchs theological leaning. ...

Peoples
Afrikaner Calvinists
Huguenots
Pilgrims
Puritans
Scots
Afrikaner Calvinism is, according to theory, a unique cultural development that combined the Calvinist religion with the political aspirations of the white Afrikaans speaking people of South Africa. ... This article is about a particular group of seventeenth-century European colonists of North America. ... For the record label, see Puritan Records. ... Scotland, in common with the rest of the United Kingdom, is traditionally a Christian nation with around 70% claiming to be Christian. ...

This box: view  talk  edit

From the 16th to the 18th century the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Reformed Church of France (French: , ÉRF) is the Reformed, originally Calvinist, church of France. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism...

Contents

Etymology

Used originally as a term of derision, the derivation of the name Huguenot remains uncertain. Various theories have been promoted .


The nickname may have been a French corruption of the German word Eidgenosse, meaning a Confederate, perhaps in combination with a reference to the name Besançon Hugues (d 1532). Geneva was John Calvin's adopted home and the center of the Calvinist movement. In Geneva, Hugues was the leader of the "Confederate Party," so called because it favored an alliance between the city-state of Geneva and the Swiss Confederation. This theory of origin has support from the alleged fact that the label Huguenot was first applied in France to those conspirators (all of them aristocratic members of the Reformed Church) involved in the Amboise plot of 1560: a foiled attempt to transfer power in France from the influential House of Guise, a move which would have had the side-effect of fostering relations with the Swiss. Thus, Hugues plus Eidgenosse becomes Huguenot, with the intention of associating the Protestant cause with some very unpopular politics.[1] Eidgenosse is a compound word in German meaning a Swiss person. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... For other uses, see Geneva (disambiguation). ... A military alliance is an agreement between two, or more, countries; related to wartime planning, commitments, or contingencies; such agreements can be both defensive and offensive. ... The Swiss Confederation or Switzerland is a landlocked federal state in Europe, with neighbours Germany, France, Italy, Austria and Liechtenstein. ... The Amboise conspiracy, or Tumult of Amboise (1560), was a failed attempt by Huguenots and the house of Bourbon to wrest power over France, by abducting the young king, Francis II and arresting François (the Duke of Guise) and his brother Charles (cardinal of Lorraine). ... Much of the recent sociological debate on power revolves around the issue of the constraining and/or enabling nature of power. ... The House of Guise was a French ducal family, primarily responsible for the French Wars of Religion. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


Like the first hypothesis, several others account for the name as being derived from German as well as French. O.I.A. Roche writes in his book The Days of the Upright, A History of the Huguenots that "Huguenot" is

a combination of a Flemish and a German word. In the Flemish corner of France, Bible students who gathered in each other's houses to study secretly were called Huis Genooten, or 'house fellows,' while on the Swiss and German borders they were termed Eid Genossen, or 'oath fellows,' that is, persons bound to each other by an oath. Gallicized into 'Huguenot,' often used deprecatingly, the word became, during two and a half centuries of terror and triumph, a badge of enduring honor and courage.

Some discredit dual linguistic origins, arguing that for the word to have spread into common use in France, it must have originated in the French language. The "Hugues hypothesis" argues that the name can be accounted for by connection with Hugues Capet king of France,[2] who reigned long before the Reform times, but was regarded by the Gallicans and Protestants as a noble man who respected people's dignity and lives. Frank Puaux suggests, with similar connotations, a clever pun on the old French word for a covenanter (a signatory to a contract).[3] Janet Gray and other supporters of the theory suggest that the name huguenote would be roughly equivalent to little Hugos, or those who want Hugo.[2] Hugh Capet[1] (c. ...


In this last connection, the name could suggest the derogatory inference of superstitious worship; because, ignorant people believed that Huguon, the gate of King Hugo, was haunted by the ghost of Le roi Huguet (regarded by Catholics as an infamous scoundrel), and other spirits who instead of being in purgatory came back to harm the living at night,[4] and it was in this place in Tours that the prétendus réformés ("these supposedly 'reformed'") habitually gathered at night, both for political purposes, and for prayer and to sing the psalms.[5] With similar scorn, some even suggest that the name is derived from les guenon de Hus (the monkeys or apes of Jan Hus)[6][7] While this and the many other theories offer their own measure of plausibility, attesting at least to the wit of later partisans and historians, if not of the French people at the time of this term's origin, "no one of the several theories advanced has afforded satisfaction".[8] Tours is a city in France, the préfecture (capital city) of the Indre-et-Loire département, on the lower reaches of the river Loire, between Orléans and the Atlantic coast. ... Psalms (Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים, or praises) is a book of the Hebrew Bible included in the collected works known as the Writings or Ketuvim. ... Jan Hus ( ) (IPA: , alternative spellings John Hus, Jan Huss, John Huss) (c. ...


Since the eighteenth century they have been commonly designated "French Protestants", the title being suggested by their German co-religionists, or "Calvinists".


Early history and beliefs

The availability of the Bible in local language was important to the spread of the Protestant movement and the development of the Reformed church in France, and the country had a long history of struggles with the papacy by the time the Protestant Reformation finally arrived. Around 1294, a French version of the Scriptures was prepared by the Catholic priest, Guyard de Moulin. The first known Provençal language translation of the Bible had been prepared by the 12th century religious radical, Pierre de Vaux (Peter Waldo). Long after the sect was suppressed by the Roman Catholic Church, the remaining Waldensians sought to join William Farel and the Protestant Reformation, and Olivetan would publish a French Bible for them, but those who emerged from secrecy were eradicated by Francis I in 1545. A two-volume folio version of this translation appeared in Paris, in 1488.[citation needed] Provençal (Provençau) is one of several dialects of Occitan spoken by a minority of people in southern France and other areas of France and Italy. ... Peter Waldo was the founder of a radical ascetic Christian movement in 12th-century France. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... The Waldensians, Waldenses or Vaudois are a Christian denomination believing in poverty and austerity, promoting true poverty, public preaching and the literal interpretation of the scriptures. ... William Farel William Farel (Guillaume Farel, 1489-1565) was a French evangelist, and a founder of the Reformed Church in the cantons of Neuchâtel, Berne and Geneva, and the Canton of Vaud Switzerland. ... Pierre Robert Olivétan (c. ... The title of Francis I can refer to: Francis I of Austria (1768-1835) Francis I, King of France 1515-47 Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor (1745-1765) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Other predecessors of the Reformed church included the pro-reform and Gallican Roman Catholics, like Jacques Lefevre. The Gallicans briefly achieved independence for the French church, on the principle that the religion of France could not be controlled by the Bishop of Rome, a foreign power.[9] In the time of the Protestant Reformation, Lefevre, a professor at the University of Paris, prepared the way for the rapid dissemination of Lutheran ideas in France with the publication of his French translation of the New Testament in 1523, followed by the whole Bible in the French language, in 1528.[citation needed] William Farel was a student of Lefevre who went on to become a leader of the Swiss Reformation, establishing a Protestant government in Geneva. Jean Cauvin (John Calvin), another student at the University of Paris, also converted to Protestantism. The French Confession of 1559 shows a decidedly Calvinistic influence.[10] Sometime between 1550 and 1580, members of the Reformed church in France came to be commonly known as Huguenots Gallicanism is the belief that popular civil authority—often represented by the monarchs authority or the States authority—over the Catholic Church is comparable to that of the Roman Popes. ... Jacques Lefevre dEtaples (c. ... Reformation redirects here. ... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: ) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganised as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ... William Farel William Farel (Guillaume Farel, 1489-1565) was a French evangelist, and a founder of the Reformed Church in the cantons of Neuchâtel, Berne and Geneva, and the Canton of Vaud Switzerland. ... John Calvin John Calvin (July 10, 1509–May 27, 1564) founded Calvinism, a form of Protestant Christianity, during the Protestant Reformation. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism...


Criticisms of Roman Catholic Church

Above all, Huguenots became known for their fiery criticisms of worship as performed in the Roman Catholic Church, in particular the focus on ritual and what seemed an obsession with death and the dead. They believed the ritual, images, saints, pilgrimages, prayers, and hierarchy of the Catholic Church did not help anyone toward redemption. They saw Christian faith as something to be expressed in a strict and godly life, in obedience to Biblical laws, out of gratitude for God's mercy. For other senses of this word, see ritual (disambiguation). ... Saints redirects here. ... This article is about the religious or spiritual journey. ... For other uses, see Prayer (disambiguation). ... A hierarchy (in Greek: , derived from — hieros, sacred, and — arkho, rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things or people, where each element of the system (except for the top element) is a subordinate to a single other element. ... For other uses of the word, see Redemption Redemption is a religious concept referring to forgiveness or absolution for past sins and protection from eternal damnation. ...


Like other Protestants of the time, they felt that the Roman church needed radical cleansing of its impurities, and that the Pope represented a worldly kingdom, which sat in mocking tyranny over the things of God, and was ultimately doomed. Rhetoric like this became fiercer as events unfolded, and stirred up the hostility of the Catholic establishment. For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ...


Violently opposed to the Catholic Church, the Huguenots attacked images, monasticism, and church buildings. Most of the cities in which the Huguenots gained a hold saw iconoclast attacks, in which altars and images in churches, and sometimes the buildings themselves were torn down. The cities of Bourges, Montauban and Orleans saw substantial activity in this regard. Monasticism (from Greek: monachos — a solitary person) is the religious practice in which one renounces worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... Bourges is a town and commune in central France that is located on the Yèvre river. ... Montauban (Montalban in Occitan) is a town and commune of southwestern France, préfecture (capital) of the Tarn-et-Garonne département, 31 miles north of Toulouse. ... This article is about Orléans, France; for other meanings see Orleans (disambiguation). ...


Reform and growth

Huguenots faced periodic persecution from the outset of the Reformation; but Francis I (reigned 1515–1547) initially protected them from Parlementary measures designed for their extermination. The Affair of the Placards of 1534 changed the king's posture toward the Huguenots: he stepped away from restraining persecution of the movement. Francis I of France (French: François Ier) (September 12, 1494 – March 31, 1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters (le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547. ... This article is for the Ancien Régime institution. ... The Affair of the Placards was an incident involving anti-Catholic posters which appeared in public places in Paris, France during the night of October 18, 1534. ...


Huguenot numbers grew rapidly between 1555 and 1562, chiefly amongst the nobles and city-dwellers. During this time, their opponents first dubbed the Protestants Huguenots; but they called themselves reformés, or "Reformed." They organized their first national synod in 1558, in Paris.


By 1562, the estimated number of Huguenots had passed one million, concentrated mainly in the southern and central parts of the country. The Huguenots in France likely peaked in number at approximately two million, compared to approximately sixteen million Catholics during the same period.


Wars of religion

In reaction to the growing Huguenot influence, and the aforementioned instances of Protestant zeal, Catholic violence against them grew, at the same time that concessions and edicts of toleration became more liberal. The French Wars of Religion were a series of conflicts fought between Catholics and Huguenots (Protestants) from the middle of the sixteenth century to the Edict of Nantes in 1598, including civil infighting as well as military operations. ...


In 1561, the Edict of Orléans, for example, declared an end to the persecution; and the Edict of Saint-Germain recognized them for the first time (January 17, 1562); but these measures disguised the growing strain of relations between Protestant and Catholic. The Edict of Saint-Germain was an edict of toleration promulgated by the reigning Catherine de Medici in January 1562. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1562 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ...


Civil wars

Tensions led to eight civil wars, interrupted by periods of relative calm, between 1562 and 1598. With each break in peace, the Huguenots' trust in the Catholic throne diminished, and the violence became more severe, and Protestant demands became grander, until a lasting cessation of open hostility finally occurred in 1598. This article is about the definition of the specific type of war. ...


The wars gradually took on a dynastic character, developing into an extended feud between the Houses of Bourbon and Guise, both of which — in addition to holding rival religious views — staked a claim to the French throne. The crown, occupied by the House of Valois, generally supported the Catholic side, but on occasion switched over to the Protestant cause when politically expedient. This article or section should include material from France: Wars of Religion - Bourbon Dynasty The House of Bourbon dates from at least the beginning of the 13th century, when the estate of Bourbon was ruled by a Lord, vassal of France. ... The House of Guise was a French ducal family, primarily responsible for the French Wars of Religion. ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328- 1589. ...


The French Wars of Religion

Millais' painting, A Huguenot and his Catholic lover on the eve of St. Bartholomew's day
Millais' painting, A Huguenot and his Catholic lover on the eve of St. Bartholomew's day

The French Wars of Religion began with a massacre at Vassy on March 1, 1562, when 23[4](some sources say hundreds[11]) of the Huguenots were killed, and about 200 were wounded. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 390 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (481 × 739 pixel, file size: 46 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A Huguenot by John Everett Millais The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 390 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (481 × 739 pixel, file size: 46 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A Huguenot by John Everett Millais The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and... The French Wars of Religion were a series of conflicts fought between Catholics and Huguenots (Protestants) from the middle of the sixteenth century to the Edict of Nantes in 1598, including civil infighting as well as military operations. ... Vassy is a commune and a canton of the département of Calvados, in the Basse-Normandie région, in France. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1562 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ...


The Huguenots transformed themselves into a definitive political movement thereafter. Protestant preachers rallied a considerable army and a formidable cavalry, which came under the leadership of Admiral Gaspard de Coligny. Henry of Navarre and the House of Bourbon allied themselves to the Huguenots, adding wealth and holdings to the Protestant strength, which at its height grew to sixty fortified cities, and posed a serious threat to the Catholic crown and Paris over the next three decades. Gaspard de Coligny Gaspard de Coligny (February 16, 1519 – August 24, 1572), Seigneur (Lord) de Châtillon held the office of Admiral of France and is best remembered as a Huguenot leader. ... By Frans Pourbus the younger. ...


St. Bartholomew's Day massacre

An Eyewitness Account of the Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre by François Dubois (1790 - 1871).
An Eyewitness Account of the Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre by François Dubois (1790 - 1871).

In what became known as the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre of 24 August17 September 1572, Catholics killed thousands of Huguenots in Paris. Similar massacres took place in other towns in the weeks following, with death toll estimates again ranging wildly, from thousands to as high as 110,000. An amnesty granted in 1573 pardoned the perpetrators. Image File history File links Massacre_saint_barthelemy. ... Image File history File links Massacre_saint_barthelemy. ... Painting by François Dubois (born about 1529, Amiens, Picardy) The St. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ...


Edict of Nantes

The fifth holy war against the Huguenots began on February 23, 1574. The conflict continued periodically until 1598, when Henry of Navarre, having succeeded to the French throne in 1589 as Henry IV, and recanted his Protestantism in favour of Roman Catholicism, issued the Edict of Nantes. The Edict granted the Protestants equality with Catholics under the throne and a degree of religious and political freedom within their domains. The Edict simultaneously protected Catholic interests by discouraging the founding of new Protestant churches in the Catholic-controlled regions. Holy war may refer to: Jihad, war fought to spread the religion of Islam. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1574 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


With the proclamation of the Edict of Nantes, and the subsequent protection of Huguenot rights, pressures to leave France abated, as did further attempts at colonization. However, under King Louis XIV (reigned 1643–1715), chief minister Cardinal Mazarin (who held real power during the king's minority up to his death in 1661) resumed persecution of the Protestants using soldiers to inflict dragonnades that made life so intolerable that many fled. Louis XIV redirects here. ... Jules Mazarin, French diplomat and statesman, by Pierre-Louis Bouchart. ... A policy, commonly called in French dragonnades, was instituted by Louis XIV in order to intimidate Huguenot families to reconvert to Roman Catholicism. ...


Edict of Fontainebleau

The king revoked the "irrevocable" Edict of Nantes in 1685 and declared Protestantism illegal with the Edict of Fontainebleau. After this, huge numbers of Huguenots (with estimates ranging from 200,000 to 1,000,000[3]) fled to surrounding Protestant countries: England, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Norway, Denmark and Prussia — whose Calvinist Great Elector Frederick William welcomed them to help rebuild his war-ravaged and underpopulated country. The Huguenot population of France had dropped to 856,000 by the mid 1660s, of which a plurality was rural. The greatest populations of surviving Huguenots resided in the regions of Basse-Guyenne, Saintonge-Aunis-Angoumois and Poitou.[12] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Edict of Fontainebleau (October 1685) was an edict issued by Louis XIV of France, best known as the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes of 1598, which had granted to the Huguenots the right to worship their religion without persecution from the state. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Friedrich Wilhelm I of Brandenburg. ...


Huguenot exodus from France

Early emigration

Etching of Fort Caroline.
Etching of Fort Caroline.
See also: Fort Caroline

The first Huguenots to leave France seeking freedom from persecution had done so years earlier under the leadership of Jean Ribault in 1562. The group ended up establishing the small colony of Fort Caroline in 1564, on the banks of the St. Johns River, in what is today Jacksonville, Florida. Image File history File linksMetadata Fort_caroline. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Fort_caroline. ... Fort Caroline shown in an old etching Fort Caroline was the first French colony in the present-day United States. ... Jean Ribault (1520 – October 12, 1565) was a French naval officer, navigator, and a colonizer of what would become the southeastern United States. ... Fort Caroline shown in an old etching Fort Caroline was the first French colony in the present-day United States. ... The St. ... Jacksonville redirects here. ...


The colony was the first attempt at any permanent European settlement in the present-day United States, but the group survived only a short time. In September 1565, an attack against the new Spanish colony at St. Augustine backfired, and the Spanish wiped out the Fort Caroline garrison. Nickname: Location in St. ... Fort Caroline shown in an old etching Fort Caroline was the first French colony in the present-day United States. ...


Settlement in South Africa

On December 31, 1687 a band of Huguenots set sail from France to the Dutch East India Company post at the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Individual Huguenots settled at the Cape of Good Hope from as early as 1671 with the arrival of Francois Villion (Viljoen) and an organized, large scale emigration of Huguenots to the Cape of Good Hope took place during 1688 and 1689. A notable example of this is the emigration of Huguenots from La Motte d'Aigues in Provence, France. A large number of people in South Africa are descended from Huguenots. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 19 - The men under explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle murder him while searching for the mouth of the Mississippi River. ... For other uses, see Cape of Good Hope (disambiguation). ... La Motte-dAigues is a village and commune in the Vaucluse département in southern France. ... Coat of arms of Provence Provence (Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) was a Roman province and now is a region of southeastern France on the Mediterranean Sea adjacent to Italy. ...

The Huguenot Monument of Franschhoek.
The Huguenot Monument of Franschhoek.

Many of these settlers chose as their home an area called Franschhoek, Dutch for French Corner, in the present day Western Cape province of South Africa. A large monument to commemorate the arrival of the Huguenots in South Africa was inaugurated on 7 April 1948 at Franschhoek. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 270 KB) The Huguenot Memorial Museum in Franschoek, South Africa, commemorating the cultural contribution of French Huguenots. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 270 KB) The Huguenot Memorial Museum in Franschoek, South Africa, commemorating the cultural contribution of French Huguenots. ... The Huguenot Monument Close-up of the globe, inscribed Die Hugenote (The Huguenots) The museum building next to the memorial The Huguenot Monument in Franschhoek, South Africa, is dedicated to the cultural influences that French Huguenots have brought to the Cape Colony (and ultimately the whole of South Africa) after... Franschoek is a small town in the Western Cape Province of the Republic of South Africa. ... Capital Cape Town Largest city Cape Town Premier Ebrahim Rasool Area - Total Ranked 4th 129,370 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 5th 4,524,335 35/km² Elevation Highest point: Seweweekspoort Peak at 2325 meters (7628 feet) Lowest point: sea level Languages Afrikaans (55. ... Franschhoek Valley Franschhoek (Dutch (spelling before 1947): French corner) is a small town in the Western Cape Province and one of the oldest towns of the Republic of South Africa. ...


Many of the farms in the Western Cape province in South Africa still bear French names and there are many families, today mostly Afrikaans speaking, whose surnames bear witness to their French Huguenot ancestry. Examples of these are: Blignaut, de Klerk (Le Clercq), de Villiers, Visagie (Visage), du Plessis, du Toit, TerBlanche, Fourie, Fouche, Giliomee (Guilliaume), Hugo, Joubert, Labuschagne (la Buscagne), le Roux, Lombard, Malan, Malherbe, Marais, Theron, Jordaan (Jurdan) and Viljoen (Villon),Du Preez (Des Pres) amongst others, which are all common surnames in present day South Africa.[13] The wine industry in South Africa owed a significant debt to the Huguenots, many of whom had vineyards in France. Look up Appendix:Afrikaans and Dutch Swadesh lists in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Philippe de Villiers Philippe de Villiers (born March 25, 1949 as Viscount Philippe le Jolis de Villiers de Saintignon) is a French conservative politician. ... Barthélemy Catherine Joubert (14 April 1769 - 15 August 1799), French general, the son of an advocate, was born at Pont de Vaux (Ain). ... Leroux, LeRoux, or Le Roux is a surname of French origin, and may refer to: Alain Le Roux, associate of William I of England Edward Buddy LeRoux, former American baseball club owner Frederick Le Roux, South African cricketer Garth Le Roux, South African fast bowler Gaspard Le Roux, French harpsichordist... Look up Lombard in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Malan can mean: Malan (Xinjiang) Adolph Malan, famed World War II RAF fighter pilot who led No. ... François de Malherbe François de Malherbe (1555 - October 16, 1628) was a French poet, critic and translator. ... Theron can mean:- Charlize Theron is a South African actress. ... A vineyard A vineyard is a place where grapes are grown for making wine, raisins, or table grapes. ...


Settlement in North America

Barred from settling in New France, many Huguenots moved instead to the Dutch colony New Netherland later incorporated into New York and New Jersey and the 13 colonies of Great Britain in North America, the first in 1624. A significant number of families present in New Amsterdam were of French Huguenot descent, having emigrated to the Netherlands in previous century. The Huguenot congregation was formally established in 1628 as L'Église française à la Nouvelle York. This parish continues today as L'Eglise du Saint-Esprit part of the Episcopal (Anglican) communion still welcoming Francophone New Yorkers from all over the world. Services are still conducted in French for a Francophone parish community, and members of the Huguenot Society of America. The Huguenot Society of America was an hereditary patriotic society, organized in New York City on April 12, 1883, and incorporated on June 12, 1885. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... States which were part of New Netherlands Map based on Adriaen Blocks 1614 expedition to New Netherland, featuring the first use of the name. ... Betsy Ross purportedly sewed the first American flag with 13 stars and 13 stripes representing each of the 13 colonies. ... North American redirects here. ...

Huguenot immigrants founded New Paltz, New York, where is now located the oldest street in the current United States of America with the original stone houses, New Rochelle, New York (named after La Rochelle in France). Chretien du Bois was one of the original Huguenot settlers in this area. A Huguenot settlement on the south shore of Staten Island, New York was founded by Daniel Perrin in 1692. The present day neighborhood of Huguenot was named after Perrin and these early settlers. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (878x689, 857 KB) Photographed by Daniel Case 2006-11-27 I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (878x689, 857 KB) Photographed by Daniel Case 2006-11-27 I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... The Jean Hasbrouck House in New Paltz, New York, is a U.S. National Historic Landmark (NHL) and contributing property to the Huguenot Street Historic District, which also enjoys the same status. ... Stone houses in the historic district along Huguenot Street in New Paltz. ... New Paltz is both a village and town in the U.S. state of New York. ... The Huguenot Street Historic District is located along that street in New Paltz, New York. ... Nickname: Location within the state of New York Coordinates: , Country State County Westchester Government  - Type Council-Manager  - Mayor Noam Bramson Area  - Total 13. ... For other uses, see La Rochelle (disambiguation). ... Rossville is the name of a neighborhood of Staten Island, New York, located to the west of Princes Bay, on the islands South Shore. ... For other uses, see Staten Island (disambiguation) Staten Island, shown in an enhanced satellite image Staten Island is one of the five boroughs of New York City, located on an island of the same name on the west side of the Narrows at the entrance of New York Harbor. ... Daniel Perrin (b. ... Huguenot is the name of a neighborhood located on the South Shore of Staten Island, New York, USA. Originally named Bloomingview, its present name is derived from the French Huguenots, many of whom came to Staten Island in the 18th Century to escape religious persecution. ...


Some Huguenot immigrants settled in Central Pennsylvania. There, they assimilated with the predominately Pennsylvania German settlers. Surnames of Huguenot origin found in the area include Forry, Free, Laucks, Lorah, Motter, and Zeller.


Some of the settlers chose the Virginia Colony (John Broache is one on record), and formed communities in present-day Chesterfield County and at Manakintown, an abandoned Monacan village now located in Powhatan County about 20 miles (32 km) west of downtown Richmond, Virginia, where their descendants continue to reside. On May 12, 1705, the Virginia General Assembly passed an act to naturalize the 148 Huguenots resident at Manakintown. [14] The 1609 charter for the Virginia colony from sea to sea The Virginia Colony refers to the English colony in North America that existed during the 17th and 18th centuries before the American Revolution. ... Chesterfield County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia, a state of the United States. ... The Monacan are an Indian tribe in Virginia, located in Amherst County, Virginia near Lynchburg, Virginia. ... Powhatan County is a county located in the U.S. state — officially, Commonwealth — of Virginia. ... Nickname: Motto: Sic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: , Country State Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ... The Virginia General Assembly is the state legislature of the Commonwealth of Virginia, a U.S. state. ...


The Huguenot Memorial Bridge across the James River and Huguenot Road was named in their honor, as were many local features including several schools, including Huguenot High School. Huguenot Memorial Bridge is located in Henrico County and the independent city of Richmond, Virginia. ... The James River at Cartersville The James River in the U.S. state of Virginia is 660 km (410 miles) long including its Jackson River source and drains a watershed comprising 27,019 km² (10,432 square miles). ... Huguenot High School, part of the Richmond City Public Schools system, is a high school located in Richmond, Virginia, with grades 9-12. ...


Many Huguenots also settled in the area around the current site of Charleston, South Carolina. In 1685, Rev. Elie Prioleau from the town of Pons in France settled in what was then called Charlestown. He became pastor of the first Huguenot church in North America in that city. The French Huguenot Church of Charleston, which remains independent, is the oldest continuously active Huguenot congregation in the United States today. L'Eglise du Saint-Esprit in NY is older, founded in 1628, but left the French Reformed movement in 1804 to become part of the Episcopal Church in America. Nickname: Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ... The French Huguenot Church is a Calvinist church in the French Quarter of Charleston, South Carolina. ...


Most of the Huguenot congregations in North America merged or affiliated with other Protestant denominations, such the Presbyterian Church (USA), Episcopal Church, United Church of Christ, Reformed Churches, and the Reformed Baptists. Emblem of the PC(USA) The Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) or PC(USA) is a mainline Protestant Christian denomination in the United States. ... The Episcopal Church may refer to several members of the Anglican Communion, including: Episcopal Church in the United States of America Scottish Episcopal Church Episcopal Church in Jerusalem and the Middle East Episcopal Church of Cuba idk of the Sudan Spanish Reformed Episcopal Church ... Disambiguation: This article is about the United States denomination known as United Church of Christ. ... The Reformed churches are a group of Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Zwinglian or Calvinist system of doctrine but organizationally independent. ... The name Reformed Baptist does not refer to a distinct Christian denomination, but instead is a description of the churchs theological leaning. ...


American Huguenots readily married outside their immediate French Huguenot communities, leading to rapid assimilation. They made an enormous contribution to American economic life, especially as merchants and artisans in the late Colonial and early Federal periods. One outstanding contribution was the establishment of the Brandywine powder mills by E.I. du Pont, a former student of Lavoisier. Eleuthère Irénée du Pont de Nemours (June 24, 1771 – October 31, 1834) was born in Paris, France and emigrated with his father Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours to the United States in 1799. ... Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (August 26, 1743 - May 8, 1794) was a French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry, finance, biology, and economics. ...


Paul Revere was descended from Huguenot refugees, as were Henry Laurens who signed the Declaration of Independence for South Carolina, Alexander Hamilton, and a number of other leaders of the American Revolution. For the song by the Beastie Boys, see Paul Revere (song). ... Henry Laurens Henry Laurens (1724–1792) was an American merchant and rice planter from South Carolina who became a political leader during the Revolutionary War. ... Alexander Hamilton (November 20, 1755 or 1757 - July 12, 1804) was the first Secretary of the Treasury of the United States, lawyer, Founding Father, American politician, leading statesman, political economist,] financier, and political theorist. ...


Asylum in the Netherlands

French Huguenots already fought in the low lands alongside the Dutch and against Spain during the first years of the Dutch Revolt. The Dutch Republic became rapidly the exile haven of choice for Huguenots. Early ties were already visible in the Apologie of William the Silent, condemning the Spanish Inquisition and written by his court reverend Huguenot Pierre L'Oyseleur, lord of Villiers. William I (William the Silent). ... Historical revision of the Inquisition is a historiographical project that has emerged in recent years. ...


Louise de Coligny, sister of murdered Huguenot leader Gaspard de Coligny had married the calvinist Dutch revolt leader William the Silent. And as both spoke French in everyday life, their court church in the Prinsenhof in Delft was providing French spoken Calvinist services, a practice still continued to today. The Prinsenhof is now one of the remaining 14 active Walloon churches of the Dutch Reformed Church. Louise de Coligny (1555-1620) was the daughter of Gaspard de Coligny and Charlotte de Laval. ... Gaspard de Coligny Gaspard de Coligny (February 16, 1519 – August 24, 1572), Seigneur (Lord) de Châtillon held the office of Admiral of France and is best remembered as a Huguenot leader. ... William I (William the Silent). ... The Dutch Reformed village church of St. ...


These very early ties between Huguenots and the Dutch Republic's military and political leadership, the House of Orange-Nassau, since the early days of the Dutch Revolt explains the many early settlements of Huguenots in the Dutch Republic's colonies around Cape of Good Hope in South-Africa and the New Netherlands colony in America. The House of Orange-Nassau (in Dutch: Huis van Oranje-Nassau), a branch of the German House of Nassau, has played a central role in the political life of the Netherlands - and at times in Europe - since William I of Orange (also known as William the Silent and Father of... For other uses, see Cape of Good Hope (disambiguation). ... New Netherland (Dutch Nieuw-Nederland, Latin: Nova Belgica) was the territory claimed by the Netherlands on the eastern coast of North America in the 17th century. ...


Stadtholder William III of Orange, who later became King of England, emerged as the strongest opponent of Louis XIV, after Louis' attack on the Dutch Republic in 1672. He formed the League of Augsburg as main opposition coalition. Consequently many Huguenots saw the wealthy and calvinist Dutch Republic, leading the opposition against Louis XIV, as the most attractive country for exile after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. They also found established many more French speaking calvinist churches there. William III King of England, Scotland and Ireland William III and II (14 November 1650–8 March 1702; also known as William Henry and William of Orange) was Prince of Orange from his birth, King of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and King of Scotland from 11 April... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ... The Grand Alliance (known, prior to 1689, as the League of Augsburg) was a European coalition, consisting (at various times) of Austria, Bavaria, Brandenburg, England, the Holy Roman Empire, the Netherlands, the Palatinate of the Rhine, Saxony, Spain, Sweden, and the United Provinces. ...


The Dutch Republic received the largest group of Huguenot refugees with an estimated 75,000 to 100,000 Huguenots after the revocation of the Edict. Amongst them were 200 reverends. This was a huge influx, the entire population of the Dutch Republic amounted to ca. 2 million at that time. Around 1700 it is estimated that near 25% of the Amsterdam population was Huguenot. Amsterdam and the area of West-Frisia were the first areas providing full citizens rights to Huguenots in 1705, followed by the entire Dutch Republic in 1715. Huguenots married with Dutch from the outset.


One of the most prominent Huguenots refugees to the Netherlands was Pierre Bayle, who started teaching in Rotterdam, while publishing his multi-volume masterpiece Historical and Critical Dictionary. Which became one of the one hundred foundational texts that formed the first collection of the US Library of Congress. Pierre Bayle. ... Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ...


Most Huguenot descendents in the Netherlands today are recognisable by French family names with typical Dutch given names. Due to their early ties with the Dutch Revolt's leadership and even participation in the revolt, parts of the Dutch patriciate are of Huguenot descent. For other uses, see Elite (disambiguation). ...


Asylum in Britain and Ireland

Huguenot weavers' houses at Canterbury
Huguenot weavers' houses at Canterbury

An estimated 50,000 Protestant Walloons and Huguenots fled to England, with about 10,000 moving on to Ireland. A leading Huguenot theologian and writer who led the exiled community in London, Andrew Lortie (born André Lortie), became known for articulating Huguenot criticism of the Holy See and transubstantiation. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 640 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1639 × 1536 pixel, file size: 922 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Suzanne Knights, my photo, July 2007 I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 640 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1639 × 1536 pixel, file size: 922 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Suzanne Knights, my photo, July 2007 I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Canterbury is a cathedral city in east Kent in South East England and is the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Primate of All England, head of the Church of England and of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Andrew Lortie aka André Lortie was a leading Huguenot Protestant theologian, author and emigre leader, born in France and resident of London at his death, heading the French church there. ... Main article: Eucharist (Catholic Church) Transubstantiation (in Latin, transsubstantiatio) is the change of the substance of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ occurring in the Eucharist according to the teaching of some Christian Churches, including the Roman Catholic Church. ...


Of these refugees, upon landing on the Kent coast, many gravitated towards Canterbury, then the county's hub, where many Walloon & Huguenot families were granted asylum. Edward VI granted them the whole of the Western crypt of Canterbury Cathedral for worship. This privilege in 1825 shrank to the south aisle and in 1895 to the former chantry chapel of the Black Prince, where services are still held in French according to the reformed tradition every Sunday at 3pm. Other evidence of the Walloons and Huguenots in Canterbury includes a block of houses in Turnagain Lane where weavers' windows survive on the top floor, and 'the Weavers', a half-timbered house by the river (now a restaurant - see illustration above). The house derives its name from a weaving school which was moved there in the last years of the 19th century, resurrecting the use to which it had been put between the 16th century and about 1830. Many of the refugee community were weavers, but naturally some practised other occupations necessary to sustain the community distinct from the indigenous population, this separation being a condition of their initial acceptance in the City [1]. They also settled elsewhere in Kent, particularly Sandwich, Faversham and Maidstone - towns in which there used to be refugee churches. Edward Tudor redirects here. ... Canterbury Cathedral is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England and forms part of a World Heritage Site. ... Chantry is a term for the English establishment of a shrine or chapel on private land where monks or priests would say (or chant) prayers on a fixed schedule, usually for someone who had died. ... Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales, KG (15 June 1330 – 8 June 1376), popularly known as the Black Prince, was the eldest son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault, and father to King Richard II of England. ...


Huguenot refugees flocked to Shoreditch, London in large numbers. They established a major weaving industry in and around Spitalfields (see Petticoat Lane and the Tenterground), and in Wandsworth. The Old Truman Brewery, then known as the Black Eagle Brewery, appeared in 1724. The fleeing of Huguenot refugees from Tours, France had virtually wiped out the great silk mills they had built. Shoreditch Town Hall Shoreditch is a place in the London Borough of Hackney. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Christ Church, Spitalfields Spitalfields, an area in Tower Hamlets, east London near to Liverpool Street station and Brick Lane which gets its name from a contraction of hospital fields, as there used to be a major hospital in the area. ... Petticoat Lane Market is a fashion and clothing market located on Wentworth Street and Middlesex Street in East London, just to the south of Old Spitalfields market, and near to the Brick Lane and Columbia Road Sunday markets. ... A tenterground or tenter ground was an area used for drying newly manufactured cloth after fulling. ... , Wandsworth is a town on the south bank of the River Thames in south-west London. ... The Brewery showing the large chimney and the clock house The Old Truman Brewery is the former Black Eagle brewery complex located around Brick Lane in the Spitalfields area, in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. ... Tours is a city in France, the préfecture (capital city) of the Indre-et-Loire département, on the lower reaches of the river Loire, between Orléans and the Atlantic coast. ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ...


At the same time other Huguenots arriving in England settled in Bedfordshire, which was (at the time) the main centre of England's Lace industry. Huguenots greatly conributed to the development of lace-making in Bedfordshire, with many families settling in Cranfield, Bedford and Luton. Bedfordshire (abbreviated Beds) is a county in England that forms part of the East of England region. ... For other uses, see Lace (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the English county town. ... For other uses, see Luton (disambiguation). ...


Many Huguenots settled in Ireland during the Plantations of Ireland. Huguenot regiments fought for William of Orange in the Williamite war in Ireland, for which they were rewarded with land grants and titles, many settling in Dublin[15]. Some of them took their skills to Ulster and assisted in the founding of the Irish linen industry. Numerous signs of Huguenot presence can still be seen with names still in use, and with areas of the main towns and cities named after the people who settled there, for instance the Huguenot District in Cork City. Plantations in 16th and 17th century Ireland were established throughout the country by the confiscation of lands occupied by Gaelic clans and Hiberno-Norman dynasties, but principally in the provinces of Munster and Ulster. ... William III (14 November 1650 – 8 March 1702) was the Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28 June 1672, King of England and King of Ireland from 13 February 1689, and King of Scots (under the name William II) from... For the context of this war see Jacobitism and Glorious Revolution. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... This article is about the nine-county Irish province. ... Torn linen cloth, recovered from the Dead Sea Linen is a material made from the fibers of the flax plant. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


There are Huguenot cemetries in London as well as Ireland.


Asylum in Germany and Scandinavia

Obelisk commemorating the Huguenots in Fredericia, Denmark
Obelisk commemorating the Huguenots in Fredericia, Denmark

Huguenots refugees found a safe haven in the Lutheran and Reformed states in Germany and Scandinavia. Nearly 44,000 Huguenots established themselves in Germany, and particularly in Prussia where many of their descendents rose to positions of prominence. Several congregations were founded, such as the Fredericia (Denmark), Berlin, Stockholm, Hamburg, Frankfurt, Emden. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 298 KB) This obelisk was raised by the first Huguenots in the city Fredericia in Denmark to celebrate their newly found religious freedom. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 298 KB) This obelisk was raised by the first Huguenots in the city Fredericia in Denmark to celebrate their newly found religious freedom. ... Fredericia is a city in eastern Jutland, Denmark, founded in 1650 by Frederik III, after whom it was named. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Fredericia is a city in eastern Jutland, Denmark, founded in 1650 by Frederik III, after whom it was named. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hamburg (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... Emden is a city and seaport in the northwest of Germany, on river Ems. ...


Among the early Huguenots seeking refuge in Sweden were the parents of Olaus Laurentius, who fled from Flanders (presumably the Flemish region of France), and settled in the town of Borlange, Sweden. In 1543 their son Olaus Laurentius (Olof Larsson) was born in Borlange. Based on his birthdate, we must presume his parents left Flanders before 1543, early during the persecution of Huguenots and other Protestants in France.


(From the patronymic surnaming of Sweden, we can determine that Olaus' father's name had to be Lars (or some form of the name Laurence.) Olaus Laurentius became the Vicar of Gagnef parish, and the patriarchal ancestor of a huge family of descendants throughout Europe and the midwest USA.


Two websites of interest to genealogical researchers are: [2] and [3]


Around 1700, a significant proportion of Berlin's population was of French mother tongue and the Berlin Huguenots preserved the French language in their service for nearly a century. They ultimately decided to switch to German in protest against the occupation of Prussia by Napoleon in 1806/07. Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from...


The Prince Louis of Conde and sons Daniel and Osias arranged with Count Ludwig von Nassau-Saarbrucken to establish a Huguenot community in present-day Saarland in 1604. The Count was a supporter of mercantilism and welcomed technically-skilled immigrants into his lands regardless of their religious persuasions. The Condes established a thriving glass-making works which provided wealth to the principality for many years, and other founding families created enterprises including textiles and other traditional Huguenot occupations in France. The community and its congregation remain active to this day, with many of the founding families still present in the region. Members of this community emigrated to the US in the 1890s.


In Bad Karlshafen, Hessen, Germany is the Huguenot Museum and Huguenot archive. The collection includes family histories, a library, and a picture archive. Bad Karlshafen is a town in the district of Kassel, in Hesse, Germany. ...


Effects

The exodus of Huguenots from France created a kind of brain drain from which the kingdom did not fully recover for years. The French crown's refusal to allow Protestants to settle in New France was a factor behind that colony's slow population growth, which ultimately led to its conquest by the British.[citation needed] By the time of the French and Indian War, there may have been more people of French ancestry living in Britain's American colonies than there were in New France. This article is about the emigration term. ... Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and... Betsy Ross purportedly sewed the first American flag with 13 stars and 13 stripes representing each of the 13 colonies. ...


Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg invited Huguenots to settle in his realms, and a number of their descendants rose to positions of prominence in Prussia. The last Prime Minister of the (East) German Democratic Republic, Lothar de Maizière, is a scion of a Huguenot family. Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg. ... “East Germany” redirects here. ... Lothar de Maizière [] (born 2 March 1940) is a German conservative politician who served as the last and only democratically elected Prime Minister of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) in 1990. ...


The persecution and flight of the Huguenots greatly damaged the reputation of Louis XIV abroad, particularly in England; the two kingdoms, which had enjoyed peaceful relations prior to 1685, became bitter enemies and fought against each other in a series of wars from 1689 onward.


End of persecution and restoration of French citizenship

See also: Persecution of Huguenots under Louis XV

Persecution of Protestants continued in France after 1724, but ended in 1764 and the French Revolution of 1789 finally made them full-fledged citizens. The persecution of Huguenots under Louis XV refers to hostile activities against French Protestants between 1724 and 1764 during the reign of Louis XV. // The members of the Protestant religion in France, the Huguenots, had been granted the right to worship in their faith by Henry IV, and had remained... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on...


The December 15, 1790 Law stated that : "All persons born in a foreign country and descending in any degree of a French man or woman expatriated for religious reason are declared French nationals (naturels français) and will benefit from rights attached to that quality if they come back to France, establish their domicile there and take the civic oath." This might have been, historically, the first law recognising a right of return. The term Right of return refers to the principle in international law that members of an ethnic or national group have a right to immigration and naturalization into the country that they, the destination country, or both consider to be that groups homeland, independent of prior personal citizenship in...


Article 4 of the June 26, 1889 Nationality Law stated that: "Descendants of families proscribed by the revocation of the Edict of Nantes will continue to benefit from the benefit of the December 15, 1790 Law, but on the condition that a nominal decree should be issued for every petitioner. That decree will only produce its effects for the future."


Foreign descendants of Huguenots lost the automatic right to French citizenship in 1945 (by force of the ordonnance du 19 octobre 1945, revoking the 1889 Nationality Law).


In the 1920s and 1930s, members of the extreme-right Action Française movement expressed strong animus against the Protestants, as against the Jews, and the Freemasons - all three being regarded as groups supporting the French Republic which Action Française sought to overthrow. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... American Square & Compasses Freemasonry is a worldwide fraternal organization. ...


During the occupation of France in the Second World War, a significant number of Protestants - not persecuted themselves - were active in hiding and saving Jews. Up to the present, many French Protestants, due to their history, feel a special sympathy for and tendency to support "The Underdog" in various situations and conflicts. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... An underdog is a person or group in a competition, frequently in electoral politics, sports, and creative works, who is popularly expected to lose. ...


Protestants in France today number about 1 million, or about 2% of the population [4] [5]. They are most concentrated in the Cévennes region in the south. Fields in the Causse Mejean upland. ...


Legacy

French

A number of French churches are descended from the Huguenots, including:

The Reformed Church of France (French: , ÉRF) is the Reformed, originally Calvinist, church of France. ...

American

  • Eight American Presidents (George Washington, Ulysses S. Grant, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Theodore Roosevelt, William Taft, Harry Truman, Gerald Ford and Lyndon Johnson) had significant proven Huguenot ancestry, as did Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and Paul Revere. Twelve other U.S. Presidents had credible but unproven claims to Huguenot ancestors. [16]
  • In 1924 a commemorative half dollar, known as the Huguenot-Walloon Half Dollar[17], was coined in the United States to celebrate the 300th anniversary of their initial settlement in what is now the United States. One Huguenot colonist was a silversmith named Apollos Rivoire, who would later anglicize his name to Paul Revere. He would, still later, give his name and his profession to his son, Paul Revere, the famous United States revolutionary.
  • A neighborhood in New York City's borough of Staten Island is named Huguenot, and the City of New Rochelle, New York is named after La Rochelle, a former Huguenot stronghold in France.
  • One of the leading chemical companies in the world today, E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, was founded by the scientist E. I. du Pont, who immigrated directly from France in 1799.

For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... Kinship and descent is one of the major concepts of cultural anthropology. ... Alexander Hamilton (November 20, 1755 or 1757 - July 12, 1804) was the first Secretary of the Treasury of the United States, lawyer, Founding Father, American politician, leading statesman, political economist,] financier, and political theorist. ... For other persons named John Jay, see John Jay (disambiguation). ... For the song by the Beastie Boys, see Paul Revere (song). ... For the song by the Beastie Boys, see Paul Revere (song). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the borough in New York City. ... Huguenot is the name of a neighborhood located on the South Shore of Staten Island, New York, USA. Originally named Bloomingview, its present name is derived from the French Huguenots, many of whom came to Staten Island in the 18th Century to escape religious persecution. ... Nickname: Location within the state of New York Coordinates: , Country State County Westchester Government  - Type Council-Manager  - Mayor Noam Bramson Area  - Total 13. ... For other uses, see La Rochelle (disambiguation). ... This article is about E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. ...

Other

  • According to an oft-repeated belief one quarter or more of all Englishmen have some proven Huguenot ancestry.[citation needed]
  • Huguenot refugees in Prussia are thought to have contributed significantly to the development of the textile industry in that state.

For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Textile (disambiguation). ...

Symbol

The Huguenot Cross
The Huguenot Cross

The Huguenot cross is the distinctive emblem of the Huguenots (croix huguenote). It is now an official symbol of the Eglise des Protestants reformé (French Protestant church) and Huguenot descendants are proud to display this piece of jewellery as a sign of reconnaissance (recognition) between them. Image File history File links Croix_huguenote. ... Image File history File links Croix_huguenote. ... The Huguenot cross is a Christian religious symbol originating in France and is one of the more recognisable and popular symbols of the evangelical reformed faith. ...


See also

Some notable Huguenots or people with Huguenot ancestry include: Charles Ancillon, French jurist and diplomat John André, British officer and spy Agrippa dAubigné, poet Constant dAubigné, nobleman, father of Madame de Maintenon, second wife of Louis XIV Hosea Ballou, early Universalist preacher and theologian Isaac Barré, British politician...

Notes

  1. ^ History: The origin of the name Huguenot' The Huguenot Society of America
  2. ^ a b Janet G. Gray, "The Origin of the Word Huguenot", Sixteenth Century Journal 14 (1983), 349-359
  3. ^ a b Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th ed, Frank Puaux, Huguenot
  4. ^ a b The Catholic Encyclopedia, Antoine Dégert, 1911, Huguenots
  5. ^ Who Were the Huguenots? The National Huguenot Society
  6. ^ Bibliothèque d'humanisme et Renaissance , by Association d'humanisme et renaissance, 1958, p217
  7. ^ The Huguenots in Florida; Or, The Lily and the Totem, by William Gilmore Simms, 1854, p470
  8. ^ George Lunt, Huguenot - The origin and meaning of the name New England Historical & Genealogical Register, Boston, 1908/1911, 241-246
  9. ^ The Word Made Flesh: A History of Christian Thought, Margaret Ruth Miles, 2005, Blackwell Publishing, pg 381
  10. ^ The French Confession of Faith of 1559
  11. ^ A History of the Reformation, by Thomas Martin Lindsay, 1907, p190 "six or seven hundred Protestants were slain"
  12. ^ Benedict, Philip (1991). The Huguenot Population of France, 1600-1685: The Demographic Fate and Customs of a Religious Minority. Philadelphia: The American Philosophical Society, 8. ISBN 0871698153. 
  13. ^ Ces Francais Qui Ont Fait L'Afrique Du Sud. Translation: The French People Who Made South Africa. Bernard Lugan. January 1996. ISBN 2-84100-086-9'
  14. ^ Huguenots in ManakintownPDF (69.7 KiB)
  15. ^ The Irish Pensioners of William III's Huguenot Regiments
  16. ^ AGS Newsletter article - Dear Genie - September 2006
  17. ^ Huguenot Half Dollar

Baird, Charles W "History of the Huguenot Emigration to America" Genealogical Publishing Company, Published: 1885, Reprinted: 1998, ISBN 978-0-8063-0554-7 Charles Burgess (later, Cathal Brugha) - Irish freedom fighter “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... William III (14 November 1650 – 8 March 1702) was the Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28 June 1672, King of England and King of Ireland from 13 February 1689, and King of Scots (under the name William II) from...


External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Huguenots
Look up Huguenot in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Huguenot Society of America (195 words)
The Huguenot Society of America was founded in 1883 by the Reverend Alfred V. Wittmeyer, Rector of the French Huguenot Church in New York City, l'Eglise du Saint Esprit, for the following purposes:
To cause to be prepared and delivered before the Society lectures on matters relating to Huguenot history and genealogy.
To cause to be prepared and published books, monographs and pamphlets or other publications relating to Huguenot history and genealogy.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Huguenots (10702 words)
Huguenot; this was assuredly an exaggeration, for the Venetian ambassador estimated the district contaminated with this error at not the one-tenth part of France; nevertheless it is evident that the
Huguenot ranks; their writers made France and the countries beyond its borders echo with those cries by means of pamphlets in which, for the first time, they attacked the absolute power, or even the very institution of royalty.
Huguenot preaching was restrained and emigration was forbidden under pain of confiscation of property.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m