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Encyclopedia > Hugo Grotius
Western Philosophy
17th-century philosophy
Hugo Grotius - Portrait by Michiel Jansz van Mierevelt, 1631
Name: Hugo Grotius
Birth: 10 April 1583 (Delft, Holland)
Death: 28 August 1645 (Rostock, Pomerania)
School/tradition: Natural Law, Social contract, Humanism, Scholasticism
Main interests: Philosophy of war, International law, Political philosophy, Theology
Notable ideas: early theorist of natural rights, sought to ground just war principles in natural law, defended principle of pacta sunt servanda
Influences: Aristotle, Cicero, Erasmus, Vitoria, Gentili, Bodin, Suárez
Influenced: Selden, Hobbes, Cumberland, Pufendorf, Locke, Bynkershoek, Barbeyrac, Vattel, Rousseau, Kant, Scottish Enlightenment, American Founding Fathers

Hugo Grotius (Huig de Groot, or Hugo de Groot; Delft, 10 April 1583Rostock, 28 August 1645) worked as a jurist in the Dutch Republic and laid the foundations for international law, based on natural law. He was also a philosopher, Christian apologist, playwright, and poet. 17th-century philosophy in the West is generally regarded as seeing the start of modern philosophy, and the shaking off of the mediæval approach, especially scholasticism. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 503 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (839 × 1000 pixel, file size: 185 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hugo Grotius Atonement... Michiel Jansz van Mierevelt is a census-designated place in Lawsonville. ... // Events February 5 - Roger Williams emigrates to Boston. ... April 10 is the 100th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (101st in leap years). ... 1583 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. ... Country Netherlands Province South Holland Coordinates Area 24. ... Holland is a region in the central-western part of the Netherlands with 6. ... August 28 is the 240th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (241st in leap years), with 125 days remaining. ... // Events January 10 - Archbishop Laud executed on Tower Hill, London. ... Rostock is a city in northern Germany. ... Duchy of Pomerania ruled by the slavic dynasty of Griffits (Polish: Gryfici, German: Greiffen) was a semi-independent state in the 17th century. ... Natural law or the law of nature (Latin lex naturalis) is a law whose content is set by nature, and that therefore has validity everywhere. ... The term social contract describes a broad class of philosophical theories whose subject is the implied agreements by which people form nations and maintain social order. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ... The Philosophy of war examines war beyond the typical questions of weaponry and strategy, inquiring into the meaning and etiology of war, what war means for humanity and human nature as well as the ethics of war. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... Theology (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογια, logia, words, sayings, or discourse) is reasoned discourse concerning religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Natural rights is a philosophical hition of universal rights that are seen as inherent in the nature of people and not contingent on human actions or beliefs. ... Just war is a specific concept of how warfare might be justified, typically in accordance with a particular situation, or scenario, and expanded or supported by reference to doctrine, tradition, or historical commentary. ... Natural law or the law of nature (Latin lex naturalis) is a law whose content is set by nature, and that therefore has validity everywhere. ... Pacta sunt servanda (Latin for pacts must be respected) is a Brocard, a basic principle of civil law and of international law. ... Aristotle (Greek: AristotélÄ“s) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Cicero at about age 60, from an ancient marble bust Marcus Tullius Cicero (IPA:Classical Latin pronunciation: , usually pronounced in English; January 3, 106 BC – December 7, 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, lawyer, political theorist, philosopher, widely considered one of Romes greatest orators and prose stylists. ... Desiderius Erasmus in 1523 Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (also Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam) (October 27, probably 1466 – July 12, 1536) was a Dutch humanist and theologian. ... Francisco de Vitoria (1492-1546) was a Renaissance theologian, founder of the tradition in philosophy known as the School of Salamanca, noted especially for his contributions to the theory of Just War. ... Alberico Gentili Alberico Gentili (lat. ... Jean Bodin (1530-1596) was a French jurist, member of the Parliament of Paris and professor of Law in Toulouse. ... Francisco Suárez (1548–1617) was a Spanish philosopher and theologian, generally regarded as having been the greatest scholastic after Thomas Aquinas. ... John Selden (December 16, 1584 - November 30, 1654) was an English jurist, legal antiquary and oriental scholar. ... “Hobbes” redirects here. ... Richard Cumberland Richard Cumberland (1631–1718) was an English philosopher, and bishop of Peterborough from 1691. ... Baron Samuel von Pufendorf (January 8, 1632 - October 13, 1694), was a German jurist. ... This article is about John Locke, the English philosopher. ... Cornelius Bynkershoek Cornelius Bynkershoek (born 1673, died 1743) was a Dutch jurist and legal theorist who contributed to the development of international law in works like De dominio maris (1702). ... Jean Barbeyrac (March 15, 1674 ? March 3, 1744) was a French jurist. ... Emer(Emerich) de Vattel (April 25, 1714 - December 28, 1767) was a Swiss philosopher, diplomat, and legal expert whose theories laid the foundation of modern international law and political philosophy. ... Jean-Jacques Rousseau, (June 28, 1712 – July 2, 1778) was a Genevan philosopher of the Enlightenment whose political ideas influenced the French Revolution, the development of socialist theory, and the growth of nationalism. ... Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804), was a German philosopher from Königsberg in East Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia). ... The Scottish Enlightenment was a period of intellectual ferment in Scotland, running from approximately 1740 to 1800. ... ... Country Netherlands Province South Holland Coordinates Area 24. ... April 10 is the 100th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (101st in leap years). ... 1583 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. ... Rostock is a city in northern Germany. ... August 28 is the 240th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (241st in leap years), with 125 days remaining. ... // Events January 10 - Archbishop Laud executed on Tower Hill, London. ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Natural law or the law of nature (Latin lex naturalis) is a law whose content is set by nature, and that therefore has validity everywhere. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Apologetics is the field of study concerned with the systematic defense of a position. ... Template:Unsourced A playwright, also known as a dramatist, is someone who writes dramatic literature or drama. ... The poor poet A poet is a person who writes poetry. ...

Contents

Early life

Born in Delft during the Dutch Revolt, Hugo was the first child of Jan de Groot and Alida van Overschie. His father was a man of learning, once having studied with the eminent Justus Lipsius at Leiden, as well as of political distinction, and he groomed his son from an early age in a traditional humanist and Aristotelian education. A prodigious learner, Hugo entered the University of Leiden when he was just eleven years old. There he studied with some of the most acclaimed intellectuals in northern Europe, including Franciscus Junius, Joseph Justus Scaliger, and Rudolph Snellius.[1] Combatants Dutch rebels Spanish Empire The Eighty Years War, or Dutch Revolt (1568[1]–1648), was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Netherlands against the Spanish (Habsburg) Empire. ... Justus Lipsius, Joost Lips or Josse Lips (October 18, 1547 — March 23, 1606), was a Flemish philologian and humanist. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article needs cleanup. ... A child prodigy is someone who is a master of one or more skills or arts at an early age. ... Leiden University, located in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands. ... Franciscus Junius (May 1, 1545–October 13, 1602), also known as Francis Junius, Franz Junius, and François du Jon, was a Huguenot scholar and theologian, and the father of Franciscus Junius the younger. ... Joseph Justus Scaliger (1540-1609) was the tenth child and third son of Julius Caesar Scaliger and Andiette de Roques Lobejac. ... Rudolph Snellius (Rudolph Snel van Royen; Oudewater October 5, 1547 – Leiden 1613) was a linguist and mathematician who held appointments at the University of Marburg and the University of Leiden. ...


Upon graduation from Leiden in 1598, Grotius was invited to accompany the influential Dutch statesman, Johan van Oldenbarnevelt on a diplomatic mission to France. When the fifteen year-old Grotius was brought into an audience with King Henry IV, his impressive learning so delighted the court that the king declared "Behold the miracle of Holland!".[2] Grotius mingled with a variety of noted intellects while in France, and before he returned to his home country, the University of Orleans conferred upon him an honorary Doctor of Laws. Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... Johan van Oldenbarnevelt (September 14, 1547 – May 13, 1619) was a Dutch statesman, who played an important role in the Dutch struggle for independence from Spain. ... Henry IV (French: Henri IV; December 13, 1553 – May 14, 1610), was the first monarch of the Bourbon dynasty in France. ...


In Holland, Grotius earned an appointment as advocate to The Hague in 1599 and then as official historiographer for the States of Holland in 1601. His first occasion to write systematically on issues of international justice came in 1604, when he became involved in the legal proceedings following the seizure by Dutch merchants of a Portuguese carrack and its cargo in the Strait of Singapore. Arms of The Hague Flag of The city of The Hague. ... 1599 was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Historiography is writing about rather than of history. ... Events February 8 - Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, rebels against Elizabeth I of England - revolt is quickly crushed February 25 - Robert Devereux beheaded Jesuit Matteo Ricci arrives in China Bad harvest in Russia due to rainy summer Dutch troops drive Portuguese from Málaga Battle of Kinsale, Ireland Births... Events January 14 – Hampton Court conference with James I of England, the Anglican bishops and representatives of Puritans September 20 – Capture of Ostend by Spanish forces under Ambrosio Spinola after a three year siege. ... The Santa Maria at anchor by Andries van Eertvelt, painted c. ... The Singapore Strait, as seen from East Coast Park. ...


De Indis and Mare Liberum

Portrait of Grotius at age 25. Michiel Jansz van Mierevelt, 1608.
Portrait of Grotius at age 25. Michiel Jansz van Mierevelt, 1608.
Page written in Grotius' hand from the manuscript of De jure praedae (circa 1604-05).
Page written in Grotius' hand from the manuscript of De jure praedae (circa 1604-05).

The Dutch were at war with Spain and Portugal when the loaded merchant ship, the Santa Catarina, had been captured by captain Jacob van Heemskerk in 1603. Heemskerk was employed with the United Amsterdam Company (part of the Dutch East India Company), and though he did not have authorization from the company or the government to initiate the use of the force, many of the shareholders were eager to accept the riches that he brought back to them. Not only was the legality of keeping the prize questionable under Dutch statute, but a faction of shareholders (mostly Mennonite) in the Company also objected to the forceful seizure on moral grounds, and of course, the Portuguese were demanding their cargo back. The scandal led to a public judicial hearing and a wider contest to sway public (and international) opinion. It was in this wider contest that representatives of the Company called upon Grotius to draft a polemical defense of the seizure.[3] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Michiel Jansz van Mierevelt is a census-designated place in Lawsonville. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Combatants Dutch rebels Spanish Empire The Eighty Years War, or Dutch Revolt (1568[1]–1648), was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Netherlands against the Spanish (Habsburg) Empire. ... Jacob van Heemskerk Jacob van Heemskerk (b. ... King James I of England/VII of Scotland, the first monarch to rule the Kingdoms of England and Scotland at the same time Events March - Samuel de Champlain, French explorer, sails to Canada March 24 - Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James I of... Dutch colonial possessions, with the Dutch East India Company possessions marked in a paler green, surrounding the Indian Ocean plus Saint Helena in the mid-Atlantic. ... Prize is a term used in admiralty law to refer to equipment, vehicles, and vessels captured as a result of armed conflict. ... The Mennonites are a group of Christian Anabaptist denominations named after and influenced by the teachings and tradition of Menno Simons (1496-1561). ... Look up Polemic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Polemic is the art or practice of inciting disputation or causing controversy, for example in religious, philosophical, or political matters. ...


The result of Grotius' efforts in 1604-1605 was a long, theory-laden treatise that he provisionally entitled De Indis (On the Indies). Grotius sought to ground his defense of the seizure in terms of the natural principles of justice. In this, he had cast a net much wider than the case at hand; his interest was in the source and ground of war's lawfulness in general. The treatise was never published in full during Grotius' lifetime, perhaps because the court ruling in favor of the Company preempted the need to garner public support. The manuscript was not made public until it was uncovered from Grotius' estate in 1864 and published under the title, De Jure Praedae (On the Right of Capture). The principles that Grotius developed there, however, laid the basis for his mature work on international justice, De jure belli ac pacis, and in fact one chapter of the earlier work did make it to the press in the form of the influential pamphlet, Mare Liberum. Events January 14 – Hampton Court conference with James I of England, the Anglican bishops and representatives of Puritans September 20 – Capture of Ostend by Spanish forces under Ambrosio Spinola after a three year siege. ... 1605 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Natural law or the law of nature (Latin lex naturalis) is a law whose content is set by nature, and that therefore has validity everywhere. ... Estate is a term used in the common law. ...


In Mare Liberum (The Free Seas, published 1609) Grotius formulated the new principle that the sea was international territory and all nations were free to use it for seafaring trade. Grotius, by claiming 'free seas', provided suitable ideological justification for the Dutch breaking up of various trade monopolies through its formidable naval power (and then establishing its own monopoly). // Events April 4 – King of Spain signs an edit of expulsion of all moriscos from Spain April 9 – Spain recognizes Dutch independence May 23 - Official ratification of the Second Charter of Virginia. ... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The terms international waters or transboundary waters apply where any of the following types of bodies of water (or their drainage basins) transcend international boundaries: oceans, large marine ecosystems, enclosed or semi-enclosed regional seas and estuaries, rivers, lakes, groundwater systems (aquifers), and wetlands [1]. Oceans and seas, waters outside... In economics, a monopoly (from the Latin word monopolium - Greek language monos, one + polein, to sell) is defined as a persistent market situation where there is only one provider of a product or service. ...


England, competing fiercely with the Dutch for domination of world trade, opposed this idea and claimed sovereignty over the waters around the British Isles. In Mare clausum (1635) John Selden endeavoured to prove that the sea was in practice virtually as capable of appropriation as terrestrial territory. As conflicting claims grew out of the controversy, maritime states came to moderate their demands and base their maritime claims on the principle that it extended seawards from land. A workable formula was found by Cornelius Bynkershoek in his De dominio maris (1702), restricting maritime dominion to the actual distance within which cannon range could effectively protect it. This became universally adopted and developed into the three-mile limit. Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme political (e. ... Location of the British Isles The British Isles are a group of islands off the north west coast of continental Europe comprising Great Britain, Ireland and a number of smaller islands. ... Events February 10 - The Académie française in Paris is expanded to become a national academy for the artistic elite. ... John Selden (December 16, 1584 - November 30, 1654) was an English jurist, legal antiquary and oriental scholar. ... Cornelius Bynkershoek Cornelius Bynkershoek (born 1673, died 1743) was a Dutch jurist and legal theorist who contributed to the development of international law in works like De dominio maris (1702). ... Events March 8 - William III died; Princess Anne Stuart becomes Queen Anne of England, Scotland and Ireland. ...


The dispute would later have important economic implications. The Dutch Republic supported the idea of free trade (even though it imposed a special trade monopoly on nutmeg and cloves in the Moluccas). England adopted the Act of Navigation (1651), forbidding any goods from entering England except on English ships. The Act subsequently led to the First Anglo-Dutch War (1652 - 1654). Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... In economics, a monopoly (from the Latin word monopolium - Greek language monos, one + polein, to sell) is defined as a persistent market situation where there is only one provider of a product or service. ... Species About 100 species, including: Myristica argentea Myristica fragrans Myristica malabarica The nutmegs Myristica are a genus of evergreen trees indigenous to tropical southeast Asia and Australasia. ... Binomial name Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merrill & Perry A single dried clove flower bud Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum, syn. ... The Maluku Islands (also known as the Moluccas, Moluccan Islands or simply Maluku) are an archipelago in Indonesia, and part of the larger Malay Archipelago. ... (Redirected from 1651 Navigation Act) The English Navigation Acts were a series of laws which, beginning in 1651, restricted foreign shipping. ... // Events January 1 - Charles II crowned King of Scotland in Scone. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... // Events April 6 - Dutch sailor Jan van Riebeeck establishes a resupply camp for the Dutch East India Company at the Cape of Good Hope, and founded Cape Town. ... Events April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. ...


The Arminian controversy, arrest and exile

Part of a series on
Arminianism
Jacobus Arminius

Background
Protestantism
Reformation
Calvinist-Arminian Debate For the Armenian nationality, see Armenia or the Armenian language. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (701x908, 92 KB) From http://runeberg. ... Jacobus Arminius Jacobus Arminius (aka Jacob Arminius, James Arminius, and his Dutch name Jacob Harmenszoon or Jakob Hermann) (1560–1609) was a Dutch heretical theologian and (until 1603) professor in theology at the University of Leiden. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... The history of the Calvinist-Arminian debate arguably extends back to the first century church but was not formulated until the fifth century. ...

People
Jacobus Arminius
Hugo Grotius
The Remonstrants
John Wesley
Jacobus Arminius Jacobus Arminius (aka Jacob Arminius, James Arminius, and his Dutch name Jacob Harmenszoon or Jakob Hermann) (1560–1609) was a Dutch heretical theologian and (until 1603) professor in theology at the University of Leiden. ... Remonstrants, the name given to those Dutch Protestants who, after the death of Arminius, maintained the views associated with his name, and in 1610 presented to the states of Holland and Friesland a remonstrance in five articles formulating their points of departure from stricter Calvinism. ... John Wesley (June 17, 1703 – March 2, 1791) was an 18th-century Anglican clergyman and Christian theologian who was an early leader in the Methodist movement. ...

Doctrine
Total depravity
Prevenient grace
Substitutionary atonement
Unlimited atonement
Conditional election
Total depravity (also called total inability and total corruption) is a theological doctrine that derives from the Augustinian doctrine of original sin and is advocated in many Protestant confessions of faith and catechisms, including those of Lutheranism,1 Anglicanism and Methodism,2 Arminianism, and Calvinism. ... Prevenient grace is a Christian theological concept rooted in Augustinian theology[1] and embraced primarily by Arminian Christians who are influenced by the theology of John Wesley and who are part of the Methodist movement. ... Substitutionary atonement is the act of restoring balances by substitution. ... The Atonement is the central doctrine of Christianity: everything else derives from it. ... Conditional election is the doctrine that states that Gods election (or choosing) is not determined arbitrarily or according to some hidden motive undiscernable to humans. ...

Conditional preservation
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Aided by his continued association with van Oldenbarnevelt, Grotius made considerable advances in his political career, being retained as Oldenbarnevelt's resident advisor in 1605, Advocate General of the Fisc of Holland, Zeeland and Friesland in 1607, and then as Pensionary of Rotterdam (the equivalent of a mayoral office) in 1613.[4] In 1608 he married Maria van Reigersbergen, with whom he would have eight children (four surviving beyond youth) and who would be invaluable in helping him and the family to weather the storm to come. The term Conditional Preservation of the Saints is used to describe the belief that a Christians salvation can be lost. ... Johan van Oldenbarnevelt (September 14, 1547 – May 13, 1619) was a Dutch statesman, who played an important role in the Dutch struggle for independence from Spain. ... 1605 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Under the Merovingians and Carolingians, the fisc (Root word of fiscal) applied to the royal demesne which paid taxes, entirely in kind, from which the royal household was meant to be supported, though it rarely was. ... Holland is a region in the central-western part of the Netherlands with 6. ... Capital Middelburg Queens Commissioner drs. ... Capital Leeuwarden Queens Commissioner drs. ... Events January 20 - Tidal wave swept along the Bristol Channel, killing 2000 people. ... A pensionary was a name given to the leading functionary and legal adviser of the principal town corporations in the Netherlands because they received a salary, or pension. ... Rotterdam Location Coat of arms The coat of arms of Rotterdam. ... Events January - Galileo observes Neptune, but mistakes it for a star and so is not credited with its discovery. ... Events March 18 - Sissinios formally crowned Emperor of Ethiopia May 14 - Protestant Union founded in Auhausen. ...


In these years a great theological controversy broke out between the followers of Jacobus Arminius, chair of theology at Leiden, and the hard-line Calvinist, Franciscus Gomarus. In 1610, several months after the death of their leader, the Arminians issued a 'Remonstrance' declaring their doctrinal differences with Calvin, including a fundamental rejection of the view that God pre-assures salvation to the elect (see predestination). Led by Oldenbarnevelt, the States of Holland took an official position of toleration towards the disputants, and Grotius was eventually asked to draft an edict to express this policy.[5] The edict of 1613 put into practice a view that Grotius had been developing in his writings on church and state (see Erastianism): that only the basic tenets necessary for undergirding civil order (e.g., the existence of God and His providence) ought to be enforced while differences on obscure theological doctrines should be left to private conscience.[6] Theology (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογια, logia, words, sayings, or discourse) is reasoned discourse concerning religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Jacobus Arminius Jacobus Arminius (aka Jacob Arminius, James Arminius, and his Dutch name Jacob Harmenszoon or Jakob Hermann) (1560–1609) was a Dutch heretical theologian and (until 1603) professor in theology at the University of Leiden. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... Franciscus Gomarus (born January 30, 1563 in Bruges, died 1641), was a Dutch theologian. ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... For the Armenian nationality, see Armenia or the Armenian language. ... Doctrine, from Latin doctrina, (compare doctor), means a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the body of teachings in a branch of knowledge or belief system. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... In theology, salvation can mean three related things: freed forever from the punishment of sin Revelation 1:5-6 NRSV - also called deliverance;[1] being saved for something, such as an afterlife or participating in the Reign of God Revelation 1:6 NRSV - also called redemption;[2]) and a process... Throughout history, various groups have considered themselves chosen by God for some purpose. ... Predestination and foreordination are religious concepts, under which the relationship between the beginning of things and the destiny of things is discussed. ... The States of Holland and West Friesland were the representation of the three Estates (standen): Nobility, Clergy and Commons to the court of the Count of Holland. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Freedom of religion. ... Events January - Galileo observes Neptune, but mistakes it for a star and so is not credited with its discovery. ... Constantines Conversion, depicting the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great to Christianity, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... Thomas Erastus (September 7, 1524 - December 31, 1583), German-Swiss theologian, whose surname was Liber, Lieber, or Liebler, was born of poor parents, probably at Baden, canton of Aargau, Switzerland. ... In theology, Divine Providence, or simply Providence, is the sovereignty, superintendence, or agency of God over events in peoples lives and throughout history. ...


The edict did not have the intended effect, and hostilities flared throughout the republic. To maintain civil order, Oldenbarnevelt eventually proposed that local authorities be given the power to raise troops (the Sharp Resolution). Such a measure putatively undermined the authority of the stadtholder of the republic, Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange, son of William the Silent. Maurice seized the opportunity to solidify the preeminence of the Gomarists, whom he had supported, and to eliminate the nuissance he perceived in Oldenbarnevelt (the latter had previously brokered the Twelve Years' Truce with Spain in 1609 against Maurice's wishes). He had Oldenbarnevelt and Grotius arrested on 29 August 1618. Ultimately, Oldenbarnevelt was executed, and Grotius was sentenced to life imprisonment in Loevestein castle. A stadtholder (Dutch: stadhouder meaning place holder, a Germanic parallel to Latin locum tenens or French lieutenant), means an official who is appointed by the legal ruling Monarch to represent him in a country, and may have a mandate to govern it in his name, in the latter case roughly... Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange - portrait by Michiel Jansz van Mierevelt Maurice of Nassau (Dutch Maurits van Nassau) (14 November 1567 – 23 April 1625), Prince of Orange (1618–1625), son of William the Silent and Princess Anna of Saxony, was born at the castle of Dillenburg. ... William I (William the Silent) William I, Prince of Orange, Count of Nassau (April 24, 1533 – July 10, 1584) was the main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish that set off the Eighty Years War and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1648. ... Franciscus Gomarus (January 30, 1563, Bruges - January 11, 1641), was a Dutch theologian, a strict Calvinist and opponent of the teaching of James Arminius (and his followers) which was formally judged at the Synod of Dordrecht (1618-1619). ... A cease fire made at the end of the Dutch revolt war that lasted for twelve years. ... // Events April 4 – King of Spain signs an edit of expulsion of all moriscos from Spain April 9 – Spain recognizes Dutch independence May 23 - Official ratification of the Second Charter of Virginia. ... August 29 is the 241st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (242nd in leap years), with 124 days remaining. ... Events March 8 - Johannes Kepler discovers the third law of planetary motion (he soon rejects the idea after some initial calculations were made but on May 15 confirms the discovery). ... Castle Loevestein (Slot Loevestein in Dutch) is a medieval castle built by the knight Dirc Loef van Horne in 1368. ...


In 1621, with the help of his wife and maidservant, Grotius managed to escape the castle in a book chest and fled to Paris. In the Netherlands today, he is mainly famous for this daring escape. Both the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam and the museum Het Prinsenhof in Delft claim to have the original book chest in their collection. 1621 was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... The Rijksmuseum Rembrandt van Rijn: The Night Watch 1642 Johannes Vermeer: Milkmaid 1658-1660 Frans Hals: Portrait of a Young Couple The Rijksmuseum (IPA: ; Dutch for National Museum) is a national museum of the Netherlands, located in Amsterdam on the Museumplein. ... Amsterdam Location Flag Country Netherlands Province North Holland Population 741,329 (1 August 2006) Agglomeration - 1. ... Country Netherlands Province South Holland Coordinates Area 24. ...


Grotius was well received in Paris by his former acquaintances and was granted a royal pension under Louis XIII. It was here in France that Grotius completed his most famous philosophical works. Louis XIII (September 27, 1601 - May 14, 1643), called the Just (French: le Juste), was King of France from 1610 to 1643. ...


On The Truth of the Christian Religion

While in Paris, Grotius set about rendering into Latin prose a work which he had compiled in prison, providing rudimentary yet systematic arguments for the truth of Christianity. (Showcasing Grotius' skill as a poet, the earlier Dutch version of the work, Bewijs van den waren Godsdienst (pub. 1622), was written entirely in didactic verse.) The Latin work was first published in 1627 as De veritate religionis Christianae. Events January 1 - In the Gregorian calendar, January 1 is declared as the first day of the year, instead of March 25. ... Events A Dutch ship makes the first recorded sighting of the coast of South Australia. ...


It was the first Protestant textbook in Christian apologetics, and was divided into six books. Part of the text dealt with the emerging questions of historical consciousness concerning the authorship and content of the canonical gospels. Other sections of the work addressed pagan religion, Judaism and Islam. What also distinguished this work in the history of Christian apologetics is its precursor role in anticipating the problems expressed in Eighteenth century Deism, and that Grotius represents the first of the practitioners of legal or juridical apologetics in the defence of Christian belief. Hugely popular, the book was translated from Latin into English, Arabic, Persian and Chinese by Edward Pococke for use in missionary work in the East and remained in print until the end of the nineteenth century. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Deism is a religious philosophy and movement that became prominent in England, France, and the United States in the 17th and 18th centuries. ... Edward Pococke (1604-1691) was an English Orientalist and biblical scholar. ...


Grotius also developed a particular view of the atonement of Christ known as the "Governmental" or "Moral government" theory. He theorized that Jesus' sacrificial death occurred in order for the Father to forgive while still maintaining his just rule over the universe. This idea, further developed by theologians such as John Miley, became the dominant view in Arminianism and Methodism. For other uses, see Atonement (disambiguation). ... The Governmental view of the atonement (also known as the moral government theory) is a doctrine in Christian theology related to the meaning and effect of the death of Jesus Christ and has been traditionally taught in Arminian circles. ... John Miley ( 1813- 1895) was an American Christian theologian in the Methodist tradition who was one of the major Methodist theological voices of the 19th century. ... For the Armenian nationality, see Armenia or the Armenian language. ... For the Methodist school of ancient Greek medicine, see Methodism (history of medicine) Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity. ...


De Jure Belli ac Pacis

Title page from the second edition (Amsterdam 1631) of De jure belli ac pacis
Title page from the second edition (Amsterdam 1631) of De jure belli ac pacis

Living in the times of the Eighty Years' War between Spain and the Netherlands and the Thirty Years' War between Catholic and Protestant European nations, it is not surprising that Grotius was deeply concerned with matters of conflicts between nations and religions. His most lasting work, begun in prison and published during his exile in Paris, was a monumental effort to restrain such conflicts on the basis of a broad moral consensus. Grotius wrote: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Combatants Dutch rebels Spanish Empire The Eighty Years War, or Dutch Revolt (1568[1]–1648), was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Netherlands against the Spanish (Habsburg) Empire. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Fully convinced...that there is a common law among nations, which is valid alike for war and in war, I have had many and weighty reasons for undertaking to write upon the subject. Throughout the Christian world I observed a lack of restraint in relation to war, such as even barbarous races should be ashamed of; I observed that men rush to arms for slight causes, or no cause at all, and that when arms have once been taken up there is no longer any respect for law, divine or human; it is as if, in accordance with a general decree, frenzy had openly been let loose for the committing of all crimes.[7]

De jure belli ac pacis libri tres (On the Laws of War and Peace) was first published in 1625, dedicated to Grotius' current patron, Louis XIII. The treatise advances a system of principles of natural law, which are held to be binding on all people and nations regardless of local custom. The work is divided into three books: Events March 27 - Prince Charles Stuart becomes King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... Natural law or the law of nature (Latin lex naturalis) is a law whose content is set by nature, and that therefore has validity everywhere. ...

  • Book I advances his conception of war and of natural justice, arguing that there are some circumstances in which war is justifiable.
  • Book II identifies three 'just causes' for war: self-defense, reparation of injury, and punishment; Grotius considers a wide variety of circumstances under which these rights of war attach and when they do not.
  • Book III takes up the question of what rules govern the conduct of war once it has begun; influentially, Grotius argued that all parties to war are bound by such rules, whether their cause is just or not.

The arguments of this work constitute a theory of just war. Roughly, the second book takes up questions of jus ad bellum (justice in the resort to war) and the third, questions of jus in bello (justice in the conduct of war). The way that Grotius conceived of these matters had a profound influence on the tradition after him and on the later formulation of international law. The Philosophy of war examines war beyond the typical questions of weaponry and strategy, inquiring into the meaning and etiology of war, what war means for humanity and human nature as well as the ethics of war. ... This article is about the concept of justice. ... Self defense refers to actions taken by a person to defend onself, ones property or ones home. ... Restitution is the name given to a form of legal relief in which the plaintiff recovers something from the defendant that belongs, or should belong, to the plaintiff. ... Look up Punishment in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Just war refers to a specific concept of how warfare might be justified, typically in accordance with a particular situation, or scenario, and expanded or supported by reference to doctrine, politics, tradition, or historical commentary[citation needed]. The Tradition has its roots in Christianity, though has evolved to have many... Jus ad bellum (Latin for Justice of War; see also Just War Theory) are a set of criteria that are consulted before engaging in war, in order to determine whether entering into war is justifiable. ... The laws of war (Jus in bello) define the conduct and responsibilities of belligerent nations, neutral nations and individuals engaged in warfare, in relation to each other and to protected persons, usually meaning civilians. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Later years

Many exiled Remonstrants began to return to the Netherlands after the death of Prince Maurice in 1625, but Grotius, who refused to ask for pardon since it would imply an admission of guilt, was denied repatriation despite his repeated requests. Driven out once again after attempting to return to Rotterdam in October of 1631, Grotius fled to Hamburg. In 1634 he met the opportunity to serve as Sweden's ambassador to France. The recently deceased Swedish king, Gustavus Adolphus had been an admirer of Grotius (he was said to have carried a copy of De jure belli ac pacis always in his saddle when leading his troops), and his successor's regent, Axel Oxenstierna, was keen to have Grotius in his employ. Grotius accepted the offer and took up diplomatic residence at Paris, which remained his home until he was released from his post in 1645. While departing from his last visit to Sweden, Grotius was shipwrecked on his voyage. He washed up on the shore of Rostock, ill and weathered, and on August 28, 1645 he died; his body at last returned to the country of its youth, being laid to rest in the Nieuwe Kerk in Delft. Events March 27 - Prince Charles Stuart becomes King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... A pardon is the forgiveness of a crime and the penalty associated with it. ... Repatriation (from late Latin repatriare - to restore someone to his homeland) is a term used to describe the process of return of refugees or soldiers to their homes, most notably following a war. ... Rotterdam Location Coat of arms The coat of arms of Rotterdam. ... // Events February 5 - Roger Williams emigrates to Boston. ... Hamburg from above Hamburgs motto: May the posterity endeavour with dignity to conserve the freedom, which the forefathers acquired. ... Events Moses Amyrauts Traite de la predestination is published Curaçao captured by the Dutch Treaty of Polianovska First meeting of the Académie française The witchcraft affair at Loudun Jean Nicolet lands at Green Bay, Wisconsin Opening of Covent Garden Market in London English establish a settlement... Gustav II Adolph Gustav II Adolph (December 9, 1594 - November 6, 1632) (also known as Gustav Adolph the Great, under the Latin name Gustavus Adolphus or the Swedish form Gustav II Adolf) was a King of Sweden. ... Count Axel Gustafsson Oxenstierna   listen? or Oxenstjerna (June 16, 1583 - August 28, 1654), Lord High Chancellor of Sweden, was born at FÃ¥nö in Uplandia, and received his education with his brothers at the universities of Rostock, Jena and Wittenberg. ... Diplomat redirects here. ... // Events January 10 - Archbishop Laud executed on Tower Hill, London. ... Shipwreck of the SS American Star Shipwreck in the Saugatuck River mouth in Westport, Connecticut A shipwreck or sunken ship can refer to the remains of a wrecked ship or to the event that caused the wreck, such as the striking of something that causes the ship to sink, the... Rostock is a city in northern Germany. ... August 28 is the 240th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (241st in leap years), with 125 days remaining. ... // Events January 10 - Archbishop Laud executed on Tower Hill, London. ... Nieuwe Kerk, Delft Nieuwe Kerk is a landmark church in Delft, the Netherlands. ... Country Netherlands Province South Holland Coordinates Area 24. ...


Trivia

Grotius at age 15, under his family motto: Ruit hora. He displays the medal presented to him by Henry IV.
Grotius at age 15, under his family motto: Ruit hora. He displays the medal presented to him by Henry IV.
  • Grotius' personal motto: Ruit hora. (Time is running away.)
  • Grotius' last words: "By understanding many things, I have accomplished nothing."
  • Grotius' self-composed epitaph:
Grotius hic Hugo est, Batavum captivus et exsul
Legatus regni, Suecia magna, tui.
(Here is Hugo Grotius, Batavian captive and exile
Ambassador of thy realm, great Sweden!)[8]
  • Significant friends and acquaintances:
  • The Peace Palace Library in The Hague holds the Grotius Collection, which has a large number of books by and about Hugo Grotius. The collection was based on a donation from Martinus Nijhoff of 55 editions of De jure belli ac pacis libri tres.
  • The American Society of International Law has been holding an annual series of Grotius Lectures since 1999.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Franciscus Junius (May 1, 1545–October 13, 1602), also known as Francis Junius, Franz Junius, and François du Jon, was a Huguenot scholar and theologian, and the father of Franciscus Junius the younger. ... Daniel Heinsius (or Heins) ( June 9, 1580 - February 25, 1655), one of the most famous scholars of the Dutch Renaissance, was born at Ghent. ... Gerhard Johann Vossius. ... Johannes Meursius (van Meurs) (1579 - September 20, 1639), Dutch classical scholar and antiquary, was born at Loosduinen, near the Hague. ... Simon Stevin Simon Stevin (1548/49 – 1620) was a Flemish mathematician and engineer. ... Jacques Auguste de Thou (Thuanus) (1553 - May 7, 1617) was a French historian. ... Arms of The Hague Flag of The city of The Hague. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ...

Selected works

Works are listed in order of publication, with the exception of works published posthumously or after long delay (estimated composition dates are given).[9] Where an English translation is available, the most recently published translation is listed beneath the title.

  • Adamus exul (The Exile of Adam; tragedy) - The Hague, 1601
  • De republica emendanda (To Improve the Dutch Republic; manuscript 1601) - pub. The Hague, 1984
  • Parallelon rerumpublicarum (Comparison of Constitutions; manuscript 1601-02) - pub. Haarlem 1801-03
  • De Indis (On the Indies; manuscript 1604-05) - pub. 1868 as De Jure Praedae
Commentary on the Law of Prize and Booty, ed. Martine Julia van Ittersum (Liberty Fund, 2006).
  • Christus patiens (The Passion of Christ; tragedy) - Leiden, 1608
  • Mare Liberum (The Free Seas; from chapter 12 of De Indis) - Leiden, 1609
The Free Sea, ed. David Armitage (Liberty Fund, 2004).
  • De antiquitate reipublicae Batavicae (On the Antiquity of the Batavian Republic) - Leiden, 1610
The Antiquity of the Batavian Republic, ed. Jan Waszink (van Gorcum, 2000).
  • Meletius (manuscript 1611) - pub. Leiden, 1988
Meletius, ed. G.H.M. Posthumus Meyjes (Brill, 1988).
  • Annales et Historiae de rebus Belgicus (Annals and History of the Low Countries; manuscript 1612) - pub. Amsterdam, 1657
The Annals and History of the Low-Countrey-warrs, ed. Thomas Manley (London, 1665).
  • Ordinum Hollandiae ac Westfrisiae pietas (The Piety of the States of Holland and Westfriesland) - Leiden, 1613
Ordinum Hollandiae ac Westfrisiae pietas, ed. Edwin Rabbie (Brill, 1995).
  • De imperio summarum potestatum circa sacra (On the power of sovereigns concerning religious affairs; manuscript 1614-17) - pub. Paris, 1647
De imperio summarum potestatum circa sacra, ed. Harm-Jan van Dam (Brill, 2001).
  • De satisfactione Christi adversus Faustum Socinum (On the satisfaction of Christ against [the doctrines of] Faustus Socinus) - Leiden, 1617
Defensio fidei catholicae de satisfactione Christi, ed. Edwin Rabbie (van Gorcum, 1990).
  • Inleydinge tot de Hollantsche rechtsgeleertheit (Introduction to Dutch Jurisprudence; written in Loevenstein) - pub. The Hague, 1631
The Jurisprudence of Holland, ed. R.W. Lee (Oxford, 1926).
  • Bewijs van den waaren godsdienst (Proof of the True Religion; didactic poem) - Rotterdam, 1622
  • Apologeticus (Defense of the actions which led to his arrest) - Paris, 1922
  • De jure belli ac pacis (On the Laws of War and Peace) - Paris, 1625 (2nd ed. Amsterdam 1631)
The Rights of War and Peace, ed. Richard Tuck (Liberty Fund, 2005).
  • De veritate religionis Christianae (On the Truth of the Christian religion) - Paris, 1627
The Truth of the Christian Religion, ed. John Clarke (Edinburgh, 1819).
  • Sophompaneas (Joseph; tragedy) - Amsterdam, 1635
  • De origine gentium Americanarum dissertatio (Dissertation of the origin of the American peoples) - Paris 1642
  • Via ad pacem ecclesiasticam (The way to religious peace) - Paris, 1642
  • Annotationes in Vetus Testamentum (Commentaries on the Old Testament) - Amsterdam, 1644
  • Annotationes in Novum Testamentum (Commentaries on the New Testament) - Amsterdam and Paris, 1641-50
  • De fato (On Destiny) - Paris, 1648

Fausto Paolo Sozzini (December 5, 1539 - March 4, 1604), theologian, was a founder of the school of Christian thought known as Socinianism, based on the Latinized spelling of his name. ...

See also

Combatants Dutch rebels Spanish Empire The Eighty Years War, or Dutch Revolt (1568[1]–1648), was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Netherlands against the Spanish (Habsburg) Empire. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... The Synod of Dort met in the city of Dordrecht in 1618-1619, as a national assembly of the Dutch Reformed Church, to which were invited representatives from the Reformed churches in eight foreign countries. ... Just war is a specific concept of how warfare might be justified, typically in accordance with a particular situation, or scenario, and expanded or supported by reference to doctrine, tradition, or historical commentary. ... Natural law or the law of nature (Latin lex naturalis) is a law whose content is set by nature, and that therefore has validity everywhere. ... The terms international waters or transboundary waters apply where any of the following types of bodies of water (or their drainage basins) transcend international boundaries: oceans, large marine ecosystems, enclosed or semi-enclosed regional seas and estuaries, rivers, lakes, groundwater systems (aquifers), and wetlands [1]. Oceans and seas, waters outside... Freedom of the Seas is a Royal Caribbean cruise ship. ... The English School of international relations theory, also known as Liberal Realism, Rationalism or the British institutionalists, maintains that there is a society of states at the international level, despite the condition of anarchy (literally the lack of a ruler or world state). ...

Notes

  1. ^ See Vreeland (1919), chapter 1
  2. ^ Vreeland (1919), p. 24.
  3. ^ See Ittersum (2006), chapter 1.
  4. ^ Vreeland (1919), chapter 3.
  5. ^ A translation edict is printed in full in the appendix to Vreeland (1919).
  6. ^ See his manuscript for Meletius (1611) and the more systematic De imperio summarum potestatum circa sacra (published 1617).
  7. ^ The Law of War and Peace, trans. Francis Kelsey (Carnegie edition, 1925), Prol. sect. 28.
  8. ^ Nussbaum, Arthur. A Concise History of the Law of Nations, 2nd ed. New York: Macmillan Co., 1947, p. 102.
  9. ^ See Catalogue of the Grotius Collection (Peace Palace Library, The Hague) and 'Grotius, Hugo' in Dictionary of Seventeenth Century Dutch Philosophers (Thoemmes Press 2003).

Further reading

  • Craig, William Lane. The Historical Argument for the Resurrection of Christ During the Deist Controversy, Texts and Studies in Religion Volume 23. Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston, New York & Queenston, Ontario, 1985.
  • Dulles, Avery. A History of Apologetics. Eugene, Oregon: Wipf & Stock, 1999.
  • Dumbauld, Edward. The Life and Legal Writings of Hugo Grotius. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1969.
  • Edwards, Charles S. Hugo Grotius: The Miracle of Holland. Chicago: Nelson Hall, 1981.
  • Grotiana. Assen, The Netherlands: Royal Van Gorcum Publishers. (journal of Grotius studies, 1980-)
  • Haakonssen, Knud. Grotius and the History of Political Thought, Political Theory, vol. 13, no. 2 (May, 1985), 239-265.
  • Haggenmacher, Peter. Grotius et la doctrine de la guerre juste. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1983.
  • Hugo Grotius, Theologian. ed. Nellen and Rabbie. New York: E.J. Brill, 1994.
  • Hugo Grotius and International Relations. ed. Bull, Kingsbury and Roberts. New York: Clarendon Press, 1990.
  • Ittersum, Martine Julia van. Hugo Grotius, Natural Rights Theories and the Rise of Dutch Power in the East Indies 1595-1615. Boston: Brill, 2006.
  • Knight, W.S.M. The Life and Works of Hugo Grotius. London: Sweet & Maxwell, Ltd., 1925.
  • Lauterpacht, Hersch. The Grotian Tradition in International Law, British Yearbook of International Law, 1946.
  • Tuck, Richard. Philosophy and Government: 1572-1651. New York: Cambridge, 1993.
  • Tuck, Richard. The Rights of War and Peace: Political Thought and the International Order from Grotius to Kant. New York: Oxford, 1999.
  • Vollenhoven, Cornelius van. Grotius and Geneva, Bibliotheca Visseriana, vol. vi, 1926.
  • Vollenhoven, Cornelius van. Three Stages in the Evolution of International Law. The Hague: Nijhoff, 1919.
  • Vreeland, Hamilton. Hugo Grotius: The Father of the Modern Science of International Law. New York: Oxford University Press, 1917.

Hersch Lauterpacht was judge of the International Court of Justice, 1955-60. ... Cornelis van Vollenhoven, Dordrecht May 8, 1874 - Leiden, April 29 1933. ... Cornelis van Vollenhoven, Dordrecht May 8, 1874 - Leiden, April 29 1933. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

Texts online

  • Hugo Grotius, On the Laws of War and Peace (abridged)
  • Hugo Grotius, On the Laws of War and Peace (unabridged), The Free Seas, and more.
  • Hugo Grotius, On the Laws of War and Peace (Latin, first edition of 1625) via the French National Library (télécharger to download)
  • Works by Hugo Grotius at Project Gutenberg
  • Physicarum disputationum septima de infinito, loco et vacuo; disputation by Hugo Grotius, 14 years old, at Leiden University
  • Logicarum disputationum quarta de postpraedicamentis; another disputation by Hugo Grotius, 14 years old, at Leiden University


Project Gutenberg logo Project Gutenberg (often abbreviated as PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works via book scanning. ...

The Enlightenment
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Netherlands: Hugo Grotius | Benedict Spinoza
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Related concepts
Capitalism | Civil Liberties | Critical Thinking | Deism | Democracy | Empiricism | Enlightened absolutism | Free Markets | German Classicism | Humanism | Liberalism | Natural Philosophy | Rationality | Reason | Sapere aude | Science | Secularism

... Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II Joseph II (Joseph Benedict August Johannes Anton Michel Adam) (March 13, 1741 – February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. ... Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II. Leopold II (born Peter Leopold Joseph) (May 5, 1747 – March 1, 1792) was the penultimate Holy Roman Emperor from 1790 to 1792 and Grand Duke of Tuscany. ... Maria Theresa, Holy Roman Empress, Archduchess of Austria, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia The worlds most famous coin, a silver thaler of Maria Theresa, dated 1780. ... Pierre Bayle. ... For other uses of Fontenelle, see Fontenelle (disambiguation). ... Montesquieu in 1728. ... François Quesnay. ... 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James Burnett, Lord Monboddo (1714 - May 26, 1799) was a Scottish judge, scholar and eccentric. ... Adam Smith (baptised June 5, 1723 O.S. / June 16 N.S. – July 17, 1790) was a Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneering political economist. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Edmund Burke (12 January 1729 – 9 July 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman, author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who served for many years in the British House of Commons as a member of the Whig party. ... Edward Gibbon (1737–1794). ... James Boswell James Boswell (October 29, 1740 - May 19, 1795) was a lawyer, diarist, and author born in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Jeremy Bentham (IPA: or ) (February 15, 1748 O.S. (February 26, 1749 N.S.) – June 6, 1832) was an English jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. ... Mary Wollstonecraft (circa 1797) by John Opie. ... The Scottish Enlightenment was a period of intellectual ferment in Scotland, running from approximately 1740 to 1800. ... Giambattista Vico or Giovanni Battista Vico (1668–1744) was a Neapolitan philosopher, historian, and jurist. ... Marquis of Beccaria Cesare, Marquis of Beccaria or Cesare, marchese di Beccaria-Bonesana (March 11, 1738 - November 28, 1794) was an Italian philosopher and politician best known for his treatise On Crimes and Punishments (1764), which condemned torture and the death penalty and was a founding work in the field... Benedictus de Spinoza or Baruch de Spinoza (Hebrew: ברוך שפינוזה) (lived November 24, 1632 – February 21, 1677) was a Dutch philosopher of Jewish origin, considered one of the great rationalists of 17th-century philosophy and, by virtue of his magnum opus the posthumous Ethics, one of the definitive ethicists. ... Reign From 1704 until 1709 and from 1733 until 1736 Elected In 1704 and 1733 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On October 4, 1705 in the St. ... Stanislaw Konarski StanisÅ‚aw Konarski, real name: Hieronim Konarski (b. ... For other persons named StanisÅ‚aw Poniatowski, see StanisÅ‚aw Poniatowski. ... Ignacy Krasicki Ignacy Krasicki (February 3, 1735, in Galicia — March 14, 1801, in Berlin) was a Polish prince of the Roman Catholic Church, a social critic, a leading writer, and the outstanding poet of the Polish Enlightenment, hailed by contemporaries as the Prince of Poets. ... Noble Family KoÅ‚Å‚Ä…taj Coat of Arms Kotwica Parents Antoni KoÅ‚Å‚Ä…taj Marianna MierzeÅ„ska Consorts None Children None Date of Birth April 1, 1750 Place of Birth NiecisÅ‚owice Date of Death February 28, 1812 Place of Death Warsaw Hugo KoÅ‚Å‚Ä…taj (1750-1812) was a Polish Roman Catholic... Noble Family Potocki Coat of Arms Piława Parents Eustachy Potocki Marianna Kątska Consorts Elżbieta Lubomirska Children with Elżbieta Lubomirska Krystyna Potocka Date of Birth February 28, 1750 Place of Birth Radzyn Podlaski Date of Death August 30, 1809 Place of Death Vienna... StanisÅ‚aw Staszic. ... Jan Åšniadecki Jan Åšniadecki (August 28, 1756 in Å»nin - November 9, 1830 in Jaszuny near Wilno), greatest Polish mathematician, philosopher and astronomer at the turn of the 18th century. ... Categories: 1758 births | 1841 deaths | Polish writers | Polish nobility | People stubs ... JÄ™drzej Åšniadecki JÄ™drzej Åšniadecki (1768 - 1838) was a Polish writer, physician, chemist and biologist. ... For the 1934 film biography see Catherine The Great. ... Peter the Great or Peter Alexeyevich Romanov(Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekséyevich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.] [1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his weak and sickly... Portrait of Princess Dashkova by Dmitry Levitzky Princess Yekaterina Romanovna Vorontsova-Dashkova (Russian: ) (March 17, 1744–January 4, 1810) was the closest female friend of Empress Catherine the Great and a major figure of the Russian Enlightenment. ... Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov (Михаи́л Васи́льевич Ломоно́сов) (November 19 (November 8, Old Style), 1711 – April 15 (April 4, Old Style), 1765) was a Russian writer and polymath who made important contributions to literature, education, and science. ... Ivan Shuvalov in 1760, as painted by Fyodor Rokotov. ... Portrait of Nikolay Novikov, by Dmitry Levitzky. ... Portrait and signature of Alexander Radishchev Aleksandr Nikolaevich Radishchev (Алекса́ндр Никола́евич Ради́щев) (September 2, 1749 – September 24, 1802) was a Russian author and social critic who was arrested and exiled under Catherine the Great. ... Portrait of Mikhailo Mikhailovich Shcherbatov Prince Mikhailo Mikhailovich Shcherbatov (July 22, 1733 - December 12, 1790) was a leading ideologue and exponent of the Russian Enlightenment, on the par with Mikhail Lomonosov and Nikolay Novikov. ... Jovellanos painted by Goya Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos (5 January 1744 - 27 November 1811), Spanish statesman and author, was born at Gijón in Asturias, Spain. ... Leandro Fernández de Moratín, born March 10, 1760 – died June 21, 1828, was a Spanish dramatist and neoclassical poet. ... Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ... David Rittenhouse. ... John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826) was a politician and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States of America. ... Thomas Paine Thomas Paine (Thetford, England, 29 January 1737 – 8 June 1809, New York City, USA) was a pamphleteer, revolutionary, radical intellectual, and deist. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Capitalism generally refers to an economic system in which the means of production are mostly privately[1] owned and operated for profit, and in which distribution, production and pricing of goods and services are determined in a largely free market. ... Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ... are you kiddin ? i was lookin for it for hours ... Deism is a religious philosophy and movement that became prominent in England, France, and the United States in the 17th and 18th centuries. ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... Enlightened Absolutism (also known as benevolent despotism or enlightened despotism) is a term used to describe the actions of absolute rulers who were influenced by the Enlightenment, a historical period of the 18th and early 19th centuries. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... Weimar Classicism is, as many historians and scholars argue, a disputed literary movement that took place in Germany and Continental Europe. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Classical liberalism (also called laissez-faire liberalism[1]) is a term used: to label the philosophy developed by early liberals from the Age of Enlightenment until John Stuart Mill [2] to label the revived economic liberalism of the 20th century, seen in work by Friedrich Hayek[3] and Milton Friedman. ... Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe that was regnant before the development of modern science. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... It has been suggested that reasoning be merged into this article or section. ... Sapere aude is a Latin phrase meaning Dare to know or Dare to be wise. Most famously, it is found in Immanuel Kants essay What Is Enlightenment?. The original use seems to be in Epistle II of Horaces Epistularum liber primus [1], line 40: Dimidium facti qui coepit... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... Secularity is the state of being without religious or spiritual qualities. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Hugo Grotius - Willem Maas' Guide to Grotius Resources (1663 words)
Grotius’ father Jan was a doctor of laws who became mayor of Delft and later curator of Leiden University, established as the first university in the Netherlands in 1575.
Grotius commenced his university studies at Leiden when he was eleven, focussing on classical languages as well as Hebrew and Arabic in addition to mathematics and physics.
With a grant from the States of Holland and the States-General, Grotius wrote De Antiquitate Reipublicæ Batavicae, a history of the origins of the Dutch Republic and, in the autumn of 1604, became historiographer of Holland.
Grotius, Hugo. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (312 words)
Grotius returned briefly to Holland in 1631, but was forced to flee in 1632.
Although generally regarded as the founder of international law, Grotius was indebted for much of his work to earlier scholars, especially Gentili.
Grotius was also a leading student of theology and biblical criticism, and he wrote an authoritative account of contemporary Dutch political affairs.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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